View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!Introducing SlideShare for AndroidExplore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare appGet the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new Android app!View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!
Challenges in 21 st Century Agriculture in India (Environmental Aspect) Dr. R. C. Tiwari (Former Prof. & Head) Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Institute of Agricultural Sciences Banaras Hindu University Varanasi-221005 Presented by: Dr. R.C.Tiwari/ Mr. Ankit Kumar
Soil Air Water Animal Vegetation Social Economical Political Human Society World of Natural resources World of development Inherited Created Man is creature of two worlds. One which has been inherited and the other which the man has created. The world created by him has been exploiting the natural world.
One in every seven persons on this planet lives in India
16 Percent of the world’s population is in India
Only 2.4 percent of world’s land is in India
There are 1652 mother tongues
33 spoken languages. 100000 each
Land : Geographical area - 329 mha
Agricultural area - 143 mha
Degraded soils - 85 mha
Cattle population : 406 m heads (largest in world) on only 13 mha pasture land.
27 percent population in urban area.
30 percent of urban population in slums.
Total cities towns - 3245
Sewage system in only - 21 cities
Inter Generational Equity (Economic Justice/ Productivity – Long term profitability Benign Environment) AGRICULTURE TRADITIONAL ECOLOGICAL BIOLOGICAL X Low production MODERN CHEMICAL MECHANICAL X Production more than potential INTEGRATION OF TECHNOLOGIES ECOLOGICAL BIOLOGICAL CHEMICAL MECHANICAL SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE To achieve SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION
POSITION OF INDIA IN WORLD AGRICULTURE IN 1999 China Second 5 44 Onion China, Russian Federation Third 23 294 Potatoes China Second 39 445 Fruits China Second 59 629 Vegetables China, USA Third 2.1 18.2 Cotton (lint in bales) First 2.1 3.3 Jute and allied fibers First 0.7 287 Tea Brazil Second 282 12.75 Sugarcane Canada, China Third 6 43 Rapeseed China Second 7 33 Groundnut First 16 59 Total pulses China Third 230 264 Total China. USA Second 131 596 Paddy China Second 71 584 Wheat Next to India’s rank India (Mt) World (Mt) Item
YIELD (t ha -1 ) OF PADDY AND WHEAT IN SELECTED COUNTRIES OF WORLD IN 2001 2.72 World 3.91 World 2.74 India 2.96 India 2.71 USA 4.26 Vietnam 2.80 Romania 4.25 Indonesia 2.82 Syria 5.57 Italy 2.82 Italy 6.36 China 3.83 China 6.66 Japan 6.36 Egypt 7.20 USA 6.63 France 7.84 Spain 7.08 UK 8.77 Egypt Wheat Country Paddy Country
+ About 10 million tonnes from organic sources 300 million tonnes 2025 18.6 million tonnes 2003 50,000 tonnes 1950 NPK – CONSUMPTION (FERTILIZERS) 350 million tonnes 2050 300 million tonnes 2025 182 million tonnes 2003 50 million tonnes 1951 GRAIN PRODUCTION
Vitamins Minerals FOOD Carbohydrate Fiber, Fertilizer, Furniture, Fuel PIPELINE FOR FERINERY Soil Raw Material STORE HOUSE OF PLANT NUTRIENTS Ground Water Plant Growth Sunshine Climate Soil Seed Management O H N C K S P Ni Cu M O Ca Mn Zn C 1 Mg Fe B
BLANC PHYTO-NUTRIENTS UNDER NOURISHED CHILDREN The Hindu: Survey of Indian Agriculture 2004
Nutritional requirement and availability per head/ day 180 220 Fruits 4. 210 300 Vegetables 3. 8.5 14.8 Fat 2. 30 55 Protein 1. Available (gms) Amount requirement (gms) Nutrition Sl. No.
DIVERSIFIED FOOD PRODUCTION FOR NUTRITIONAL SECURITY The Hindu: Survey of Indian Agriculture 2004
SOIL QUALITY CRITERIA ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS-BASED AND HUMAN HEALTH BASED SOIL QUALITY CRITERIA
AIR MINERAL WATER SOLAR ENERGY SOIL Physical environment of soil. The “Soil life” and “Biological life” are open system. The external solar energy is converted in to chemical energy and allows the work to be done. ENVIRONMENT
ANNUAL PLANT NUTRIENTS TRANSPORT 18 mt/ year - Addition of Nutrients 25 mt/ year - Removal of Nutrients Present -------------- - -------------- 45 mt/ year - Removal of Nutrients Projected 2025
4 5 6 B N P K A LOW MEDIUM HIGH B A Rice-Wheat cropping area of Indo-Gangatic plain under study. Soils showing plant nutrient indices. Area under study
x MAJOR SOURCES OF REDUCTION IN FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY POOR SEEDBED PREPARATION 10-20% INAPPROPRIATE CROP VARIETY 20-40% DELAY IN SOWING 20-30% IMPROPER SEEDING 5-25% INADEQUATE PLANT POPULATION 10-25% INADEQUATE IRRIGATION 10-20% WEED INFESTATION 15-50% INSECT DAMAGE 5-50% IMBALANCE FERTILIZER USE 20-50% IMPROPER FERTILIZER PLACEMENT 5-10% SOME ESTIMATES OF POSSIBLE REDUCTION IN FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY DUE TO CONTROLLABLE FACTORS. SOURCE :- SEKHON N P K S
SOIL QUALITY (HEALTH) “ CAPACITY OF THE SOIL TO FUNCTION WITHIN ECOSYSTEM BOUNDARIES TO SUSTAIN BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTIVITY, MAINTAIN ENVIRONMENT QUALITY AND PROMOTE PLANT AND ANIMAL HEALTH” Doran and Parkin (1994) SOIL QUALITY INDICATORS
pH, E.C., C.E.C.
TOTAL C & N
INTEGRATED PLANT NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT CHEMICAL FERTILIZER Soil test, crop and variety, Crops sequence climate crop management etc. PLANT ANIMAL RESIDUES FYM, Compost, Vermicompost, Piggery & Poultry manure, Urban sludge, Organic industrial Wastes, meals, cakes etc. LEGUMES Green manure, grain legumes in rotation and inter-cropping BIOFERTILIZERS Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, PSB/M, BGA Azolla, VAM, (Vesicular Arbicular mycorhiza) S O I L COMPONENT OF IPNM
Soil Quality SOIL QUALITY AND STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABILITY
Nutrient loss through erosion and depletion by cropping
Jatropha - Production/ ha = 3-4 tonnes Oil (%) = 35.0 Maturity time = 4 years Yield per plant = 4-5 kg Byproduct Glycerin = 100 kg/ tonne oil Cakes = 3 kg/ kg oil The cost of glycerol and cakes meet the processing costs. Oil is treated with methanol + NaOH = to get biodiesel Biodiesel from Jatropha
Vast treasure of indigenous technical knowledge in the field of agriculture.
National and international information sharing.
Thrust on recycling and use of low external inputs.
Frontier technologies, GIS, Remote sensing.
Advanced information technology.
Large network of NGO’s (as partners for technology development and dissemination).
Awareness for technology development and dissemination.
Cereals, Pulses, Oil Seeds, Sugarcane, Cotton etc. Forestry, Agro- forestry, Silvipasture, Sericulture Fruits, Flowers, Vegetables, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Animal Husbandry, Dairy, Poultry, Piggery, Bee Keeping, Fisheries etc. Oil INTEGRATED INTENSIVE FARMING SYSTEM ON THE PILLARS OF INTEGRATED INTENSIVE FARMING SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
. RURAL EMPLOYMENT
. ECONOMICALY PROFITABLE
6. MARKETING INFRASTRUCTURE
. LOW ENERGY INPUT(ORGANIC FARMING, ANIMAL ENERGY, RENEWABLE ENERGY)