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Bioremediation

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Environmental Biotechnology

Environmental Biotechnology

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  • 1. Environmental Biotechnology Anjala Durgapal Lecturer Department of Botany M. B. Govt. P. G. College, Haldwani (Nainital) Uttrakhand
  • 2. Introduction Biotechnology is “ the integration of natural sciences and engineering in order to achieve the application of organisms, cells parts thereof and molecular analogues for products and services ” (EFB, 1989). Environmental Biotechnology is the application of these processes for the protection and restoration of the quality of our environment.
  • 3.
    • Bioremediation is the use of biological systems for the reduction of pollution from air, aquatic or terrestrial systems.
    • The process involves aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms that results in degraded products.
    • Bioremediation is used to reduce or remove hazardous waste which has already polluted the environment.
    Pollution (Air water or soil) Microorganisms Degraded product Eco-friendly (detoxification) Hazardous Bioremediation Tri or tera- chloro-ethylene Complete Incomplete Vinyl-chloride
  • 4. Applications of Bioremediation
    • Waste water and Industrial effluents
    • Drinking and process water
    • Soil and land treatment
    • Solid waste
  • 5. Waste water and Industrial Effluents
    • Removal of common pollutants from water before discharged into river or sea.
    • Elimination of phosphorus nitrogen, heavy metals and chlorinated compounds.
    • Sulfur reducing bacteria can be used to remove wastes containing sulfur.
    Bed containing waste material and microbes in suspension Bioreactor
  • 6. Drinking and Process water
    • Biotechnology for the reclamation and purification of waste water for re-use
    • Agricultural regions of the world, animal wastes and excess fertilizers result in high level of nitrates in drinking water.
    • Biotechnology has provided successful methods by which these compounds can be removed from processed water before it is delivered to customers .
  • 7. Air and Gases Bio-scrubber (Cell suspension) Bio-trickling filter (Microorganisms immobilized on an inert matrix) Pollutants Nitrogen SO 2 Flue gas (blast furnace) Styrene (waste gas of polystyrene (Bio-filter: Fungi) Purified gases
  • 8. Soil and land treatment In-situ: Bio-augmentation [ Introduction of micro-organisms ] Bio-stimulation [ Ventilation and /or adding nutrient solutions ] Ex-situ: Removal of soil and ground water and treating it above the ground Phyto-remediation employs use of plants and bacteria Metals from contaminated soils and ground water. For e.g.. Rhizobacteria Bio-remediation of land [bio-restoration] is cheaper than physical methods with harmless end products.
  • 9. Solid waste
    • Composed of readily biodegradable organics
    • Bio-wastes can be converted to a valuable resource by composting or anaerobic digestion
    • Anerobic digesters permit the recovery of substantial amounts of high value bio-gas together with a high quality stable organic residue
    • The organic residue can be used as manure.
    • Recycling of solid waste can save enormous cost of incineration
  • 10. Prevention Involves development of processes with reduced environmental impacts Biotechnological ways of prevention are- Process improvement: Use of enzymes Product innovation: Development of new products that have less impact on environment their predecessors for e.g. genetically improved plant varieties that resistant against insects/ diseases, thereby reducing the use of pesticides.
  • 11. Detection and Monitoring
    • Established measures include:
    • Counting the number of plants, animals and microbial species.
    • Biological detection methods
    • Biosensors and immunoassays
    • Detection and monitoring of microorganisms used for bioremediation.
    • Detection and monitoring of ecological effects
    Employs a range of biological methods to detect incidents of pollution and continuous monitoring of pollutants.
  • 12. Genetic Engineering
    • Involves the use of microorganisms genetically modified by recombinant DNA technology.
    • GE is a powerful tool in creating environment friendly alternatives for products and processes
    • For e.g. :
    • Production of enzymes
    • Amylose free potato
    • Indigo producing bacterium
  • 13. Conclusion
    • Concerns for new technologies released into the environment do exist.
    • New techniques under consideration make use of genetically engineered microorganisms designed to deal with specific tasks.
    • There is a tremendous potential for biotechnology to contribute in the remediation and protection of the environment.