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Environmental Problems and Health Risks Ashok Kumar School of Biotechnology Banaras Hindu University
Man and Environment: DEPENDENCE and INTERACTIONS Compounds Dependence Spill off Air Oxygen Wastes Water Energy Life Support Soil Raw materials Pollutants Minerals Soil, Water Habitat Light ? Energy ?
Environment in Action Environment in Action Environment in Action Environment in Action Environment Processes (Biotic and Abiotic) Transformation New Products (Good and Bad) Damage to Environment (By bad one) Repair (up to a limit) Regain the originality End point of Repair: The origin of Problems
Several nations in the world such as Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Chile, China, Hungary, India, Mexico, Peru, Thailand, and the U.S. have shown concentrations higher than the guideline value of 10 ug/L of the WHO.
Adverse health effects from arsenic exposure have been documented in China, Bangladesh, India (West Bengal), and the USA.
Currently, the worst problem exists in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India) where millions are being exposed to unhealthy amounts of arsenic through drinking water.
UV- B (280-320 nm) —causes sunburns, cataracts, immune system damage, skin cancer. Melanoma may be associated with severe UVB sunburns occurring before the age of 20. Most UVB rays are absorbed by the ozone layer.
Develop super strains by Rec-DNA Technology (GEM/GMO)
Use in Bioremediation
Transposon Genome Plasmids
OCT CAM - Camphor OCT - Octane XYL - Xylene NAH - Naphthalene DEVELOPMENT OF BACTERIAL STRAIN FOR DEGRADATION OF VARIOUS ORGANIC POLLUTANTS Biotechnological Approach Biotechnological Tools CAM C + T XYL NAH
Commonly Used Genetically Engineered Microbes Name Altered Trait Genets Transferred Pseudomonas Altered pathway regula- Tol plasimid catabolic enzymes tion E. coli Metal removal from waste Metallothionein (human) water E. Coli Polychlorinated biphenyl Entire pathway ( Pseudomonas sp.) metabolism In-vivo Engineering of Bacteria for the Degradation of Xenobiotics and Toxic Wastes Bacterium Substrate Pseudomonas cepacia 2,4,5-trichlorophenylacetic acid P. Putida Chlorobenzenes Alcaligenes sp. Dechlorophenoxyacetic acid mixed chlorophenols