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Challenges 21 Century In Environmental Aspects

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Challenges 21 Century In Environmental Aspects

Challenges 21 Century In Environmental Aspects

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    Challenges 21 Century In  Environmental Aspects Challenges 21 Century In Environmental Aspects Presentation Transcript

    • Challenges in 21 st Century Agriculture in India (Environmental Aspect) Dr. R. C. Tiwari (Former Prof. & Head) Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Institute of Agricultural Sciences Banaras Hindu University Varanasi-221005 Presented by: Dr. R.C.Tiwari/ Mr. Ankit Kumar
    • Soil Air Water Animal Vegetation Social Economical Political Human Society World of Natural resources World of development Inherited Created Man is creature of two worlds. One which has been inherited and the other which the man has created. The world created by him has been exploiting the natural world.
    • SCENARIO OF DEVELOPMENT
      • One in every seven persons on this planet lives in India
      • 16 Percent of the world’s population is in India
      • Only 2.4 percent of world’s land is in India
      • There are 1652 mother tongues
      • 33 spoken languages. 100000 each
      • Land : Geographical area - 329 mha
      • Agricultural area - 143 mha
      • Degraded soils - 85 mha
      • Cattle population : 406 m heads (largest in world) on only 13 mha pasture land.
      • 27 percent population in urban area.
      • 30 percent of urban population in slums.
      • Total cities towns - 3245
      • Sewage system in only - 21 cities
    • Inter Generational Equity (Economic Justice/ Productivity – Long term profitability Benign Environment) AGRICULTURE TRADITIONAL ECOLOGICAL BIOLOGICAL X Low production MODERN CHEMICAL MECHANICAL X Production more than potential INTEGRATION OF TECHNOLOGIES ECOLOGICAL BIOLOGICAL CHEMICAL MECHANICAL SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE To achieve SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION
      • NUTRIONAL SECURITY
      • LAND AND WATER SHORTAGE
      • SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL
      • BIODIVERSITY EROSION
      • GLOBAL COMPETETION
      • AVAILABILITY OF ENERGY AND POWER
      PROBLEMS & CHALLENGES OF 21 ST CENTURY
    • POSITION OF INDIA IN WORLD AGRICULTURE IN 1999 China Second 5 44 Onion China, Russian Federation Third 23 294 Potatoes China Second 39 445 Fruits China Second 59 629 Vegetables China, USA Third 2.1 18.2 Cotton (lint in bales) First 2.1 3.3 Jute and allied fibers First 0.7 287 Tea Brazil Second 282 12.75 Sugarcane Canada, China Third 6 43 Rapeseed China Second 7 33 Groundnut First 16 59 Total pulses China Third 230 264 Total China. USA Second 131 596 Paddy China Second 71 584 Wheat Next to India’s rank India (Mt) World (Mt) Item
    • YIELD (t ha -1 ) OF PADDY AND WHEAT IN SELECTED COUNTRIES OF WORLD IN 2001 2.72 World 3.91 World 2.74 India 2.96 India 2.71 USA 4.26 Vietnam 2.80 Romania 4.25 Indonesia 2.82 Syria 5.57 Italy 2.82 Italy 6.36 China 3.83 China 6.66 Japan 6.36 Egypt 7.20 USA 6.63 France 7.84 Spain 7.08 UK 8.77 Egypt Wheat Country Paddy Country
    • + About 10 million tonnes from organic sources 300 million tonnes 2025 18.6 million tonnes 2003 50,000 tonnes 1950 NPK – CONSUMPTION (FERTILIZERS) 350 million tonnes 2050 300 million tonnes 2025 182 million tonnes 2003 50 million tonnes 1951 GRAIN PRODUCTION
    • Vitamins Minerals FOOD Carbohydrate Fiber, Fertilizer, Furniture, Fuel PIPELINE FOR FERINERY Soil Raw Material STORE HOUSE OF PLANT NUTRIENTS Ground Water Plant Growth Sunshine Climate Soil Seed Management O H N C K S P Ni Cu M O Ca Mn Zn C 1 Mg Fe B
    • BLANC PHYTO-NUTRIENTS UNDER NOURISHED CHILDREN The Hindu: Survey of Indian Agriculture 2004
    • Nutritional requirement and availability per head/ day 180 220 Fruits 4. 210 300 Vegetables 3. 8.5 14.8 Fat 2. 30 55 Protein 1. Available (gms) Amount requirement (gms) Nutrition Sl. No.
    • DIVERSIFIED FOOD PRODUCTION FOR NUTRITIONAL SECURITY The Hindu: Survey of Indian Agriculture 2004
    • Sources of Functional Food 1 Source: Google
    • 2 Sources of Functional Food Source: Google
      • Stomach of plants
      • Base of agriculture
      • Community-not a commodity
      • Store House of plant nutrients
      LIFE INFINITE OF SOUL L I O S S O I L
    • SOIL GENESIS SOIL Biosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Atmosphere TIME
      • BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS
        • Ecotoxicology
        • Human Toxicology
      • CONTAMINATION FATE AND BEHAVIOUR
        • Abiotic
        • Biotic
      • EXPOSURE
      • ROUTES
        • Land use
        • Human and Ecological Receptors
      SOIL QUALITY CRITERIA ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS-BASED AND HUMAN HEALTH BASED SOIL QUALITY CRITERIA
    • AIR MINERAL WATER SOLAR ENERGY SOIL Physical environment of soil. The “Soil life” and “Biological life” are open system. The external solar energy is converted in to chemical energy and allows the work to be done. ENVIRONMENT
    • SOIL DEGRADATION
      • EROSION
        • 15 t ha -1 annual
        • 1 mm soil surface ha -1 = 15 tonnes
        • 1 tonnes contains (kg) =
      • NUTRIENT DEPLETION (-ve return of nutrients)
      • SECONDARY SALINIZATION
        • Irrigation
        • Fertilizers and manures
        • Inadequate drainage, high water table
      • SOIL AS DUST BIN – TOXIC SUBSTANCES – POLLUTION)
      • ERRATIC AGRONOMIC PRACTICES
        • Monoculture
        • Sub – soil hard pan formation
        • Unbalanced fertilizer use
        • Residues of insecticides (persistences)
      2 20 1 4.0 Ca K 2 O P 2 O 5 N
    • ANNUAL PLANT NUTRIENTS TRANSPORT 18 mt/ year - Addition of Nutrients 25 mt/ year - Removal of Nutrients Present -------------- - -------------- 45 mt/ year - Removal of Nutrients Projected 2025
    • 4 5 6 B N P K A LOW MEDIUM HIGH B A Rice-Wheat cropping area of Indo-Gangatic plain under study. Soils showing plant nutrient indices. Area under study
    • x MAJOR SOURCES OF REDUCTION IN FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY POOR SEEDBED PREPARATION 10-20% INAPPROPRIATE CROP VARIETY 20-40% DELAY IN SOWING 20-30% IMPROPER SEEDING 5-25% INADEQUATE PLANT POPULATION 10-25% INADEQUATE IRRIGATION 10-20% WEED INFESTATION 15-50% INSECT DAMAGE 5-50% IMBALANCE FERTILIZER USE 20-50% IMPROPER FERTILIZER PLACEMENT 5-10% SOME ESTIMATES OF POSSIBLE REDUCTION IN FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY DUE TO CONTROLLABLE FACTORS. SOURCE :- SEKHON N P K S
    • SOIL QUALITY (HEALTH) “ CAPACITY OF THE SOIL TO FUNCTION WITHIN ECOSYSTEM BOUNDARIES TO SUSTAIN BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTIVITY, MAINTAIN ENVIRONMENT QUALITY AND PROMOTE PLANT AND ANIMAL HEALTH” Doran and Parkin (1994) SOIL QUALITY INDICATORS
      • PHYSICAL
      • SOIL STRUCTURE
      • COMPACTION, B.D.,
      • POROSITY
      • WATER CAPACITY
      • SOIL DEPTH
      • SOIL STRENGTH-
      • PENETRATION RESISTANCE
      • CHEMICAL
      • pH, E.C., C.E.C.
      • TOTAL C & N
      • AVAILABLE NPK
      • MICRONUTRIENTS
      • BIOLOGICAL
      • MICROBIAL BIOMASS
      • SOIL ENZYMES
      • EARTHWORM POPULATION
      • MYCORRHIZA (VAM)
      • NEMATODES, ANTS
      • FUNGAL HYPHAE
    • INTEGRATED PLANT NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT CHEMICAL FERTILIZER Soil test, crop and variety, Crops sequence climate crop management etc. PLANT ANIMAL RESIDUES FYM, Compost, Vermicompost, Piggery & Poultry manure, Urban sludge, Organic industrial Wastes, meals, cakes etc. LEGUMES Green manure, grain legumes in rotation and inter-cropping BIOFERTILIZERS Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, PSB/M, BGA Azolla, VAM, (Vesicular Arbicular mycorhiza) S O I L COMPONENT OF IPNM
    • Soil Quality SOIL QUALITY AND STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABILITY
      • Soil Degradation
      • Soil erosion
      • Nutrient loss through erosion and depletion by cropping
      • Organic matter loss
      • Water logging
      • Desertification
      • Acidification
      • Compaction
      • Crusting
      • Salinization
      • Toxicant accumulation
      ISSUES
      • Alternative agriculture
      • Skilled management
      • Crop rotation
      • Soil and water conservation
      • Conservation tillage (energy management)
      • Integrated nutrient management
      • Integrated pest management
      • Integrated (crop, livestock systems) farming system.
      STRATEGY
      • Sustainable
      • agriculture
      • Productive
      • Energy conserving
      • Environmentally sound
      • Economically viable
      • Conserved natural resources
      • Improved health/ food quality/ safety system
      GOAL
    • WATER RESOURCES ON EARTH
    • WATER RESOURCES IN INDIA 17 m ha m in reservoirs :
      • Out of total run off
      40 m ha – ground water 110 m ha soil moisture : :
      • Out of total percolation
      70 m ha m/year :
      • Total evaporation
      180 m ha m/year :
      • Total run off
      150 m ha m/year :
      • Total percolation
      400 m ha m/year :
      • Annual precipitation
    • MEASURES TO RESHAPE THE LOCAL WATER BALANCE
      • Treatment of industrial wastes before discharging in water bodies
      • Construction of water reservoirs
      • Pollution control of rivers and lakes
      • Preservation, a forestation of productive forests
      • Development of large scale ground water reservoirs
      • Improvement in catchment areas of rivers and lakes
      • Soil conservation and improvement
      • Judicious use of irrigation water
      • WATER PROBLEMS
      • LACK OF WASTE WATER RECYLING
      • 70 TO 80% LOSS DUE OT SURFACE RUN OFF
      • ERRATIC USE OF IRRIGATION WATER
      • (40% LOSS BETWEEN SOURCE AND SITE)
      • MINIMAL USE OF SPRINKLISS, DRIP IRRIGATION, PITICHER IRRIGAION ETC.
      • POLLUTION OF WATER BODIES:-EUTRIFICATION OF PONDS, LAKES ETC.
      • SAVE WATER
      • RECYCLING OF TREATED WASTE WATER
      • POURING WASTE WATER IN WATER BODIES BE AVOIDED
      • WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES
      • WATER HARWESTING ON FARM AND VILLAGE
      • IN-SITU WATER CONSERVATION
      • CHECK DAMS AND DROP STRUCTURES ON NALAHS
      • GROWING DRYLAND CROPS & PLANTATION
      • SPRINKLERS USE AND DRIP IRRIGATION
      • CONTOUR, TERACES, INDIVIDUAL FIELD DUNDING
      • WATER MANAGEMENT EDUCATION AT FARMERS LEVEL
    •  
    •  
      • Plant cells
      • Plants and
      • Genes
      CONSERVATION OF 700 :
      • Actually commercialized Plants
      7000 :
      • Plant used for food (present)
      75000 :
      • World wide total edible plants
      BIODIVERSITY
    • CONSUMPTION OF ENERGY IN AGRICULTURE 0.08 GJ/ t 0.55 GJ/ t Animate energy 26.3 % 9.2 % Electricity 10.42 % 5.39 % Petroleum products 9.2 % 1.4 % Commercial energy 1993 1970 SOURCE
    • ANNUAL POTENTIAL OF RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES 10% OF TOTAL ENERGY POWER TO BE GENERATION BY 2007 30000 MW :
      • Solar Energy
      9000 MW :
      • Tidal Power
      50000 MW :
      • Thermal Energy
      17000 MW :
      • Biomass/ bio-energy
      10000 MW :
      • Micro-hydel power
      20000 MW :
      • Wind power
      • ANIMATE ENERGY IN AGRICULTURE
      • (Human & Draughts Animals)
      • 1. To increase efficiency of human energy.
      • High capacity equipments
      • Modification of equipments
      • 2. To Increase efficiency of animal energy.
      • Draughts breed improvement
      • Improved yokes.
      • Use animals for grinding oil extraction, chaff cutting, cane crushing, water lifting, milch animals for draughts use.
      • ENERGY MANAGEMENT
      • (Suggestions)
      • Efficient Human & Animate energy (Improvement in tools, machines, equipments).
      • Increase use of: - Solar, Biomass, Wind, Hydro, Geo-thermal energies.
      • Increase farm energy to 2 KW/ ha.
      • Custom service in tractors, power tillers, thrashers, etc.
      • Reduce chemical fertilizer consumption, IPNM/ organic farming.
      • Energy plantation.
      • Encourage biogas, efficient cookers and Stoves, solar cookers, solar water heaters and solar seed driers.
      • Mixed energy sources for rural area.
      • More research and development.
      • Growing low energy input crops:- pulses, oil seeds millets.
      • Production of biodiesel
    • Source: Google Jatropha
    • Jatropha - Production/ ha = 3-4 tonnes Oil (%) = 35.0 Maturity time = 4 years Yield per plant = 4-5 kg Byproduct Glycerin = 100 kg/ tonne oil Cakes = 3 kg/ kg oil The cost of glycerol and cakes meet the processing costs. Oil is treated with methanol + NaOH = to get biodiesel Biodiesel from Jatropha
    • DEVELOPMENT OF ENERGY SOURCES
      • Solar energy (5 x 10 26 K Cal./ year on earth
      • 5 x 10 26 K Cal./ year required)
      • Wind energy (coastal, hills, deserts): Electric & water pumping
      • Total potential 20,000 MW: A. P., Karnataka, T. N., Kerala, Gujurat, Maharastra
      • Low energy consuming crops
      WHEN YOU WANT POWER TAP THE SUN
    • WHEN YOU WANT POWER TAP THE SUN
    •  
    • MEETING CHALLENGES AHEAD
      • Gene Revolution:- GMO’s
        • Transgenic revolution
      • Eco-technology Revolution:- Blending of
        • Traditional + frontier technologies
        • IPR extension
      • Yield revolution
        • Seed improvement
        • 1 tonne grain 1000 tonnes water
        • More fertilizer manures
      • IM of Natural Resources
        • IPNM
        • IPM
        • Improvement in post harvest technology
        • Integrated gene management
        • Information technology
        • Extension system
      • LAND OWNERSHIP
      • DIVISION OF AGRICULTURE LAND
      • YOUTH MIGRATION TO URBAN AREA
      • POVERTY (INPUT SCARCITY)
      • LACK OF AGRICULTURAL LITERACY
      • (improve Agricultural Technique)
      • POPULATION
      • RURAL WOMAN PARTICIPATION
      • NON FARM USE OF SOIL
      SOCIAL CONSTRAINTS
      • THREATS
      • Unabated land degradation.
      • Depletion of soil organic matter.
      • Global warming, shrinking water bodies and groundwater.
      • Increasing number of human and livestock heads per unit of land.
      • Uncontrolled grazing depleting grazing resources.
      • Lack of adequate efforts for ground water recharge, recycling and water disposal.
      • Monocropping leading to problems of soil fertility, pests and depleting biodiversity.
      • Spurious inputs and over or under doing of pest management practices.
      • Political divide in local communities impeding development of villages and hinterlands.
      • Limitation in policies with long term perspective.
      • Increased fragmentation of lands and absentee landlordism.
      • Decreasing crops and livestock biodiversity.
      • Excess grazing and degradation of land.
      • Rapid industrialization, poor waste/ effluent disposal and recycling facilities.
      • OPPORTUNITIES
      • Availability of substantial research information.
      • Growth of ‘green consumerism’.
      • Changing socioeconomic conditions in rural areas.
      • Vast treasure of indigenous technical knowledge in the field of agriculture.
      • National and international information sharing.
      • Thrust on recycling and use of low external inputs.
      • Frontier technologies, GIS, Remote sensing.
      • Advanced information technology.
      • Large network of NGO’s (as partners for technology development and dissemination).
      • Awareness for technology development and dissemination.
    • Cereals, Pulses, Oil Seeds, Sugarcane, Cotton etc. Forestry, Agro- forestry, Silvipasture, Sericulture Fruits, Flowers, Vegetables, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Animal Husbandry, Dairy, Poultry, Piggery, Bee Keeping, Fisheries etc. Oil INTEGRATED INTENSIVE FARMING SYSTEM ON THE PILLARS OF INTEGRATED INTENSIVE FARMING SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
      • . RURAL EMPLOYMENT
      • . ECONOMICALY PROFITABLE
      • 6. MARKETING INFRASTRUCTURE
      • . LOW ENERGY INPUT(ORGANIC FARMING, ANIMAL ENERGY, RENEWABLE ENERGY)
      • . SOIL HEALTH
      • . POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY (VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS)
      • 5. ECOFREINDLY
      • 7. COOPERATIVE PROJECT APPROCACH
      • 9. SCIENTIFIC-SYSTEM
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    • THANK YOU Slides Prepared by: Ankit Kumar, ChE, IT, BHU