India ranks sixth in terms of energy demands (3.5% of world’s commercial energy)
Demand for energy: growing by 4.8 %
Diesel consumption: 40 % of energy
Demand for diesel: 40 million tons
Road transport : 75 %
Biodiesel in India National Scenario
“ Bio-Diesel” refers to the neat ethyl or methyl esters of vegetable oils Biodiesel is a domestically produced renewable liquid fuel that can be manufactured from the oils and fats of plants. It contains no petroleum and can be blended at any level
Motivation for Research Since the introduction of diesel engine, Rudolph Diesel (1895) intended to burn modified vegetable oil for development of agriculture . It is only now that we are developing biodiesel for this purpose.
Biodiesel for Energy Vegetable Oil Degummification Esterification Removal of water Separation of Glycerine Filter Washings BIO OIL BIO DIESEL
Concern for biodiesel ?
The world over there is a quest for looking for fossil fuel alternatives:
Reducing fossil fuel reserves
Environmental Motivations No Sulphur or aromatic compounds Safer to breathe Reduced emissions in 3 of the 4 regulated categories: total unburned HC, CO, SPM Promotes more vegetation (C fix) Non toxic and biodegradable
Economical Motivations Provides investment in innovations Reduces subsidies New job creation: production, manufacturing, processing, construction, distribution, marketing Import substitution Protects over-dependence on limited sources of fuels
Industrial Motivations Increased use will decrease deficit by reducing imports Scope for cleaner technologies Operators use clean fuel with less health problems Links agriculture to energy Storage and transport need little or no modification
Government Motivations Energy independence gives strength to countries Biodiesel meets international standards for clean S free diesel Fuel standards for use of renewable energy Incentives for alternate and clean fuel
Scientific Motivations Challenge to develop biodiesel at competitive price Develop alternative protocols and tools Develop clean catalysts Reduce cost of lipase technology Achieve environment standards
Biodiesel reduces carbon dioxide exhaust emissions by up to 80%.
Biodiesel produces 100% less SOx than petroleum.
Biodiesel reduces exhaust smoke (particulates) emissions by up to 75% so the usual black cloud associated with a diesel engine can be eliminated.
The smell of the biodiesel exhaust is far more pleasant .
Biodiesel is much easier to handle and does not cause cracking or redness.
Biodiesel is much less dangerous to put in vehicle fuel tank as its flash point is ± 150°C (300°F) as opposed to petroleum diesel ± 70°C (150°F).
Biodiesel degrades about 4 times faster than petroleum diesel after spillage, with most of a spill broken down after just 28 days.
Biodiesel provides significant lubricity improvement over petroleum diesel fuel so engines last longer, with the right additives engine performance can also be enhanced
Various countries have set their targets:
USA to use B20 to B100
India to start with B5
Brazil to go for B2 to B3
Philippines look for B10
National Mission on Biodiesel has been launched by GOI
State Governments designated special authorities/bodies to manage
Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas notified biodiesel purchase policy
Government Institutes are working on technology and promotion
Public and private sectors are working on processing and end use
Proposed Biodiesel Program in India
2005-2007: Demonstration phase
2007-2010: Expansion – Self sustaining
2011-2012: Meeting requirement
Biodiesel feedstock Palm oil Rs. 23 Soybean oil Coconut oil Castor oil Rs. 37 Rs. 73/76 Rs. 41/47 Cotton seed Rs. 32 Rubber oil Rs. 25 Peanut oil Rs. 32 Sunflower oil Rs. 57 Rice bran oil Rs. 19/22/25 Neem oil Rs. 26 Karanj oil Rs. 37 Malaysia Philippines USA Brazil EU India
Fatty acid composition Pongamia pinnata Biodiesel in India
Fatty acid composition Madhuca indica Biodiesel in India
Diploknema butyracea Fatty acid composition Biodiesel in India
Salvadora oleoides Fatty acid composition Biodiesel in India
Salvadora species Biodiesel in India
Jatropha curcas Biodiesel in India
It is an exotic plant for India and is species native to Mexico and Central America. In India, it is believed to have been introduced by Portugues navigators in the 16 th century.
Common Names: Ratanjyot, Purging net, physic nut.
Botanical Name : Jatropha curcas
Family : Euphorbiaceae
Availability : Throughout India (mostly in dry/tropical areas)
Features : Small tree or shrub, (3-5 m in height), smooth greasy bark which exudes whitish colored, watery latex when cut and large green to pale green leaves
(deciduous), alternative but apically crowded
Gestation period : Less than one year (minimum amongst all the tree borne oilseeds)
Productive life : 30-35 years.
Why Jatropha ?
India cannot afford edible vegetable oils
We don’t have waste vegetable oil
Jatropha can grow in wastelands
This is not grazed or browsed
It is a shrub and yields fruits in three to four years
- High yield of oil % -Least risks of failure -Least cultivation inputs -High acceptability of farmers -Suitability of oil for diesel-Wide adaptability to stress -Fast growing & short rotation -Availability of seed material -Least disease occurrence Selection of biofuel tree Jatropha curcas
The land to grow ?
Country has nearly 63 million ha of wasteland.
Nearly 33 million ha committed for tree plantation
Statewise Jatropha collections under DBT Micro-mission project Over 1000 accessions collected, approx. 700 characterized
Statewise Jatropha accessions characterized under DBT Micro-mission project
Seed size variation Seed size: Small = 40.07 g per 100 seeds Large = 78.88 g per 100 seeds Average = 64.29 g per 100 seeds Seeds kg -1 : 1341 to 1806, (1564.34 113.9),
VARIATION IN OIL CONTENT IN SELECTED ACCESSIONS OF J. CURCAS
Technologies for mass production of Jatropha curcas
Protocols for macro-propagation (from cuttings) and micropropagation (tissue culture)
CLONAL PROPAGATION OF JATROPHA
Criteria for selection of elite germplasm:
Mother plant with annual yield of 3-4 kg fruits/plant.
Plants with 35% or more seed oil content.
Healthy and disease free plant.
Propagation by cuttings in Polybags/Root trainers/Open beds
Six to ten inch long cuttings of selected plants are planted in sterile medium ( vermiculite or sand).
Cuttings are raised in high-tech nurseries with controlled environmental conditions of temperature and humidity to initiate callus formation.
After development of sufficient roots the cuttings are transplanted in net houses in sand beds for hardening.
Finally the rooted mature cuttings are transferred in polybags with soil and sand mixture in the ratio of 2:1.
DEMONSTRATION PLANTATION OF JATROPHA CURCAS To create public awareness and unused and marginal land utilization demonstration plantation of J. curcas were carried out on total 290 hectares in collaboration with U.P. Government, Railways (NR & NER), Industries (Birla, Tata NTPC), CSIR labs (HRDC, Gaziabad, ITRC), MNRE (SEC, Gwalpahari, Gurgaon).
DEMONSTRATION PLANTATION OF JATROPHA CURCAS
Total area under plantation - 290 hectare
Fly ash mixed soil
Flyash (100%) Fly ash mixed soil Sodic land
Plantation at difficult sites Highly sodic – pH>10
Fruiting after 2 years of plantation at Gazaria farm
Bielenberg’s Press KEK Press Komet Press
Diesel has a chain of 11-13 C
New vegetable oil has a chain of 18 C
Waste veg oil has chains of 32 C
To burn in an engine, the chain needs to be broken down to be similar in length to diesel
BASIC REACTION Diesel has a chain of 11-13 C Vegetable oil has a chain of 18 C CH 2 COOR’ | CHCOOR” | CH 2 COOR”’ 3 ROH Catalyst CH 2 OH | CHOH | CH 2 OH R'COOR + R''COOR + R'''COOR 60 Kg Oil 6.78 Kg Alcohol 0.60Kg NaOH 6.5 Kg Glycerin 58 Kg Biodiesel
Alternatives: Petro agro sector Cakes constitute nearly 70 % of the feed stock. Application as bio fertilizers or for energy usage such as substitute of coal or as a feed for gasifiers Biodiesel in India
Jatropha biofertilizer 3.6 0.8 1.7 0.77 0.75 Biodiesel in India
Tailpipe emission pollutants after replacing conventional diesel with biodiesel
BIODIESEL-Why Lower Emissions ?
In built Oxygen content
Has no Sulphur
Complete CO2 cycle
Life-cycle tree for biodiesel production
Exploration Refining Use in Cars and Trucks Fossil CO 2 Release to Atmosphere PETRO-DIESEL CO 2 CYCLE 13 pounds of fossil CO 2 released per gallon burned
BIODIESEL CO 2 CYCLE No fossil CO 2 Released ; No global warming Biodiesel Production Use in Cars and Trucks Oil Crops Renewable CO 2
BIODIESEL FROM JATROPHA
10 MILLION HECATRES OF WASTE LAND IS BROUGHT UNDER JATROPHA CULTIVATION
Can yield 15 million tons of seed (@1.5 Tons / Hectare )
4.0 million tons of oil
An equivalent amount of biodiesel, almost one tenth requirement of diesel in the country
Enormous employment generation potential in rural areas
If only 1 person/family is employed per 5 hectares for jatropha cultivation, additional 2 million new jobs
200 new extraction units of 250 tpd capacity to crush the seeds
11 Million tons of excellent organic manure
0.4 million tons of technical grade glycerol
R&D for feedstocks
Sensitizing financial institutions
Farmer oriented programs,
R&D for selections,
Cost effective diesel production Sufficient production The Road ahead
Farmers meet on Biodiesel at Rashtrapati Bhawan
Jatropha curcas plantations at Rashtrapati Bhawan (2004)
Jatropha curcas plantations at Rashtrapati Bhawan March 2007