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Brain Slides

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Basic neuroscience information from a general psychology course that I teach.

Basic neuroscience information from a general psychology course that I teach.

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Brain Slides Brain Slides Presentation Transcript

  • The Nervous System The Brain and Behavior
  • What did Phrenologist Do?
  • Phrenology Developed by Franz Gall (1758)
  • EEG- Electroencephalograph
      • Brain waves are measured by electrodes attached to the scalp
      • an amplified recording of the electrical activity of the brain
  • MRI Scan
  • PET Scan Positron Emission Tomography
  • PET Scan Images
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  • Lobes of the Brain Speaking Muscle movements Making plans Judgments Registers spatial location Attention Motor control Hearing Language processing Memory Visual: color, shape, motion
  • Regions of the Cortex Cortex = “bark”
  • Left Hemisphere
  • Interior of The Brain
  • Reptilian Brain Heartbeat Respiration Arousal Brain Stem
  • Limbic System Hunger Thirst Emotions Sex Old Mammalian Brain Master Gland of the Endocrine system Relay station Involved in Memory Formation
  • Cerebrum New Mammalian Brain Higher Processes, Thinking, Reasoning
  • Gage was a railroad construction foreman An 1848 explosion forced a steel tamping rod through his head Others said he was “…no longer Gage…” Lost his job, worked as a sideshow exhibit The Case of Phineas Gage
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  • Neurons
      • the basic building block of the nervous system
  • Types of Neurons
    • Sensory or Afferent Neurons
      • Carries incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
    • Motor or Efferent Neurons
      • Carries outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands
    • Interneurons
      • Connecting neurons
    • Neurons in a newborn’s brain are widely spaced, but form connections quickly.
  • Impoverished vs Enriched Environments
  • Parts of a Neuron
  • Neural Transmission
  • Neurotransmitters
    • Dopamine : motor, emotions, intellectual functions
    • Serotonin : sleep, moods
    • Norephinephrine : memory, optimism, enthusiasm
    • Endorphins : opiate-lke regulators, pain-killing effect
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  • Neurotransmission
    • Resting Potential
      • more negative electrical charge
      • -70 mill volts
    • Action Potential
      • Sodium (+) and potassium (-) ion balance reaches about - 50 mill volts
    • Reuptake or Enzyme action
      • Ending of neurotransmission
      • SSRI’s, like Prozac interfere with reuptake
  • Neurotransmitters
    • Released when action potential occurs
    • Excitatory and Inhibitory functions
    • - Inhibitory : Lowers the charge in the receiving neuron, inhibiting neurotransmission
    • - Excitatory : Raises the charge in the receiving neuron to the threshold so it will fire
    • Lock & Key Hypothesis
      • Neurotransmitters and their receptor sites have accommodating chemical shapes
  • LEFT Controls the Right Side Of the Body
    • RIGHT
    • Controls the
    • Left Side of
    • The Body
    • Non verbal
    Verbal Abilities
  • Connects the two hemispheres Corpus Callosum
  • A Visual-Spatial Task
  • Gender Differences In the Left Hemisphere In the Incidence Of Aphasias
  • Visual Pathways
  • Endocrine System