Steve MagnessNike Oregon Projectstevemagness@gmail.com
Old School-Anti ScienceScience is GodBoth are wrong
This presentation will be different.◦ The first part will be philosophical◦ The 2nd part will be fun stuff- real worldexamples and application◦ The last part will be controversial
Evidence based? only 13% of all treatments used by doctors have goodevidence an additional 21% of treatments that are “likely”beneficial. What about the other 66%? Is Science Bad? No, but… You have to understand it’s limitations inorder to know how to use it.
Science conforms to the individual: Average vs. Individual Research focuses on the average. Responder vs. non responder in coach speak is actually anissue of applying the correct stimulus Do we really expect 4mi tempo at X pace to work foreveryone? Timmons et al.(2011) put it best when talking about thenon-responder phenomenon:“It is also an observation that is largely ignored by themajority of researchers interested in the health benefitsof exercise training, presumably because the focus hasbeen on the “average” health benefits within a populationand the desire to have a simple health promotionmessage.”
◦ Measurement We overemphasize the importance of what we canmeasure. Science evolves based on what we can measure at thetime. VO2max Vollaard et al. (2009) “Moreover, we demonstrate thatVO2max and aerobic performance associate with distinct andseparate physiological and biochemical endpoints,suggesting that proposed models for the determinants ofendurance performance may need to be revisited (pg. 1483)”.
Researchers=No changeCoaches=WHYthe individualdifferences? (i.e. If I’m that guy at 6%increase I sure think itworks!)J Appl Physiol. 2011 Oct 27. [Epub ahead of print]"Live high - train low" using normobaric hypoxia: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled study.
The isolation approach: Scientist- break It down to isolate a variable X effects Y and Y is RELATED to performance so itshould work… Coach- Global approach X effects A,B,C,D, etc. How everything interacts ismore important All sorts of other crap(population, equipment, studylength, long term vs. short term, etc.)
1. Deciding whether something isuseful: Stool test 1.Practical- Does it work in the“real world.” 2. Research- Is there scientificresearch on it and does it confirmthat it works? 3. Theory- Is there a legitimate,non-pseudoscientific, theory forwhy it might work?
2. Using scientific Knowledge to formulate Realworld ideas Use knowledge of HOW body works and learnhow to apply that knowledge.
Lactate Curve◦ How?◦ What it means?◦ Missing variable- MAX Lactate01234567894:264:334:404:484:555:025:095:165:245:31Lactate(mmol)Mile paceLactate Levels1st test2nd test3rd test◦ Test 2- Sprint+ aerobic◦ Test 3- overdid speedside
Data from Renato Canova0246810121416182000 4000 6000 8000 10000 finishResearchElitesSTEADY STATE!!
Passive versus Active◦ Stretch Reflex◦ Inertial forces (i.e. Don’t use high knees as a cue) What it looks like versus what is actually going on aredifferent.Casio Exilim (High speed cameras-$150)
200 in 28.2secGroundContact Flight Time StiffnessGalen Rupp 0.128 0.133 75.6Mo Farah 0.153 0.152 67.5GC Stiffness Reactivity ForceGalen Rupp .128 44.7 3.71 1572 N5 hop plyo test:
Fasted Runs◦ Theory-low glycogen is signal for adaptation. Shifts fuelusage towards more fat◦ Research- Drust et al.(2009), Yeo et al. (2008)◦ Practical-Lydiard, Cerutty, VanAaken,Kenyans, Canadians (!?) Practical- start with running before breakfast for30min, slowly increase up to close to 2hrs for marathoners.1-2x a week depending on goal/time. EASY training after(RECOVER) Adapting the gut◦ Can increase the amount of Carbohydrate our gut canprocess=enhanced marathon performance with lower GIstress◦ Practical experience- eat dinner, go run- after a weekyou’ll be fine with no GI problems.Drust B, Morton JP. Promoting Endurance Training Adaptations with NutritionalInterventions: The Potential Benefits of “Low Carbohydrate” Training. Kinesiology2009; 41: 19–24.
O2 saturation and EIAH◦ If low at altitude Check HgB mass/ferritin levels◦ If drops by ~15% during hardworkout, then limited diffusionAt lungs likely Resisted breathing?◦ Use to screen for altitude HR/ HRV◦ Morning HR- some people can notice trends◦ HRV- gives a picture of Sympathetic vs.parasympathetic Nervous System stress
Using Smart Phones◦ Data base◦ Rate: Overall feeling Workout rating “Pop” in legs Injuries/Soreness◦ Look for trends and correlate to training logs
Enhancing your decision making skills Creating and applying models to helpdecision making◦ Simple fatigue models to determine workouts Simple fatigue models Muscle Fiber theory and application to kickdevelopment
Knowledge:◦ Best 5k/10k runners can run with lower levels of lactate atrace pace but reach a very high level at the end of the race. Simple Lactate model:◦ Decrease Lactate overall mileage, high end aerobic work, aerobic intervals◦ Maintain/Increase lactate production abilities Pure speed work/ speed endurance Ex: Hill Sprints◦ Decrease Lactate at Race Pace Alternations, Aerobic intervals at specific paces Combine specific work with aerobic work to teach how to utilizelactate at race pace.◦ Increase Lactate that can be accumulated over race Strength endurance work Specific Speed endurance (5k/1500 blends)
Knowledge:◦ “The greater the ability of the athlete to oppose fatigue (by maintainingstrength levels), the smaller the drop in speed and consequently the better theperformance.” Miguel et al. 2004◦ 400m race- (Numella et al. 1992,1994) Force production drops 16% after 300m and 25% after 400m. Increase in muscle activity (measured by EMG) to compensate forfailure of muscle fibers that were doing the work. Kick development:◦ 1.Increase maximum fibers recruited Flat Sprints, Hill Sprints, Power work◦ 2. Improve ability to use for prolonged time Circuits, alternations, hills+flats◦ 3. Learn to recruit them under high acidity fast workouts with bounding/hills 2x500(200 at faster than 800 pace, 100m bound at near mile pace, 200m kick in)full rest between Works by 1st part Increase lactate/fatigue, 2nd part increases fibers recruited, last partteaches you to use those fibers while fatigued Circuits with fast speed running, max intensity bounding and exercises 3-4x400m of 25sprint/25 cruiseMiguel, P. J. P. & Reis, V. M. M. (2004). Speed strength endurance and400m performance. New Studies in Athletics
Signal pathwayinteractions◦ Gives you the dose,the timing, and theinteractionAdaptationProcessRBCexampleAltitudeDecreaseO2 levelsHif-1aEPORBCincrease
Messenger Signaling PathwaysinitiatedFunctional ResultsMechanical Stretch-frequency and intensityCaMK, MAPK andIGF pathwaysHypertrophy, fast to slowfiber type conversions,Changes in Calciumlevels in the cellCaMK, MAPK, proteinkinase CHypertrophy, slow twitchfiber type conversion,mitochondriaNAD: NADH ratioLow muscle glycogen AMPK and MAPK Increased mitochondriaATP:AMP ratio AMPK Increased mitochondriaDecreased blood OxygenlevelsHIF-1 Increased EPO and RedBlood cellsPI3-k and Akt mTOR Muscle HypertrophyMAPK=Mitogen activated protein kinase IGF-Insulin Like Growth FactorPI3-k= Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinaseCaMK=Calcium/Calmodulin pathwayWhy care?•Interactions matter:•AMPK inhibits mTOR•Do endurance work AFTER strength and you inhibit hypertrophy•Knowledge of stimulus•Explains why training does what:•AMPK and CaMK can both Increase mitochondria.•AMPK= activated through endurance.•CaMK= activated through intense intervals.
Laursen, P. Training for Intense exercise performance: Highvolume or high intensity. 2009
◦ Antioxidants Free radicalsactivate AMPK which increaseMitochondria◦ Ice baths Blocks inflammation Reduces Recovery◦ Ibuprofen Can block satellite cell Reduce RecoveryAntioxidant Supplementation during Exercise Training: Beneficial or Detrimental?Sports MedicineV olume 41 - Issue 12 - pp 1043-1069
Don’t over recover. Periodize recovery so you use it when youneed it◦ Base and Pre competition phase Damage is good Selectively use recovery modalities when athlete is on“edge”◦ Peaking Slight increase in recovery modalities becauseemphasis shifts from training to racing
Testosterone and muscle growth◦ Elevated systemic hormones does not effect musclehypertrophy Chronically supraphysiological levels (i.e. drugs) aids musclegrowth, not what we get in regular acute exercise. Compression Socks◦ Blood Flow not the issue◦ Modulates muscle “tuning” (think vibrations) Stretching◦ Static= reduced performance beforehand Hands over head◦ Let your kids fall overElevations in ostensibly anabolic hormones with resistance exercise enhance neithertraining2 induced muscle hypertrophy nor strength of the elbow flexors. J Appl Physiol (
Cushioning andPronation= BrokenParadigm Running surface-◦ “hard” surfaces not evilif they’re accustomedto it. Individualization◦ Feel most important
Use Science, don’t be married to it. Practical Application of ideas. Lab vs. Real World Average vs. Individuals Know what you’re testing for and what themeasurement means.
www.Scienceofrunning.com For shoe stuff:◦ www.Runblogger.com◦ Benno Nigg’s Biomechanics of Sports Shoes Running related research briefs:◦ www.Sweatscience.com◦ Alex Hutchinson’s Which comes first Cardio orWeights? Lactate◦ Jan Olbrecht’s Science of Winning