Consumer Buying Behaviour: Key Questions 1 of 8ConsumersWho is Important?How do they buy? What are theirchoice criteria?When do theybuy?Where do theybuy?
Consumer Buying Behaviour: Key Questions 2 of 8 Most purchases individual – confectionary, beer, etc Many decisions by group/family/couple - (buying centre/decision making unit). There are5 roles…Who is Important?Initiator– Starts process, may gather information to aid decisionInfluencer– Persuade others in group re the outcome of decision, typicallygathers information and tries to impose their choiceDecider– He/she who pays – ultimate power of vetoBuyer – Person who conducts transactionUser – Consumer/user of the product
Consumer Buying Behaviour: Key Questions 3 of 8How they Buy?Need Recognition/Problem AwarenessConsumer Decision Making ProcessInformationSearchEvaluation of AlternativesPurchasePost purchase evaluation•Need Recognition• Functional (accurate calculations, get from A to B)• Routine Depletion (its broken)• Emotional/Psychological (need cool clothes,expensive perfume, a Ferrari rather than a ‘car’)Current/DesiredSituationDeltaRelative ImportanceHiLoLoHiNo Motivation toChange?Motivation toChangeMotivation toChange?Motivation toChangeProblem Awareness
Consumer Buying Behaviour: Key Questions 4 of 8How they Buy?Need Recognition/Problem Awareness– Internal Search• Review of relevant information from memory– External Search• Personal – friends/family• Commercial – adverts, sales people• Third Party – Which? What Car?• TrialConsumer Decision Making ProcessInformationSearchEvaluation of AlternativesPurchasePost purchase evaluationBuild Awareness Set
Consumer Buying Behaviour: Key Questions 5 of 8How they Buy?Need Recognition/Problem Awareness– Create evoked set• Those products/brands to be consideredConsumer Decision Making ProcessInformationSearchEvaluation ofAlternativesPurchasePost purchaseevaluationLow Involvement High InvolvementAwarenessTrialRepeat PurchasePersonal BeliefsAttitudesPurchaseIntentionsPurchaseNormativeBeliefsSubjectiveNorms
Consumer Buying Behaviour: Key Questions 6 of 8How they Buy?Need Recognition/Problem Awareness– Cognitive Dissonance• Post purchase concerns, likely to occur in fourways,– Expense – Did I spend too much?– Difficult – So many alternatives, all good, all slightlydifferent benefits, did I make the right choice?– Irrevocable – I have done it now!– Tendency to experience anxiety – Purchaser is anervous sortConsumer Decision Making ProcessInformationSearchEvaluation of AlternativesPurchasePost purchase evaluationMarketers should seek to reduce buyer remorseby reinforcing wisdom of purchase
Consumer Buying Behaviour: Key Questions 7 of 8Various attributes used to evaluateWhat are the choice criteria?Technical– Reliability– Durability– Performance– Comfort– Taste– ConvenienceEconomic– Price– Value for money– Life time costs– Residual value– Running costsSocial– Status– Social Belonging– FashionPersonal– Self-Image– Ethics– Emotions
Consumer Buying Behaviour: Key Questions 8 of 8When do they buy?– Day of the week? – advertise toys on Saturday morning(pester power) for the afternoon– Stay open on Sunday – have the time to review cars,etc– Last minute?Where do they buy?– Not buying it in Tesco’s, I’ll buy it on the Kings Road?• It will look and sound cooler– I’ll buy it online?• It will sound cooler– I’ll buy it at the airport?