Power breakdown in smartphones
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Power breakdown in smartphones Power breakdown in smartphones Document Transcript

  • CS8375B-F12-TR-05B 1 Aabstract—The increasing popularity and extensive use of smartphones everywhere in this world creating necessity to increase the life of battery power for efficient use of smartphone. It is predicted that every human being in the United States of America will use smartphones by the end of 2012 and that seems to be true in every aspect as the mobile market is becoming more and more competitive by introducing new technologies with every smartphone release in the market. This report is intended to identify how different applications in different smartphones with varying operating systems for mobile computing do consume energy of the smartphone battery. The paper evaluates energy consumed by Android and Windows mobile operating systems and educates the user on energy consumption in smartphones. It also identifies the energy required to run the applications in different network conditions such as cellular network and wireless network as these are required to run the applications in smartphones. The results of the measurement are analyzed and it is proved that free applications do consume more energy than paid application and cellular networks consume more energy than wireless networks. Index Terms—Energy, Power Monitor, Smartphones, Smartphone applications I. INTRODUCTION HIS century has given some mind blowing technological gifts to the mankind and among them smartphones charts the top of the list. The use of smartphones has increased tremendously from past two years, as these devices serve many purposes of an intellectual user by providing email service, banking service, shopping on the go, GPS for navigation and many more. It is believed that 93% of the Americans use different kinds of smartphones and these are exactly made to best suit the exotic lifestyle of lavish American people, as the usage increases so as the need for increased functionality increases and this necessity has facilitated many innovations in the field of mobile computing. The mobile smartphone developers are working hard to provide all the computing features by improving and incorporating energy efficiency software protocols and also the manufactures are inventing energy efficient hardware chips to improve the usage of battery life. These devices with small form factor, consume more energy whenever wireless channel is turned on for computing purposes or if cellar network is turned on for navigation purposes. It is for this reason very essential to measure the power breakdown in smartphones by different operating systems so that the user can make wise decisions while purchasing mobile phone. There has been significant research done in this field by many researchers to optimize the battery life of a smartphone. The smartphones with different operating systems do consume varying energy depending on computational capability of the operating system, the applications running on it and the strength of the connectivity to the world of internet. This paper examines on how different applications running in Android and windows operating system consume energy at different network conditions such as cellular networks and wireless networks. To examine this, we used monsoon power monitor tool which measures the average power consumed by different applications when connected to WiFi and 4G networks. This is achieved by connecting mobile phone battery with the positive and negative terminals of the monsoon power monitor through the insulation of copper sheet; the readings are saved in .CSV format and are saved into desktop connected by using USB cable from power monitor tool. The applications are categorized depending upon the nature of the purpose served, the applications with banking features are categorized into banking applications, the applications which are used for watching movies/videos are classified into entertainment applications, the applications which are used to buy things online are categorized as shopping applications and many more. In this experiment, these applications are processed when WiFi/4G is turned on and the total energy consumed by all the applications in one category are averaged and at the end graph is plotted with time as the x-axis and energy as the y-axis parameter. All the applications in banking such as Bank of America, Discover, and Capital One are combined to represent a single bar graph and the same concept applies to rest of the categories of applications. II. RELATED WORKS A. An Analysis of Power Consumption in Smartphones The usage of portable devices has grown up to humongous level, in this 21st century everybody is being passionate about using modern technology mobile phones which are called as smartphones, laptops with high end configuration for gaming purposes, tablets with its advantage of being carried everywhere where the connectivity exists. These devices run on batteries and managing the battery power is a paramount in these devices because the power depends on the individual usage. An analysis of power consumption in a smartphone was studied in devices like HTC dream one and Google nexus one by using a power model of the device [2]. A better management of the battery is a good understanding of how Power Consumption in Smartphones Sairamvenkat T. Jagarlamudi and Satish B. Chamreddy T
  • CS8375B-F12-TR-05B 2 and where the energy is being consumed in these devices; they tested three conditions by designing benchmarks; the device under test (DuT), a hardware data acquisition (DAQ) system, and a host computer. In DuT different tests were done by designing a power model of the freerunner device and then the CPU usage, RAM, Flash, GPS, LCD display, Bluetooth, WiFi, Audio codec, audio amplifier were tested. Another study shows that coolpspots which enable a mobile device to automatically switch between multiple interfaces, such as WiFi and Blutooth, in order to increase battery lifetime [7]. The usage of mobile device is greatly impacted by their operating lifetime and in these smartphones wireless communication accounts for major power consumption due to the eccentric usage of communication and these are equipped with Bluetooth for personal links, WiFi for local area connectivity and GPRS for wide area data access. The study was conducted by using different wireless interface cards such as Cisco PCM-350, Netgear MA701, Linksys WCF12 and etc, and the impact of power consumption was analyzed and documented by suing graphs and statistical data. B. Android Power Management Everyday 400,000 Android devices being activated in daily, and this significantly worries Android developers to make the battery more efficient to enhance the user experience. In contrast to setting up benchmarks to test the mobile battery consumption as we seen in analysis of power consumption in smartphones, this approach actually develops usage pattern analysis to generate power saving profiles which are customized to user behavior and integrating photovoltaic film on top of the mobile and touch screen to generate electricity is proposed [1]. Android is based on Linux kernel and the developers are working on to increase the battery life by developing energy efficient software protocols. C. Exploring Memory Optimizations in Smartphones Smartphones are not just limited to making phone calls and sending messages, now days they are being used for computational purposes and this feat is achieved by using smartphone applications and thus these smartphones are consuming lot of energy for computing [3]. In this approach they are trying to increase the lifetime of battery by developing a hybrid approach to take the advantage of both Mobile RAM and Phase Change Memory and this approach concentrates on improving memory so that the computation can be faster and helps in saving battery energy and so to enhance the user experience of using smartphones for computational purposes. D. Android Smartphone: Battery Saving Service The smartphone applications are becoming more power hungry to process the user requests for example GPS navigation and entertainment applications do consume lot of energy as they have complex computation processes running in background to process the client’s requests. In this researchers have tried to save the battery power by putting the phone to sleep mode when there is no user activity on the smartphone, stopping WiFi and Bluetooth services when there is no activity i.e. in idle time and whenever screen goes off the WiFi signal become weak or does not exist and every application will go to sleep immediately saving some sort of energy [4]. Basically this helps to increase the battery life by putting the phone into sleep mode as there is no activity and this seemingly helps in quantifying user experience. E. A Methodology for Energy Performance Testing of Smartphone Applications The restrictions on the capacity of smartphone battery make a researcher to find the methodologies to improve the efficiency of the battery usage. The capacity is limited due to its size and weight, in this approach the researchers are finding the energy consumption of single application on a device and compare the power consumption of different smartphones or platforms running the same application. In this study HTC Nexus one is being used to energy consumption by single application on different platforms or different phones by using primary and standalone configurations [5]. This test was limited to certain applications such as video and music applications. III. TESTING SETUP A. Overview The power breakdown in smartphone is conducted using power monitor hardware and power tool – developed by Monsoon Solutions Inc.; the power monitor hardware and power tool software used to analyze the power on any device that uses a single lithium (Li) battery for operating the device. The analysis used two popular phones which are quite new to the mobile phone industry namely Samsung Galaxy S III – an Android phone and Samsung Focus – a windows phone, initially we went through the Google play store – a store to purchase applications for Android platform smartphones and windows market place – a place to purchase applications for windows platform smartphones to find the common applications and then categorized these common applications depending upon their functionality and the use. In this study, Samsung Galaxy S III mobile phone was the first one to undergo power analysis; phone’s battery was removed to solder copper strips and after soldering battery placed back in and then this phone’s battery was connected to power monitor tool through positive and negative terminal of the device as defined in the power monitor tool manual. This device was in turn connected to computing station through USB cable; this helps in saving the power average values into the computer. All the applications were run and readings were taken to analyze the power consumption and the steps were repeated to Samsung focus phone too. B. Mobile phones and their Specifications The two mobile phones used in this power analysis have best specifications when compared to currently available mobile phones in the smartphone market. The specifications of these phones are tabulated below to best describe the features and functionalities they provide to make the user experience never seen before. The Samsung Galaxy S III, an Android phone runs on Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich Operating system is the leading mobile phone in 2012 beating all its competitors
  • CS8375B-F12-TR-05B 3 specially Apple iPhone 5, and Samsung Focus – a windows phone which runs on Windows Phone 7 Operating system and is the 4th lightest and thinnest phone in windows mobile phone market. 1) Samsung Galaxy S III – an Android phone Fig. 1 Samsung Galaxy S III – an Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich operating system; picture taken from Google Images Component Specification Display 4.8 inch super AMOLED (1280×720 P) Cellular and Wireless • 2.5G(GSM/GPRS/EDGE): 850/900/1800/1900 MHz • 3G (HSPA+ 21Mbps): 850/900/1900/2100MHz • 4G (dependent on market) Memory • 16/32GB User memory(64GB available soon) + micro SD slot(up to 64GB) OS Android 4.0(Ice Cream Sandwich) Battery 2,100 mAh Connectivity WiFi a/b/g/n WiFi HT40, GPS/GLONASS, NFC Bluetooth Bluetooth 4.0(LE) Audio Codec MP3, AMR-NB/WB, AAC/AAC+/eAAC+, WMA, OGG, FLAC, AC-3, apt-X Video Codec MPEG4, H.264, H.263, DivX, DivX3.11, VC-1, VP8, WMV7/8, Sorenson Spark Recording & Playback: Full HD(1080p) Services & Applications • S Beam, Buddy photo share, Share shot • AllShare Play, Allshare Cast • Direct call Smart alert, Tap to top, Camera quick access • Pop up play, S Voice • Burst shot & Best photo, Recording snapshot, HDR Fig. 2 Samsung Galaxy S III – an Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich; mobile specifications used in the power analysis. 2) Samsung Focus – a Windows Phone 7 Fig. 3 Samsung Focus – a Windows Phone 7; Picture taken from Google Images Component Specification Display 4 inch super AMOLED (800×480P) Cellular and Wireless • Bluetooth, Bluetooth profiles: A2DP, AVRCP, HFP, PBAP • WiFi, HTML Browser, Java, GPS Memory • 8 GB (Internal Memory) • 16GB (External Memory/Micro SD Capacity OS Windows Phone 7 Battery 1500 mAh Connectivity GPRS/EDGE Bluetooth Bluetooth Audio Codec MP3, ACC, AMRNB Video Codec 3GP, AVI, MP4, WMV Fig. 4 Samsung Focus – a Windows Phone 7; mobile specifications used in the power analysis. C. Mobile Phone Applications The smartphone applications are categorized depending upon their functionality and the nature of communication involved with the server. These applications are categorized into 8 categories namely banking, entertainment, gaming, messengers, music, productivity, shopping and social media. Banking Applications: Bank of America, Capital One, Discover. Fig. 5 Snapshot of Banking Applications takes in Apple device. Entertainment Applications: YouTube, ABC player, VEVO HD, Yupp TV. Fig. 6 Snapshot of Entertainment Applications taken in Apple Device. Gaming Applications: Angry Birds, Temple Run, Stick Cricket, Cut the rope. Fig. 7 Snapshot of Gaming Applications taken in Apple Device.
  • CS8375B-F12-TR-05B 4 Messenger applications: Y! Messenger, Talkatone, Skype, Whats App. Fig. 8 Snapshot of Messenger Applications taken in Apple Device. Music Applications (only Audio): Pandora, Spotify, Songza, iHeart Radio. Fig. 9 Snapshot of Music (Audio only) Applications taken in Apple Device. Productivity Applications: Dropbox, Evernote, Google Earth. Fig. 10 Snapshot of Productivity Applications taken in Apple Device. Shopping Applications: Best Buy, eBay, Walmart, Craigslist. Fig. 11 Snapshot of Shopping Applications taken in Apple Device. Social Media: Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and Google Plus. Fig. 12 Snapshot of Social Media Applications taken in Apple Device. These are the commonly found applications on both mobile phones. D. Monsoon Power monitor hardware and software tool It’s a tool which measures the power consumption by different applications and records average power consumed by different applications at every microsecond and saves it in .csv format. Fig. 13 Monsoon power monitor hardware and software tool with USB cable, positive and negative terminals and battery. The mobile phone battery is soldered using 0.006″ thick copper sheet and connected to positive and negative terminal of the battery by using all the parts of the hardware tool as shown in the above picture. The measurements are done on cellular network i.e. 4G-Long Term Evolution (LTE) on Samsung Galaxy S III an Android phone and 3G on Samsung Focus a Windows Phone 7, and also on WiFi network. E. Parameters defined to calculate average power The parameters used in this research to calculate the average power consumed by these applications are, Pd – default value of the phone when no background applications are running and it’s scaled to 50 seconds, Papp- application power processed from opening the application to signing in and out from that application and it’s also scaled to 50 seconds. Each application in different categories as listed above is run on both cellular 4G/3G network and WiFi network for connectivity. Time t = 50 seconds multiplied with Power “P” to get the energy graph, where P = Papp – Pd and E = P×t as defined by the formula of energy. F. Working procedure Mobile phone battery was soldered with copper sheet and connected to power monitor hardware tool through the positive and negative terminals of that tool. Phone was turned on, power monitor was turned on by pushing the start button on the hardware tool and then the installed software was run from the computer to record the power consumption values. First calculated the average power consumption of each application in different categories by turning on the cellular network 4G on Samsung Galaxy S III which is an Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich phone and these steps are repeated for the WiFi network. After recording all applications power consumption values, went on to next phone which is Samsung Focus a Windows Phone 7 and did repeat the same steps as the other phone to record the power consumption values. Each application average power value is calculated by subtracting default power value of the phone from the application power value and then applications in banking are combined to get a new average power value, this will be
  • CS8375B-F12-TR-05B 5 multiplied with 50 seconds to get the average energy consumption of different categories of applications. G. Network Connectivity parameters Two networks are used here to conduct the test and they are cellular network and WiFi network to run the smartphone applications. 1) Samsung Galaxy S III – an Android phone Cellular network (Sprint-4G LTE) – download speed of 5.56 Mbps and upload speed of 3.90 Mbps WiFi network (WSU Secure) – download speed of 24.62 Mbps and upload speed of 14.97 Mbps 2) Samsung Focus – a windows phone 7 Cellular network (Sprint-3G) – download speed of 1.16 Mbps and upload speed of 760 kbps WiFi network (WSU secure) – download speed of 26.16 Mbps and upload speed of 16.20 Mbps IV. RESULTS The test results show that the Samsung Focus a Windows Phone 7 consume more power than Samsung Galaxy S III an Android phone as the Windows phone lacks the security clearance from the application developers and the Windows operating system does consume more power as compared to an Android phone, the 4G/3G does consume more power than WiFi because the access points will keep changing from place to place and the cellular networks have some sort of high network latency which make smartphones to consume more energy It is inferred that free applications do consume more battery power as they frequently advertise some promotional advertisements/events to attract the user to all the new products in the market and some applications do consume more energy by asking user to enable push notifications and wanting to access user location drains the battery power more and more as these applications keep on sending push notifications and sensing location of the user to send advertisements. V. ANALYSIS The results are analyzed in this section to educate the user on the use of applications and smartphone buying habits of user by giving crisp and fine picture of the power consumption in smartphones. 1) Samsung Galaxy S III - an Android phone The pictures below depicts the nature of power consumption in applications, fig. 14 depicts the nature of power spikes going up and down when the Facebook application is running on 4G Sprint cellular network; the spikes are high when there is active communication going on between two users and the spikes are low when the application is starting and when there is no activity between two users i.e. the application is said to be running in background without much user anticipation. It is observed in fig. 15 that the categories of applications consume more energy when 4G is running, here the social media applications consuming 49.919 J energy and this tops the list, Gaming applications are the next big thing consuming 46.518 J of energy and third comes the productivity applications consuming 45.641 J of energy and so the rest of the categories of applications do consume according to their functionality. The fig. 16 shows that the categories of applications do consume less energy when running on WiFi network when compared to 4G network, here the social media applications consuming 41.162 J energy and this tops the list, gaming applications are the next big thing consuming 35.762 J of energy and third comes the shopping applications consuming 33.862 J of energy. Fig. 14 Screen shot of Facebook application when run on 4G in Samsung Galaxy S III showing power spikes. Fig. 15 Graph showing power consumed by different categories of applications in Samsung Galaxy S III when 4G was running. Fig. 16 Bar Graph showing power consumed by different categories of applications when WiFi was running 0.000   10.000   20.000   30.000   40.000   50.000   60.000   " Calcula0ons_4g  Time  =   50  Seconds   Banking   entertainment   Games   Messenger   Music   Produc0vity   Shopping   0.000   10.000   20.000   30.000   40.000   50.000   #Calcula0ons_WiFi  Time  =   50  Seconds   Banking   Entertainment   Games   Messengers   Music   Produc0vity   Shopping  
  • CS8375B-F12-TR-05B 6 2) Samsung Focus – a Windows Phones 7 The pictures below depicts the nature of power consumption in applications, fig. 17 depicts the nature of power spikes going up and down when the Walmart application is running on 3G Sprint cellular network; the spikes are high when there is active communication going on between two users and the spikes are low when the application is just starting and when there is no activity between two users i.e. the application is said to be running in background without much user anticipation. It is observed in fig. 18 that the categories of applications consume more energy when 3G is running, here the shopping applications consuming 55.373 J energy and this tops the list, productivity applications are the next big thing consuming 50.934 J of energy and third comes the music applications consuming 47.453 J of energy and so the rest of the categories of applications do consume according to their functionality. The fig. 19 shows that the categories of applications do consume less energy when running on WiFi network when compared to 3G network, here the shopping applications consuming 47.872 J energy and this tops the list, music applications are the next big thing consuming 44.005 J of energy and third comes the gaming applications consuming 43.027 J of energy. Fig. 17Screen shot of Walmart application when run on 3G in Samsung Focus Windows Phone 7showing power spikes. Fig. 18 Bar Graph showing power consumed by different categories of applications in Samsung Focus Windows Phone 7when 3G was running. Fig. 19 Bar Graph showing power consumed by different categories of applications in Samsung Focus Windows Phone 7when WiFi was running. VI. CONCLUSION As exemplified in the results, the free applications do consume more energy as they involve frequent advertisements, cellular networks (4G/3G) consume more energy as the signal keeps on changing or the signal strength may be too weak to process the requirements of a user than the WiFi networks. The energy consumption of applications completely depends upon the communication involved between the client machine and the network, the applications like social media, productivity and gaming do consume more battery power than other applications in Samsung Galaxy S III smartphone whereas in Samsung Focus the applications like music, social media and shopping do consume more energy as the signal strength of the 3G networks is weak. Application developers are working towards developing more energy efficient applications for the newly designed smartphones and they are also working towards making more energy efficient operating system so that it could reduce the energy consumption by applications. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Satish B Chamreddy and Sairamvemkat Tarun Jagarlamudi thank the faculty and staff of Wichita State University. In particular they would like to recognize Dr. Vinod Namboodiri for providing an excellent networking foundation through course work teaching. Additionally they thank Anm Badradoza for the outstanding support in handling the wireless teaching lab. REFERENCES [1] Datta, S, K., Bonnet, C., & Nikaein, N. “Android Power Management: Current and future trends,” Enabling Technologies for Smartphone and Internet of Things (ETSIoT), 2012 First IEEE Workshop on,. 48-53. [2] Aaron Carroll and Gernot Heiser., “An analysis of power consumption in a smartphone”. 0.000   10.000   20.000   30.000   40.000   50.000   60.000   !Calcula0ons_3g  Time  =   50  Seconds   Banking   Entertainment   Games   Messenger   Music   Produc0vity   Shopping   Social_Media   0.000   10.000   20.000   30.000   40.000   50.000   60.000   #Calcula0ons_wifi  Time  =   50  Seconds   Banking   Entertainment   Games   Messengers   Music   Produc0vity   Shopping   Social_Media  
  • CS8375B-F12-TR-05B 7 [3] Duan, R., Mingsong, Bi., & Gniady, C. “Exploring memory optimizations in smartphones,” Green Computing Conference and Workshops (IGCC), 2011, 1-8. [4] Zahid, I., Ali, M, A., & Nassr, R. “Android Smartphone : Battery saving service” Research and Innovation in Information Systems (ICRIIS), 2011 International Conference on, 2011, 1-4. [5] Abogharaf, A., Palit, R., Naik, K., & Singh, A. “A methodology for energy performance testing of smartphone applications,” Automation of Software Test (AST), 2012 7th International Workshop on, 2012, 110- 116. [6] Abhinav, P., Charlie, Hu., & Ming, Z. “Fine Grained Energy Accounting on Smartphones with Eprof,” where is the energy spent inside my app? [7] Trevor, P., Yuvraj, A., Rajesh, G., & Roy, W. “Coolspot: Reducing the power consumption of Wireless Mobile Devices with Multiple Radio Interfaces”. [8] Minyong, K., Joonho, K., & Sung, W., C. “Enhancing Online Power Estimation Accuracy for Smartphones”, 2012. [9] Zhongliang, Hu & Jussi Ruttu.. “Comparison of Energy Consumption Between A Mobile Device and A Collection of dedicated Devices”, 2011. [10] “Samsung Galaxy S III – an Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich” URL: http://www.samsung.com/global/galaxys3/specifications.html. [11] “Samsung Focus – a windows phone 7” URL: http://www.samsung.com/us/mobile/cell-phones/SGH-I917ZKAATT- specs. [12] “Power Monitor hardware and software tool” URL: http://www.msoon.com/LabEquipment/PowerMonitor/ [13] “Samsung Focus Pictures” URL: http:// http://www.samsung.com/us/mobile/cell-phones/SGH-I917ZKAATT. [14] “Samsung Galaxy S III pictures” URL: http://www.samsung.com/global/galaxys3/. [15] “Applications screen shots” URL: https://itunes.apple.com/us/genre/ios- productivity/id6007?mt=8.