India ranks sixth in terms of energy demands (3.5% of world’s commercial energy)
Demand for energy: growing by 4.8 %
Diesel consumption: 40 % of energy
Demand for diesel: 40 million tons
Road transport : 75 %
Biodiesel in India National Scenario
“ Bio-Diesel” refers to the neat ethyl or methyl esters of vegetable oils Biodiesel is a domestically produced renewable liquid fuel that can be manufactured from the oils and fats of plants. It contains no petroleum and can be blended at any level
Motivation for Research Since the introduction of diesel engine, Rudolph Diesel (1895) intended to burn modified vegetable oil for development of agriculture . It is only now that we are developing biodiesel for this purpose.
Biodiesel for Energy Vegetable Oil Degummification Esterification Removal of water Separation of Glycerine Filter Washings BIO OIL BIO DIESEL
The world over there is a quest for looking for fossil fuel alternatives:
Reducing fossil fuel reserves
Environmental Motivations No Sulphur or aromatic compounds Safer to breathe Reduced emissions in 3 of the 4 regulated categories: total unburned HC, CO, SPM Promotes more vegetation (C fix) Non toxic and biodegradable
Economical Motivations Provides investment in innovations Reduces subsidies New job creation: production, manufacturing, processing, construction, distribution, marketing Import substitution Protects over-dependence on limited sources of fuels
Industrial Motivations Increased use will decrease deficit by reducing imports Scope for cleaner technologies Operators use clean fuel with less health problems Links agriculture to energy Storage and transport need little or no modification
Government Motivations Energy independence gives strength to countries Biodiesel meets international standards for clean S free diesel Fuel standards for use of renewable energy Incentives for alternate and clean fuel
Scientific Motivations Challenge to develop biodiesel at competitive price Develop alternative protocols and tools Develop clean catalysts Reduce cost of lipase technology Achieve environment standards
It is a shrub and yields fruits in three to four years
- High yield of oil % -Least risks of failure -Least cultivation inputs -High acceptability of farmers -Suitability of oil for diesel-Wide adaptability to stress -Fast growing & short rotation -Availability of seed material -Least disease occurrence Selection of biofuel tree Jatropha curcas
Mother plant with annual yield of 3-4 kg fruits/plant.
Plants with 35% or more seed oil content.
Healthy and disease free plant.
Propagation by cuttings in Polybags/Root trainers/Open beds
Six to ten inch long cuttings of selected plants are planted in sterile medium ( vermiculite or sand).
Cuttings are raised in high-tech nurseries with controlled environmental conditions of temperature and humidity to initiate callus formation.
After development of sufficient roots the cuttings are transplanted in net houses in sand beds for hardening.
Finally the rooted mature cuttings are transferred in polybags with soil and sand mixture in the ratio of 2:1.
DEMONSTRATION PLANTATION OF JATROPHA CURCAS To create public awareness and unused and marginal land utilization demonstration plantation of J. curcas were carried out on total 290 hectares in collaboration with U.P. Government, Railways (NR & NER), Industries (Birla, Tata NTPC), CSIR labs (HRDC, Gaziabad, ITRC), MNRE (SEC, Gwalpahari, Gurgaon).
To burn in an engine, the chain needs to be broken down to be similar in length to diesel
BASIC REACTION Diesel has a chain of 11-13 C Vegetable oil has a chain of 18 C CH 2 COOR’ | CHCOOR” | CH 2 COOR”’ 3 ROH Catalyst CH 2 OH | CHOH | CH 2 OH R'COOR + R''COOR + R'''COOR 60 Kg Oil 6.78 Kg Alcohol 0.60Kg NaOH 6.5 Kg Glycerin 58 Kg Biodiesel
Alternatives: Petro agro sector Cakes constitute nearly 70 % of the feed stock. Application as bio fertilizers or for energy usage such as substitute of coal or as a feed for gasifiers Biodiesel in India
Jatropha biofertilizer 3.6 0.8 1.7 0.77 0.75 Biodiesel in India