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Prospectives Of Plant Products In Sustainable Development


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Prospectives of Plant Products in Sustainable Development

Prospectives of Plant Products in Sustainable Development

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  • 1. Prof. N K Dubey Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India -221005 Prospectives of Plant Products in Sustainable Development of Indian Agriculture and Pharmaceutical Industries
  • 2. Month 0-1 Month 1-50 Month2-2500 Month3-125,000 Month 4-6,250,000 Month 5-312,500,000 Month6-1,560,000,000 Insects can develop eggs to adults in a month Insect population multiply at rate of 50 times a month
  • 3.
    • Aflatoxins
    • Mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus sp.
    • 6 th among the 10 most important
    • healthrisks WHO
    • 25-40% of cereals worldwide are
    • contaminated with mycotoxins FAO
    • Aflatoxin B 1
    • Most toxic among mycotoxins & found
    • widely in greater concentration in food
    • throughout the world
    • Potent hepatocarcinogenic, mutagenic,
    • teratogenic and immunosuppressive
    • Aflatoxicosis
    • Liver Damage
    • Decrease in feed intake
    • Weight loss
    • Impaired cell immunity
    C 17 H 12 O 6
  • 4. Mycotoxin Elaboration in Stored drug samples Drugs Mycotoxin Concentration μg/gm Asparagus racemosus 0.16 Atropa belladonna 0.27 Withania somnifera 0.68 Plumbago zeylanica 1.13 Emblica officinalis 1.51 Terminalia chebula 1.19 Mucuna puriens 1.16
  • 5. Biodeterioration of stored food commodities ECONOMIC LOSS India and Africa are regarded as “high aflatoxin –risk areas” Qualitative loss Quantitative loss
  • 6. Development of resistant strain Non biodegradable Environmental pollution Ozone layer depletion by methyl bromide Some safer chemical ????......... SYNTHETIC PESTICIDE Carcinogenicity, teratogenicity residual toxicity Effect on non target organisms, predators, fish, birds
  • 7.
    • DDT – The Fallen Angel
    • Introduced in India in 1944
    • NMCP launched indoor spraying in 1952
    • Hindustan Insecticides Ltd established DDT Production
    • Proved beneficial in eradication of Kalajar and Plague
    • Fading Effect in 1960— Anopheles culicifacies
    • resistance emerged
    • Stockholm Convention ( 2001)-- recommended ban
  • 8. Common Range of Persistence of Some Pesticides 1-8 weeks Carbamate Insecticide 1-12 weeks Organophosphate insecticide (Malathion) 1-5 months Phenoxy herbicide (2, 4-D) 2-10 months Urea herbicides (Monouron, "Diuron) 2-12 months Benzoic acid herbicide (Amiber, Diuron) 1-2 years Triazine herbicides (Atrazine, Simazine) insecticides (DDT, Chlordane) 2.5 years Chlorinated hydrocarbon Infinite Arsenic Persistence Pesticide
  • 9. Some Fungicide Resistance Cases Fungicides Pathogens Benomyl Cercospora beticola, C.arachidicola C.personatum, Botrytis cineria, Fusarium udum, Kitazin-P Pyricularia oryzae Carboxin Macrophomina phaseolina Carbendazim Aspergillus flavus, M. phaseolina Venturia inaequalis Captan A.flavus, M. phaseolina Copper oxychloride Colletotrichum capsici, Helminthosporium maydis Maneb Rhizoctonia bataticola, C. capsici, H. maydis Thiram R. bataticola
  • 10.
    • Pesticides vis a vis bird toxicity
    • Pesticide application to eradicate mosquito
    • Michigan Lake Water (0.22ppm)
    • Zooplankton and Phytoplankton (77ppm)
    • Fish (1700 ppm)
    • Adverse effect on Pelican birds
    • Thinner outer shell in egg
    • Breaking of Shell before hatching
    • Delay in hatching
    • Decrease in population of pelican birds
  • 11. Frequently detected pesticides in Fruits and Vegetables Cancer Grapes, peaches, strawberries, apples Captan Kidney damage Corn, banana, grapes, peaches, oranges Carbaryl Cancer, birth defects Green beans, grapes, watermelon, cabbage, broccoli Dimethoate Liver, Kidney damage Spinach, lettuce, celery, strawberries, cauliflower Tomatoes, cauliflower, cabbage, melons, peppers Endosulphan Nerve system effects Tomatoes, cauliflower, cabbage, melons, peppers Methamidophos Potential Hazards Crops affected Pesticides
  • 12. Everything can wait, but not agriculture
  • 13. Biodegradable environmental safety Botanical Pesticide as Fourth Generation Pesticides Systemic in nature Indigenous renewable WHAT NEXT ????.... Diverse biological effects less chance of resistance development Pesticidal plants and its components for million of years in nature without any adverse effect High level of safety for humans, animals, fish and other non target organisms
  • 14. Rotenone
  • 15. Nicotine
  • 16. Antifeedant Neem oil Powdered seed kernel Neem Products in storage management
  • 17.  
  • 18. Azadirachtin Analogs Amorphous 734 C 36 H 46 O 16 - - - - 14. 11-ethoxyaza- dirachtin - 704 C 35 H 44 O 15 α-H, β-OAc COOMe Ac Tg 13. Azadirachtin- L 260 °C 688 C 34 H 40 O 15 - - - - 12. Azadirachtin-K - 662 C 33 H 42 O 14 - - - - 11. Azadirachtin-G - 664 C 33 H 44 O 14 - H, OH Tg H 10. Azadirachtin-F - 762 C 36 H 48 O 17 - - OMe H 9. Isovepol - 762 C 36 H 48 O 17 - - H OMe 8. Vepol 200 °C 618 C 33 H 42 O 12 -H, -OH Me Ac Tg 7. Azadirachtin-I 248 °C 662 C 33 H 42 O 14 -H, -OH COOMe Ac Tg 6. Azadirachtin-H - 636 C 30 H 38 O 15 α-COOMe β-OH COOMe Ac H 5. Azadirachtin-E - 676 C 33 H 44 O 14 α-COOMe β-OH Me Ac Tg 4. Azadirachtin-D 204 °C 662 C 33 H 42 O 14 α-COOMe β-OH COOMe Tg H 3. Azadirachtin-B 78 °C 808 C 42 H 48 O 16 α-COOMe β-OH COOMe Cin Tg 2. 3-deacetyal-3- cinnamoyl azadirachtin 165 °C 720 C 35 H 44 O 16 α-COOMe β-OH COOMe Ac Tg 1. Azadirachtin-A R 3 R 2 R 1 M.P. °C Mol. Wt. Mol. Formula X Substituents Names
  • 19.
    • Neem Tree in Pest Control
    • Disruption or inhibiting pupa
    • Blocking the moulting of larvae
    • Disruption of mating and sexual communications
    • Repelling larvae and adults
    • Deterring females from laying eggs
    • Sterilizing adults
    • Deterring feeding Inhibiting metamorphosis of pests
    • Loss of flying ability reduction in guttural motility
  • 20. 1-Cinnamoyl-3-feruoyl-11-hydroxymeliacarpin Active constituent of a botanical insecticide from Melia species
  • 21. Volkensin Active constituent of a botanical insecticide from Melia species
  • 22. Toosendanin Active constituent of a botanical insecticide from Melia species
  • 23. Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium
  • 24. Pyrethrin I Cinerin I Cinerin II Pyrethrin II
  • 25. Chemical Formula: C 19 H 30 O 5 Oral LD 50 for rats is 6150 mg/kg and 3800 mg/kg for mice Safrole Sassafras albidum oil Natural synergist used with pyrethrins and rotenone Inhibits detoxification Inhances shelf life till application Sassafras albidum Fam: Lauraceae Piperonyl butoxide A semisynthetic derivative of safrole
  • 26. Strigol-Isolated from root exudates stimulating suicidal germination of Striga asiatica
  • 27. Carvone
  • 28. Kaempferol Melting Point: 271-273 o C Rf. Value-64 (CHCl 3 -MeOH 8:1) Shindola test for flavonoides- Positive
  • 29. Antimicrobial Post- inhibitin in Onoin and garlic
  • 30. C 4 H 5 NS Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) Post-inhibition from mustard & horseradish MW 99.15 Glucosinulates Myrosinase
  • 31.
    • Semiochemicals
    • Interaction affecting
    • Behaviour modifier
    • (Law and Rognier,1971 )
    • Attractants and mass trapping
    • Pheromones
    • Repellent
    • Antifeedant
    • Oviposition deterrent
  • 32.  
  • 33. Germacrene A β- Farnesene Isolated from Golden rod
  • 34. Precocene I Precocene II Isolated from Ageratum houstonianum
  • 35. Phytoecdysones : Moulting Hormone Pteridophytes 6 families Gymnosperm;6 families, 26 species Angiosperms: 22 families, 46 species Muristerone A : from Ipomoea seed
  • 36. Quassia amara Fam: Simaroubaceae Quassin (C 22 H 28 O 6 ) Neoquassin (C 22 H 30 O 6 ) Triterpenoid Lactone, male reproductive toxic, larvicidal, antifeedant
  • 37. Juvocimenes: isolated and identified from the oil of sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum L., Insect juvenile hormone Minor component of oil Ocimum basilicum Fam: Lamiaceae Juvocimene I
  • 38. Limonene Scented plant chemical of Citrus peels (90%)
    • Toxic to insects
    • Nontoxic to warm blooded animals
  • 39. Some Essential oils As Botanical Pesticides
    • Insecticides, Ovicidal
    • Attractant/ Repellants
    • Antifeedant
    • Juvenile Hormone
    • Antigonadal agents
    • Semiochemicals – behaviour modifiers
  • 40. BOTANICALS AND DERIVATIVES EFFECTIVE AS INSECT CHEMOSTERILANTS Reserpine Mexican fruit fly, Olive fly, Housefly Tobacco budworm Tribolium Sterculia foetida Housefly Face fly Colchicine Screwworm Fruit fly ( Drosophila ) House fly Heliotrine Fruit fly ( Drosophila ), Face fly Cafeine Fruit fly ( Drosophila ) Serotonine Housefly Emetine Screwworm Pyrethrum Cigarette beetle, house fly Aristolochia indica House fly Rotenone House fly Nicotine House fly
  • 41. Acorus calamus Family: Araceae Vern. Name: Bach A semi-aquatic, rhizomatous perennial herb, rhizome as thick As middle finger, pinkish brown externally, white spongy within, leaves distichous, flowers densely packed in Sessile cylindric spadix. Propagated through rhizomes Yields calamus oil containing asarone. Rhizome is carminative, diuretic, Insecticidal. Used in intermittent fever, skin diseases epilepsy and general debility
  • 42. Some examples of potent insect antifeedants isolated from terrestrial plants Chemical Type Compounds Plant source Monoterpene Thymol Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae) Sesquiterpene lactone Glaucolide A Vernonia sp. (Asteraceae) (germacranolide type) Sesquiterpene (drimane type) Polygodial Polygonum hydropiper (Polygonaceae) Diterpene (abietane type) Abietic acid Pinus sp. (Pinaceae) Diterpene (clerodane type) Ajugarin I Ajuga remota (Lamiaceae) Triterpene (limonoid type) Azadirachtin Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) Triterpene (cardenolide type) Digitoxin Digitalis purpurea (Scrophulariaceae) Triterpene (ergostane type) Withanolide E Withania somnifera (Solanaceae) Triterpene (spirostane type) Aginosid Allium porrum (Liliaceae) Alkaloid (indole type) Strychnine Strychnos nuxvomica (Loganiaceae) Alkaloid (steroidal glycoside) Tomatin Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae) Phenolic (furnanocoumarin) Xanthotoxin Pastinaca sativa (Apiaceae) Phenolic (lignan) Podophyllotoxin Podophyllum peltatum (Berberidaceae) Phenolic (benzoate ester) Methyl salicylate Gaultheria procumbens (Ericaceae)
  • 43. Structure of some potent and well documented insect antifeedants from plants Azadirachtin Glaucolide-A Thymol Ajugarin I Polygodial
  • 44. Efficacy of higher plant products against aflatoxin B 1 Plant Products References Thymus vulgaris (EO) Kumar et al. (2008) Amomum subulatum (EO) Singh et al. (2008) Cinnamomum camphora (EO) Srivastava et al. (2008) Alpinia galanga (EO) Srivastava et al. (2008) Pelargonium graveolens (EO) Singh et al. (2008) Satureja hortensis (EO) Abyaneh et al. (2008) Adenocalymma alliaceum (Aq. Ex.) Shukla et al. (2008) Syzygium aromaticum (EO) Bluma et al. (2008) Lippia turbinate (EtOH. Ex.) Bluma et al. (2008) Hedeoma multiflora (EtOH. Ex.) Bluma et al. (2008) Ocimum basilicum (EO) Atanda et al. (2007) Chenopodium ambrosioides (EO) Kumar et al. (2007) Garcinia pedunculata (Chloroform Ex.) Joseph et al. (2005) Thymus eriocalyx (EO) Rasooli and Owlia (2005)
  • 45. Synthetic pesticides (LD 50 ) Botanical pesticides (LD 50 ) Arsenic ( 763 mg/kg ) Azadirachtin ( >5000 mg/kg ) DDT ( 150-300 mg/kg ) Pyrethroids ( 2600 mg/kg ) Chlordane ( 145-430 mg/kg ) Sabadilla ( 4000-5000 mg/kg ) Atrazine ( 1750 mg/kg ) Carvone ( 1640 mg/kg ) Carbendazim ( >2000 mg/kg ) Nicotine ( 50 mg/kg ) Endosulphan ( 76-240 mg/kg ) Thymol ( 980-5628 mg/kg ) 2,4-D ( 370 mg/kg ) Rotenone ( 132-1500 mg/kg ) Malathion ( 400 mg/kg ) Citral ( 6000 mg/kg ) Carbofuran ( 8 mg/kg ) Allyl isothiocyanate ( 339 mg/kg ) Methomyl ( 30-34 mg/kg ) Geraniol ( 3600 mg/kg ) Thiodicarb ( 66 mg/kg ) Muristerone ( 6400 mg/kg )
  • 46. Veratrine Schoenocaulon officinale Fam: Liliaceae LD 50 : 4000-5000 mg/kg Effective against Caterpillar, Leaf hopper, Stink bugs, Squash bugs, Beetles Common Name: Sabadilla, Natural Guard
  • 47. Safety limits – Animal toxic studies with oils 32.94±17.46 t=1.08 25.91±16.33 t=0.1045 23.15±23.79 t=0.0967 25.20 11. Alkaline phosphatase (IU/Litre) 50.38±15.55 t=0.9455 38.00±12.36 t=1.25 33.00±9.57 t=3.63 44.36 10. Urea (mg/dl) 95.55±17.56 t=3.31 95.56±8.20 t=7.0113 82.13±6.16 t=5.7042 61.88 9. Cholesterol (mg%) 7.63±1.17 t=1.94 8.18±0.94 t=0.06578 6.92±1.18 t=2.58 8.16 8. Protein (gm%) 63.55±38.86 t=0.4066 64.70±35.50 t=0.5240 42.63±42.30 t=0.8335 51.28 7. Glucose (mg/dl) 3.70±1.09 t=0.49 4.21±0.24 t=3.5 3.51±0.79 t=0.2044 3.925 6. Albumin (gm%) 9.86±1.82 t=0.6231 9.76±1.58 t=0.5654 10.20±1.27 t=1.40237 9.40 5. Haemoglobin (gm%) 50.00±3.41 t=2.99 49.83±3.6 t=2.71 43.33±5.04 t=0.2427 45.83 4. SGPT (µ/ml) 95.00±41.77 t=0.9207 101.66±30.49 t=1.20 106.00±30.28 t=0.8595 116.66 3. SGOT (µ/ml) 39.00±30.48 t=0.9207 72.00±36.96 t=1.4200 45.50±52.79 t=0.3211 50.50 (d) Neutrophylls 59.50±30.81 t=1.0824 25.33±35.32 t=1.4167 50.83±51.72 t=0.5502 45.83 (c) Lymphocyte 0 0 0 0 (b) Monocytes 2.00±4.47 t=1.00 2.66±4.71 t=0.6891 3.66±3.50 t=0.3496 4 (a) Eosinophil 2. DLC 11.93×10 3 ±1.28 t=0.6036 9.87×10 3 ±3.56 t=1.6675 12.28×10 3 ±10.96 t=0.0846 12.25×10 3 1. TLC Zingiber oil Ocimum oil Mentha oil Control Parameters
  • 48. Cost Benefit Ratio
    • Synthetic Pesticide
    • Registration cost 20-30
    • million dollars
    • Development period 7-10 years
    • Needs long term toxicological
    • testing and animal tests
    • advantage
    • Botanical Pesticide
    • Registration cost 150-200
    • thousand dollars
    • Development period 0-1 years
    • Needs short term testing due
    • to safety
    Carlton, 1988; Woodhead, 1990
  • 49.
    • Natural Antioxidants
    • Interface formations of free radicals
    • Delay or prevent rancidity of foods
    • Prevent human diseases caused by oxidative damages- ageing, cataract, cancer, coronary heart diseases
    Tocopherol (Vitamin E) Source: Sesame seed oil, Cotton seeds, Coconut, Safflower, Soybean, Olive, Wheat germ Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) Source: Citrus, Papaya, Strawberry
  • 50. Some sources of natural antioxidants Clove: Gallic acid, Eugenol Oregano: Carvacrol Thyme: Thymol Caraway: Carvone Ginger: Gingerol Garlic: Allicin Nutmeg: Eugenol Turmeric: Curcumin Rosemary: Carnosol, Rosmanol, Carnosic acid Sage: Thujone Carrot: β-Carotene Soybean: Rutin Rosemary Sage Labex TM in food preservation
  • 51.
    • Expectations
    • Plant products for plant health
    • Practical applicability (not only in vitro testing )
    • Without toxicological problems
  • 52. Constrains
    • Mostly in vitro trials
    • Negligence of practical approach of testing
    • Need of toxicological and pharmacological
    • testings
    • Need of phytoequivalence
  • 53. Carvacrol Linalool Carvone Oxygenated Monoterpenoides 1,8 Cineol Nepthoquinone Lawsone (C 10 H 6 O 3 ) Juglone (C 10 H 6 O 3 ) 4-hydroxynaphthalene-1,2-dione 5-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone Mol. wt.- 174.155 Mol. wt.- 174.155 Lawsonia inermis Prunus persica
  • 54. Comparison of major component of A. galanga essential oil extracted from plants of different geographic area Dubey et al, 2008 Foot hills of North India Bicyclo (4.2.0) oct-1-ene, 7-exo ethenyl ( 58.46 %), α-pinene (14.94 per cent) and trans-carryophyllene (7.05 per cent) Tachakittirungrod and Chowwanapoonpohn, 2007 Northern Thailand 1, 8-cineole (46.22%), β- pinene (5.21%) and α-pinene (4.34%) Arambewala et al, 2007 Sri Lanka Zerumbone (44.8%) Menon et al, 2006 Kerala, India Carotol (26.7%) Jantan et al, 2004 Malaysia 1,8-cineole (40.5%), β - bisabolene (8.4%), (Z,E)-farnesol (3.8%) and (E)-[beta]-farnesene (3.2%). Leopold et al, 2003 Southern India 1,8-cineole (28.4%), α -fenchyl acetate (18.4%), camphor (7.7%) Raina et al, 2002 Lower Himalyan region of India 1,8-cineole (39.4%) and β - pinene (11.9%) Charles et al, 1999 India Myrcene (94.5%) Scheffer et al, 1981; Pooter et al, 1985 Malaysia (E)- β -farnesene (18.2%) and β - bisabolene (16.2%) Investigators Locality Major Compound(s)
  • 55.
    • Why Herbal Medicine 
    • It is being used by about 80% of world population primarily in developing Countries for primary health care
    • They have stood the test of time for their safety
    • Efficacy
    • Cultural Acceptability
    • Lesser side effects
    • The chemical constituent present in them are a part of the physiological function of living flora and hence better compatibility
    • For age related disease – memory loss , diabetic wounds , liver disorder for which no modern medicine
    • Renewable and Ecofriendly Raw material
    • Will bring economic prosperity of the masses knowing these raw materials
    • Herbal products are and will remain much more affordable than synthetic drugs
  • 56. Origin of Botany in the use of Herbs as Medicine Indian system Ayurveda 5000 years old Rigveda Atharveda Nakul Samhita Charak Samhita (900 BC) Aswayurveda Susrut Samhita (500 BC) Hasthiayurveda Chinese System of Medicine-About 5000 years old Greec-Arabic System –Tibetan System- 3000 Years Method of healing practiced by the people of mediterranean region and orient found expression in Europe herbal, De Materia Medica written by Greek Dioscorides in the first Century A.D. Establishment of Physic Gardens Chelsia Physic Garden in London
  • 57. Herbal Medicine Scenario in India 5,000 endemic angiospermic sp 15,000-18,000 Angiosperms Two of eight hot spots in India 180 Ayurvedic Colleges 400,000 Ayurvedic Practitioners in India 7500 plants used in traditional medicine 800 plant sp used by industries India : Centre of Megabiodiversity 7000 medininal Firms >70% Indians have faith in Herbal Medicine
  • 58. Top Ten Medicinal Plants of World Drug Botanical name Market Rank as per Sale Echinacea Echinacea sp. 1 Garlic Allium sativum 2 Goldenseal Hydrastis canadensis 3 Ginseng Panax sp 4 Gingko Gingko biloba 5 Saw palmetto Serenoa repens 6 Aloe gel Aloe barbadensis 7 Ephedra Ephedra sp 8 Eleuthero Eleutherococcos sp 9 Cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon 10 Three – Allium sativum , Aloe barbedensis and Panax sp widely available in India
  • 59. Top Ten Traded medicinal Plants In India Bacopa monneri Brahmi 10 Piper longum Pipallu 9 Adhatoda vasica Vasu 8 Cassia angustifolia Senna 7 Aegel marmelos Bael 6 Saraca asoca Ashoka 5 Terminalis chebula Harar 4 Withania somnifera Ashwagandha 3 Asparagus racemosus Satawari 2 Emblica officinalis Amla 1 Botanical Name Common Name S. No.
  • 60. Plant-derived drugs widely employed in western medicine (Adapted from Farnsworth, 1984 ) Acetyldigoxin Ephedrine * Pseudoephedrine * Aescin Hyoscyamine Quinidine Ajmalicine Khellin Quinine Allantoin* Lanatoside C Rescinnamine Atropine Leurocristine Reserpine Bromelain α -Lobeline Scillarens A&B Caffeine * Morphine Scopolamine Codeine Narcotine Sennosides A&B Colchicine Ouabain Sparteine Danthron* Papain Strychnine Deserpidine Papaverine* Tetrahydrocannabinol Digitoxin Physostigmine Theobromine* Digoxin Picrotoxin Theophylline* L-Dopa* Pilocarpine Tubocurarine Emetine Protoveratrines A&B Vincaleukoblastine Xanthotoxin * Produced industrially by synthesis
  • 61. Medicinal plant diversity Biogeographic Estimated medicinal Region species Trans Himalaya 700 Himalayan 2500 Desert 500 Semi-Arid 1000 Western Ghat 2000 Deccan Peninsula 3000 Gangetic Plain 1000 North-East India 2000 Islands 1000 Coasts 500
  • 62. Neutraceuticals Garlic –Allicin rich capsule –antibacterial Soya health drink, Soya capsule –anticarcinogenic Ginger capsule-antioxidants Lycopene capsule from Tomato-antioxidant Green Tea –Flavanoids- antioxidants, prostrate cancer Capsicum extract –Capacin- Antifungal Trichopus zealanica ( Arogyapacha) – Intake relieves Fatique
  • 63. Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. Family: Menispermaceae Vern. Name: Giloy, Gurch, Amrita Twiner, succulent stem, cordate, leaves, Fruits, reniform, red when ripe. Bioinhancer plant. Stem used in fever, jaundice,antipyretic and cardiotonic
  • 64. Fam.: Scrophulariaceae Vern. Name: Brahmi, Sarsvati Prostrate succulent herb. Leaves simple , decussate, sessile, spathulate or obovate. Flowers whitish. The plant is intellect promoting, cardiotonic, bronchodilater. Bacopa monneiri
  • 65. Adhatoda vasica Family: Acanthaceae Vern. Name: Vasak, Adusa Small , evergreen shrub. Leaves entire, lanceolate, Flowers bracreate, in Terminal spike, Corolla white. Leaves contain alkaloid vasine. Used in Asthama, bronchitis for many centuries, also used in peptic ulcer.
  • 66. Family: Liliaceae Vern. Name: Ghikumari Stem short. Roots shallow . Leaves fleshy, in rosettes, Sessile, horny prickles on margins, blunt point, surface pale green with irregular white blotches. The juice is used in burns, skin diseases and sciatica. Aloe vera
  • 67. Family: Apocynaceae Vern. Name: Sadabahar Perennial herb. Stem pinkish –red. Leaves obovate Flowers pink or white. Follicle cylindrical. Leaves contain vinblastine, vincristine and catharanthine . Leaves used in treating diabetics, mental disorders and Hypertension. The plant is regarded as anticancerous plant. Catharanthus roseus
  • 68. Fam.: Apocynaceae Vern. name: Satparna, Chitwan, Saittan ka jat A large tree, milky latex,leaves in whorl, flowers greenish –white . Bark useful in malarial fever, dysentery and in ulcer. Alstonia scholaris
  • 69. Fam.: Zingiberaceae Vern. Name: Kulnjan Perennial herbaceous plant . Rhizome cylindrical, stout, covered with scales. Leaves lanceolate. Inflorescence terminal dense raceme. Flowers White Rhizome yields essential oil containing methyl cinnamate. Used in treatment of malaria fever, diarrhoea and toothache. Given to ladies after child birth Alpinia galanga
  • 70. Fam. : Acanthaceae Vern. name: Kalmegh Erect herb. Stem much branched, leaves opposite, short – petioled, Inflorescence axillary and terminal raceme or panicle. Flowers white. Main glucoside is andrographolide. Leaves used in treating dysentry, diarrhoea, Enteritis fever and tonsillitis. Andrographis paniculata
  • 71. Family: Asteraceae Vern. Name: Sweet Wormwood, qingaho Annual herb. Fragrant floral leaves sessile. Inflorescence terminal panicle. Floral heads heterogamous. Used in malarial fever. Artemisia annua
  • 72. Family: Solanaceae Vern. Name: Belladona An erect plant , 1m height,. The aerial parts die every year in Autumn and the new ones appear in the following year.The plant has a large tap root with many lateral rootlets. Flowers yellow. Fruit a black berry. It grows in forest shade between 2500-3000m. The roots contain choline and many flavanoids. Used for manufacture of plaster and Ticture.Also used in treatment of intestinal pain, asthama and whooping cough. Atropa belladonna
  • 73. Family: Meliaceae Vern. Name: Neem, Margosa tree Medium sized tree, Leaves compound, imparipinnate, leaflets oblique . Flowers cream or yellow coloured. Fruit one seeded drupes . Main constituent azadirachtin having many analogues. Insecticidal plant, anthelmintic. Effective in skin diseases and leucoderma. Azadirachta indica
  • 74. Family: Vitaceae Vern. Name: Hadjod, bone–setter A climber with stout fleshly jointed quadrangular Stem. Tendrils simple,leaf opposed. Some aerial roots arise from nodes and strike the soil. Leaves reniform. Flowers small, greenish. The tetracyclic triterpenoids are medicinally important. The Plant is aphrodisiac and digestive. Powdered roots and stem paste are union promoting and recommended In bone fractures. Cissus quadrangularis
  • 75. Fam.: Combretaceae Vern. Name: Arjun A large tree, drooping branches, bark grey outside. Two glands at base of the petiole. Fruit ovoid. Bark is recommended as cardiotonic. Useful in liver cirrhosis and hypertension. Terminalia arjuna
  • 76. Family: Solanaceae Vern. Name: Asgandh Erect branching undershrub. Clothed with minutely Stellate hairs, leaves ovate, flowers greenish or reddish-green. Berries orange Coloured enclosed in persistent calyx. Withasomnine is main alkaloid of roots. Roots are stimulant, aphrodisiac and tonic. Leaves are recommended in fever. A paste of roots and leaves are applied in relief in ulcer and painful swelling. Recommended for Balya Rasayana Withania somnifera
  • 77. Fam.: Capparidaceae Ver. Name : Varun Moderate sized tree. Bark grey, leaves trifoliate. Triterpenoids lupeol and Varunol isolated from roots. Used in urinary track Infection And kidney stone, in rolithiasis and Cryatalluria. Bark more medicinally Important. Crataeva nurvala
  • 78. Family: Fabaceae Vern. Name: Kavanchh A climbing annual with hairy branches. Leaves trifoliate, leaflets ovate or rhomboid–ovate, densely Clothed with silvery grey hairs. Flowers purple. Pods curved. The leaves are aphrodisiac, useful in ulcer and are diuretic. Useful for Parkinsonia disease . Mucuna pruriens
  • 79. 3-(3,4 dimethyl)-L-alanine from Mucuna pruriens
  • 80. Phyllanthus niruri Fam.: Euphorbiaceae Ver. Name: Bhooamla The annual herb. Leaves numerous, distichous, Flower yellowish, capsule globose. Used in Viral Hepatitis. Also used as Diuretic.
  • 81. Family: Apocynaceae Vern. Name: Sarpgandha Rootstock thick and woody. Leaves in whorl or opposite, elliptic or oblanceolate. Flowers in umbellate cymes. Many alkaloids isolated—Reserpine ,Isoreserpine, serpentine, Rawwolfine. Used in reducing blood pressure. Also in mental disorders. Root considered As antidote to snake bite. Decoctions of root given during labour pain to increase Uterine contraction. Rauwolfia serpentina
  • 82. Fam.: Convolvulaceae Vern. Name: Nisodh, Tribrit A stout twiner , milky juice, triangular stem leaf base Cordate, flowers white, campanulate. Fruit globose, enclosed In large imbricate sepals. Roots useful in colic, dropsy ascites, intermittent fever and Jaundice. Operculina turpethum
  • 83. Family: Lythraceae Vern. Name: Dhatki Branched shrub, height 3-7 m,bark reddish – brown,black glandular dots on under surface of leaves, Flowers Red, in panicles . Flowers are stimulant, highly valued as stimulant in pregnancy. Woodfordia fruticosa
  • 84. Family: Verbenaceae Vern. Name: Bhates A large gregarious shrub, branches quadrangular, leaves large ovate, Flowers white, tinged with pink,in terminal panicles. Leaves used as anti- inflammatory, antipyretic, leprosy and Skin diseases. Clerodendrum viscosum
  • 85. Acorus calamus Family: Araceae Vern. Name: Bach A semi-aquatic, rhizomatous perennial herb, rhizome as thick As middle finger, pinkish brown externally, white spongy within, leaves distichous, flowers densely packed in Sessile cylindric spadix. Propagated through rhizomes Yields calamus oil containing asarone. Rhizome is carminative, diuretic, Insecticidal. Used in intermittent fever, skin diseases epilepsy and general debility
  • 86. Family: Fabaceae Vern. Name: Gunja, Lalmunga, Ratti A deciduous climber, leaves pinnate, rachis ending in a Spine, leaflets rounded at both ends, flowers pink, arranged Along rachis of one –sided pedunculate raceme. Fruit pod,seeds scarlet with a black spot. Seed paste used in cure of skin diseases. Along with Plumbago zealanica used in leucoderma. Seeds are aphrodisiac and used in nervous disorders. Abrus precatorius
  • 87. Family: Apiaceae Vern. Name: Mandukparni, Brahm manduki, Brahmi Small trailing herb.Stem prostrate, rooting at nodes,leaves orbicular, kidney shaped, inflorescence umbel bearing 1-5 small flowers. Used as antiinflamatory, diuretic,, measles. Also as brain tonic. Centella asiatica
  • 88. Family: Apocynaceae Vern. Name: Kutaja A tree reaching about 10m. Bark pale brown, young tips tomentose. Leaves oval , subsessile. Flowers white, in terminal cymes. Follicles long, incurved. Bark possess amoebicidaland antidysentric properties, effective against amoebiosis. A bath containing decoctions of leaves and bark cures scabies. Holarrhena antidysenterica
  • 89. Family: Fabaceae Vern. Name: Briksh Karanj Medium sized tree. Leaves glabrous, leaflets 5-7, ovate. Acuminate Flowers pinkish white. The oil is anthelmintic, recommended for scabies, leprosy, herps. Leaves useful in chronic fever. Pongamia pinnata
  • 90. Basic Questions Are Pharmaceutical Firms Responsible for Low Market? Are the Indian Herbal Drugs free From Mycotoxins? What are the responsibilities of Research Organizations and Universities? What are the Measures of Quality Control and Safety Limit Assessment?
  • 91. Association of fungi with Crude Herbal drug Samples Sample Uses No. of Fungi Abrus precatorius Expectorant 12 Stimulant In jaundice Holarrhena antidysentrica Antiamoebic 7 Antidysentric Hibiscus abelmoschus Carminative 7 Stomachic Piper nigrum Dyspesia 17 Cold Asthama Strychnos nux-vomica Antipyretic 15 Astringent Syzygium cumini Astringent 10 Eye diseases
  • 92. Mycotoxin Elaboration in Stored drug samples Drugs Mycotoxin Concentration (μg/gm) Asparagus racemosus 0.16 Atropa belladonna 0.27 Withania somnifera 0.68 Plumbago zeylanica 1.13 Emblica officinalis 1.51 Terminalia chebula 1.19 Mucuna puriens 1.16  
  • 93. Endangered Medicinal Plants Aquilaria malaccensis Aconitum spp. Atropa acuminata Coleus forskohlii Dioscorea deltoidea Picrorhiza kurroa Podophyllum hexandrum Pterocarpus santalinus Rauvolfia serpentina Saussurea lappa Taxus wallichiana Valeriana wallichii Zanthoxylum alatum
  • 94. Side Effects of Certain Medicinal Plants Reproductive toxicity cancer and diabetes Vinca rosea (Vincristine, Vinblastine) Hypertension, raised B.P. Bronchitis, Peptic, ulcer Glycyrrhiza glabra (Glycyrrhizin) Vision problem Heart diseases Digitalis purpurea (digitalin) Symptoms of poisoning, irregular pulse Used in cardiac failure Aconitum nepellus (Aconite) High doses causes liver histological changes Treatment of chronic asthma Allium sativum (Diallyl disulphide) High doses of nasal discharge Treatment of asthma Tylophora asthamatica (Tylophorine)
  • 95. PHARMACOGNOSY Herbal raw material evaluation and standardization Authentication of crude drugs by analytical techniques Toxicological screening Multidimensional approach of pharmacognosy towards quality control of herbal medicines Development of phytochemical markers for identification
  • 96.
    • India should occupy a significant position in the world trade of herbal drugs
    • The time has come to compile and document traditional knowledge on herbal medicine
    • Efforts should be made to cultivate medicinal plants as field crops .
    • Conservation should be in appropriate ecological situations.
    • Standardization as per WHO guide lines
    • We can certainly be world leader in this field
  • 97. Bioprospecting of Indian Flora
    • Biopiracy
    • Gene robbing
    • Indigenous plants: No ethical or quarantine problem
    • India Mega biodiversity: 33 % dicot endemic
  • 98.
    • Total area about 3029 million
    • hectares
    • 18000 Angiospermic plant species
    • Two Hot Spots
    • World’s half of aquatic flowering
    • plants belonging to 23 families
    • 45 000 Plant species ( 11 percent of known plant species of world)
    Recorded cases of Biopiracy: More than 250 Neem, Turmeric, Tulsi, Ashwagandh from India
  • 99.
    • The Indian Flora is more varied than that of any other country of equal area in the eastern hemisphere, if not on the globe” J. D. Hooker (1904).
    • A significant feature of Indian flora is the confluence of floras from the surrounding countries like Malaya Tibet, china, Japan , Europe and even from widely separate continents like America, Canada and Australia Rao (2006), Subramani et. Al. ( 2005).
    • 40 per cent of flowering plants in India are foreign and naturalized in various parts of the country. Maheshwari (1962)
    • 30 percent of Indian flora ( 5000 species ) endemic .
    • 75 per cent Indian dicots polyploidy , in China diploids .
    • Convention on Biodiversity: 1992
    • a. Sovereign Right of countries over biodiversity.
    • b. Bioprospecting of biodiversity ---documentation, identification of plants of
    • potential economic value
  • 100.
    • Higher plants are untapped reservoir of various valuable chemicals awaiting their intensive exploitation for their biological properties for health of plants and animals.
    • The perusal of literature shows that a large number of bioactive agents have been overlooked or rejected by the pharmaceutical and agrochemical firms which have commercialized only a few strongly active ones for a quick cure , rapid action , heavy financial return in spite of their considerable damage out side the intended targets.
    • The situation may now be reversed and that natural products in natural combinations and methods such as used in the past in Ayurveda , Unani and other such systems may again be adopted than artificial ones in medicine and particularly in agriculture.
  • 101. Bioprospecting Real Option For India Thanks