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Air Pollution Evs

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Air Pollution Evs

Air Pollution Evs

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  • 1. AIR POLLUTION: PROBLEMS, CONSEQUENCES AND MANAGEMENT Dr. Madhoolika Agrawal Professor Department of Botany Banaras Hindu University Varanasi-221 005, India
  • 2. Air Pollution is very broad term, which actually covers lots of different types of Problems
    • Acid rain
    • Domestic / Industrial smoke
    • Smog
    • The green house effect
    • Particulates
    • Radionuclides
    • Ozone layer depletion
  • 3. Air pollutants and their origin Fossil fuel combustion; waste incineration and assorted industries; metal smelting and refining processes Metals Petroleum refineries; glass industries; plastic incineration; scarp burning; accidental spills Chlorine Leaks and brakdown in industrial operations; feedlots and stockyards; spillage of anhydrous ammonia Ammonia Motor vehicles; refuse burning; combustion of coal and oil; natural occurrence Hydrocarbon Aluminium industry; steel manufacturing; phosphate fertilizer plants; brick plants Hydrogen fluoride Cars and trucks; combustion of natural gas, fuel, oil, coal; refining of petroleum Oxides of nitrogen Fossil fuels; petroleum and natural gas industries; metal smelting and refining processes Sulphur dioxide Atmospheric photochemical reactions; storm centers Ozone Source Air Pollutants
  • 4. CAUSAL FACTORS
    • Increase in urban population (1991- 2001)
            • Urban agglomerates 23 to 53 cities
            • Urban population 218 to 285 m
            • % share 25.7 to 27.8
    • Increase in vehicles
            • Total vehicles 59 m
            • Personal vehicles 83 %
    • Domestic and commercial sources
            • Use of polluting fuels (coal, biomass, etc.)
            • Use of diesel generator sets due to frequent power cuts
    • Increase in industrial activities
            • Small scale industries poorly equipped to handle pollution
            • Many small scale industries located in densely populated areas
  • 5. URBAN AIR POLLUTION IMPACTS AND THE ROLE OF TRANSPORT
    • Predominance of 2 stroke in use vehicles (70 % total)
    • Poor inspection/ maintenance for in use vehicles
    • Important contributors to air pollution
          • Fine and ultra fine particles in vehicle exhaust – Main concern
          • Ozone precursors (HC and NOx) in vehicle exhaust – Emerging problem
    • Future challenge
          • Rising motorization will increase pollution
  • 6. Number of house hold (million) BIOMASS BASED FUELS KEEP RURAL INDIA ALIVE
  • 7. Tropospheric Ozone
    • Ozone from NO x
    • NO x + radiations (>380 nm) NO + O
    • O + O 2 O 3
    • Ozone from carbon monoxide
    • CO + 2O 2 + hv CO 2 + O 3
    • Ozone from methane
    • CH 4 + 4O 2 + 2 hv HCHO + H 2 O + 2O 3
    • HCHO + hv H + HCO ( λ < 330nm)
    • HCO + hv H + CO ( λ < 360nm)
    • CO + 2O 2 + hv CO 2 + O 3
    • Ozone from non methane hydrocarbons
    • RH + 4O 2 + 2 hv RCHO + H 2 O + 2O 3
  • 8. MASS EMISSIONS (Million Tons) FROM ENERGY ACTIVITIES IN INDIA
  • 9. Background, typical ambient and peak concentrations of gaseous air pollutants > 10 1 - 10 < 1 PAHs 50 – 100 1 – 20 < 1 HC > 100 25 – 60 < 2.5 O 3 > 100 5 – 50 < 1 NOx 10 - 100 1 – 10 < 0.1 SO 2 Peak (ppb) Typical ambient (ppb) Background (ppb) Pollutants
  • 10. TRENDS IN AIR POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS (µg m -3 ) IN INDIA
  • 11. AIR POLLUTANTS O 3 SO 2 OXIDANT NO 2 LEAST IMPORTANT AG. CHEMICALS TOXIC ELEMENTS MOST IMPORTANT Impact singly and in combinations BIOTIC FACTORS PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS [Acute & Chronic exposures] LEAVES STEM PLANT ROOTS Inter Relation Pathogens Insects Insects Pathogens Mycorrhiza Nematodes N 2 fixation Competition INTERACTION OF ABOVE INTERACTION OF ABOVE Temperature Moisture Nutrition O 2 /CO 2 tension Soil Type Climatic Factors Light Temperature Humidity Wind CO 2 AIR SOIL
  • 12. AIR POLLUTANTS DIRECT DAMAGE ON LEAVES DEATH Damage to crop crown Early leaf fall Growth disturbance Reduced photosynthesis Increased susceptibility to frost and pests Water deficit Nutrient deficiency Disturbance in nutrient & water uptake DISTURBANCE OF NUTRIENT RELEASE EFFECT ON SOIL ORGANISM SOIL ACIDIFICATION LEACHING OF NUTRIENTS AIR POLLUTANTS AND ITS CONSEQUENCES DAMAGE TO FINE ROOTS RELEASE OF TOXIC ELEMENTS INCREASED OR DECREASED TRANSPIRATION DISTURBANCE OF STOMATAL ACTIVITY DAMAGE TO PROTECTIVE SURFACE
  • 13. MEASURE OF EFFECTS HOW THEY INTERRELATE? BIOMASS GROWTH Height Weight Area Number Volume INJURY SYMPTOMS PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE ACCUMULATION OF TOXIC COMPOUNDS CHANGES IN METABOLIC CONSTITUENTS GERMINATION YIELD Fruit set Weight Number Quality EXUDATES Stem Leaf Root AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON PLANTS INTERRELATIONSHIP
  • 14. INDIRECT APPROACH INDIRECT APPROACH DEFINE OBJECTIVE GROWTH MODEL APPROACH POLLUTION LOSS ESTIMATE CHEMICAL PROTECTANTS AMBIENT EXPOSURE AIR EXCLUSION EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN EXPOSURE FACILITY ARTIFICIAL EXPOSURE SIMULATED AMBIENT EXPOSURES CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT CHAMBER OPEN TOP CHAMBER DIRECT APPROACH RESEARCH APPROACHES TO POLLUTION LOSS ASSESSMENT
  • 15. YIELD REDUCTIONS(%) IN DIFFERENT CROP PLANTS GROWING IN OBRA- RENUKOOT -SINGRAULI AREA S: Sensitive (<30); I: Intermediate (15-30); R: Resistant (<15)
  • 16. EFFECT OF THERMAL POWER PLANT EMISSION ON BIOMASS AND YIELD OF WHEAT ( T. aestivum L.) PLANTS Values in parenthesis are reduction as compared to reference site
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21. Effect of ambient sulfur dioxide on yield of representative vegetables 100 103.5 93.3 101.4 92.8 94.7 Spinach 100 102.0 104.6 104.8 94.4 90.2 Tomato 100 98.3 90.4 83.1 68.0 44.4 Potato (tubers) Yield as percentage of control Vegetable 0 (Control) 22 26 34 44 59 Average concentrations (ppb) during exposure time 0 (Control) 10 20 51 83 141 Average concentrations (ppb) during monitoring time Sulfur dioxide 6 5 4 3 2 1 Site
  • 22. MAP OF VARANASI
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26. O 3 Concentration In Varanasi Exceeding 40, 50 And 60 Ppb During The Month Of December 2002 - April 2003 Hours exceeding Date of observation
  • 27. PRODUCTION, ECONOMIC VALUE AND % LOSS IN ECONOMIC VALUE OF YIELD AT DIFFERENT SITES AROUND VARANASI CITY
  • 28. CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS AND REGRESSION EQUATIONS BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL POLLUTANTS AND YIELD OF MUNG PLANTS Yield (g plant -1 ) Mean pollutant concentration (ppb)
  • 29. Single view of open top chamber 1.5 m 1.8 m Experimental set of open top chambers
  • 30. Pollutant Concentrations and Changes in Selected Parameters of Palak Grown under Filtered and Non-filtered Conditions Within each grouping, values not followed by the same letter are significant different at p < 0.05 Values in parenthesis represent percent increment due to filtration
  • 31. Mean concentrations (ppb) of different pollutants at the experimental site during winter
  • 32. Diurnal variations in hourly O 3 concentrations during March 1, 2007
  • 33. Selected yield parameters of wheat cultivars grown in filtered and non-filtered chambers at a rural site   HUW -234 PBW- 343   FCs NFCs FCs NFCs No. of ears (plant -1 ) 14.5± 0.42 11.66± 0.66 16.9± 0.525 12.8± 0.48 Wt of ears ( g plant -1 ) 29.66± 0.88 23.16± 1.01 34.8± 0.72 25.6± 0.37 No. of grains (plant -1 ) 568± 14.26 485.8± 18.89 674.5± 4.23 568.2± 4.02 Wt of grains (g plant -1 ) 27.16± 1.02 21.55± 0.85 31.81± 0.27 27.65± 0.22 Yield (g m -2 ) 977.88± 36.76 775.8± 30.92 (21%) 1145.16± 10.04 995.4± 8.07 (13%) HI (g g -1 ) 0.39± 0.01 0.36± 0.01 0.41± 0.006 0.38± 0.002
  • 34. Seed weight (yield), test weight, pod weight and harvest index of mustard plants grown in FCs, NFCs and OPs at different levels of NPK
  • 35. MANAGEMENT OF AIR QUALITY THROUGH VEGETATION
    • Restrict the spread of pollutants
    • Reduce the concentration of pollutants
    • Provide shelter belt for wild life
    • Provide shade
    • Improvement of microlevel hydrologic nature
    • Check contamination of soil and water
    • Recharge the environment with O 2
    • Reduce hazards of noise
    • Provide green therapy
    • Plants the ‘living filters’ for air pollutants
  • 36. ADDITIONAL BENEFITS OF VEGETATION FOR AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT
    • Decrease in GHG emissions as transport sector accounts for the largest increases in emissions in developing countries
    • Strong climate benefits due to air quality improvements
  • 37.  
  • 38. Seasonal variations in deposition of nitrate and sulphate ions (mg m -2 d -1 ) in clearfall and throughfall samples in the down wind of thermal power plants
  • 39. Annual return of N (kg ha -1 yr -1 ) through total litterfall in Sal forests in the down wind of thermal power plants
  • 40. Sulphate sulphur, organic sulphur and total sulphur concentrations (mg g -1 dry wt) in herbaceous vegetation in the down wind of thermal power plants 1.4 1.2 0.4 0.7 1.0 0.7 0.4 0.5 July October 10 1.9 1.7 0.7 1.2 October 5 2.5 2.1 0.8 1.7 October 3 2.1 2.9 0.75 2.6 1.2 0.8 0.9 2.1 July October 1.5 Total S Sulphate S / Organic S Organic S Sulphate-S Month Distance from TPP (km)
  • 41. Characteristics of plant species for efficient mitigation of air pollutants
    • Evergreen
    • Large leaved
    • Rough bark
    • Indigenous
    • Ecologically compatible
    • Low water requirement
    • Minimum care
    • High absorption of pollutants
    • Resistant to pollutants
  • 42. AIR POLLUTION TOLERENCE INDEX (APTI) APTI = A(T+P)+R 10 T = Total chlorophyll (mg g -1 dry weight) A = Ascorbic acid content (mg g -1 fresh weight) P = Leaf extract pH R = Relative water content (%)
  • 43. Plant species (deciduous) arranged in the decreasing order of their air pollution tolerance index (APTI) 5 40 1.00 6.7 6.00 Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. 6 54 .35 7.3 4.50 Tectona grandis L. 7 45 2.00 6.4 6.27 Delonix regia Rafin. 9 74 1.92 6.0 3.28 Aegel marmelos Correa. 9 64 2.74 5.8 5.21 Madhuca indica J.F. Gmet. 12 60 6.42 5.4 3.45 Morus alba L. 12 87 2.50 6.2 6.60 Moringa oleifera Lam. 13 85 3.40 5.2 8.34 Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. 14 85 6.00 4.0 4.89 Tamarindus indica L. 14 75 4.27 6.0 10.00 Phyllanthus emblica L. 18 73 7.78 6.3 7.13 Psidium guajava L. 20 87 4.78 8.0 14.86 Ficus religiosa L. 22 77 10.21 6.3 7.50 Azadirachta indica A. Juss. 25 80 10.50 6.0 10.26 Zizyphus jujuba Lamk. 28 72 16.00 6.2 6.89 Cassia fistula L. 32 53 18.00 6.3 8.00 Albizzia lebbek Benth. APTI R A P T Plant species
  • 44. Plant species (evergreen) arranged in the decreasing order of their air pollution tolerance index (APTI) 5 58 2.59 5.4 0.75 Casuarina equisetifolia L. 9 48 3.56 6.3 6.60 Artocarpus heterophylla Lam. 10 72 2.91 4.6 6.07 Eugenia jambolana Lamk. 10 79 2.49 6.3 4.00 Alstonia scholaris R. Br. 10 71 3.75 5.6 4.00 Annona squamosa L. 12 87 3.78 5.4 4.28 Mangifera indica L. 15 79 5.98 6.5 4.54 Acacia arabica Willd. 12 80 4.49 5.0 4.25 Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.ra 19 86 5.80 5.8 12.50 Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. 16 81 5.00 7.0 8.60 Ficus infactoria Roxb. 16 75 7.98 6.1 4.86 Terminalia arjuna Bedd. 18 71 4.79 8.4 14.89 Ficus glomerata Roxb. 18 80 8.68 6.2 5.78 Polyalthia longifolia Benth. 19 79 7.49 8.0 6.94 Ficus bengalensis L. 24 87 7.05 6.0 16.41 Pithecolobium dule Benth APTI R A P T Plant species
  • 45. Plant species (shrubs) arranged in the decreasing order of their air pollution tolerance index (APTI) 12 74 4.75 5.5 4.50 Rosa indica L. 12 50 5.39 6.4 6.98 Laserstroemia parviflora Roxb. 14 78 4.67 6.2 6.00 Murraya exotica L. 16 70 6.50 5.8 7.50 Duranta pulmieri Jacq. 14 65 4.63 7.6 7.51 Lantana indica Roxb. 15 74 6.25 6.0 6.68 Citrus lemon (L.) Burn.f. 21 93 5.00 6.2 17.20 Ricinus communis L. 24 80 7.00 6.0 17.10 Poinsettia pulcherrima R. Grah. 27 94 9.00 6.4 13.00 Calotropis gigantes Ait. Hort. 30 74 12.79 6.1 11.70 Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. APTI R A P T Plant species
  • 46. Pollutant tolerant trees and shrubs
    • Zizyphus jujuba (Ber)
    • Tamrindus indica (Imli)
    • Syzigium jambolana (Jamun)
    • Psidium guyava (Guava)
    • Pithocolobium dulce (Jangal Jalebi)
    • Phyllanthus emblica (Amla)
    • Peltophorum ferrugineum (Copper pod)
    • Nerium odorum (Kaner)
    • Murraya exotica (Kamini)
    • Madhuca indica (Mahua)
    • Lantana indica (Chaueri)
    • Ficus religiosa (Peepal)
    • Ficus bengalensis (Bargad)
    • Eucalyptus citriodora (Safeda)
    • Dalbergia sissoo (Shisham)
    • Citrus medica (Lemon)
    • Cassia sophera (Kasunda)
    • Butea monosperma (Palas)
    • Bougainvillea spectabilis (Baganvilas)
    • Azadirachta indica (Neem)
    • Artocarpus heterophyllus (Kathal)
    • Aegal marmelos (Bel)
    • Acacia arabica (Kateri Babul)
  • 47. Vegetables tolerant to different pollutants Beet (Beta vulgaris) Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Mint (Mentha pepracea) Turnip (Brassica rapa) Carrot (Daucus carota) Cabbage (B. oleracea capitata) Cowpea (Vigna sinensis) Ozone Cabbage (B. oleracea capitata) Cauli flower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) Carrot (Daucus carota) Onion (Allium cepa) Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) PAN Tomato (Lycopersicom esculentum) Squash (Cucurbita maxima) Pumpkin (Curcurbita pepo) Hydrogen fluoride Tomato (Lycopersicom esculentum) Onion (Allium cepa) Cauli flower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) Brinjal (Solanum melangena) Sulphur dioxide Vegetables Pollutants
  • 48. Pollutants which irritate and inflame Particulate <5  m respirable SO 2 80  g m -3 annual average SPM 75  g m -3 annual average Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) & Particulate matter Cellular and structural changes in lung; primary target ciliated cells which clear the airways of inhaled foreign material. Ozone (O 3 ) Absorbed into the mucosa of respiratory tract. NO and N 2 O detected in blood and urine, mild inflammation, bronchities. Nitrogen Oxides (No x )
  • 49. Pollutants producing toxic systemic effects Absorbed by lung & carried in blood, form carboxyhaemoglobin (CoHb), impair O 2 carrying capacity of blood Risks: Heart, Central Nervous System & the foetus, Neurobehavioural effect, Cardiovascular effect (above 30%), Symptoms: Headache & dizziness (10-30%), above 40% coma & death. Normal CoHb, 0.5% One pack cigarette 4-7% 80-90% inorganic 1% tetra alkyl lead (organic) Gastrointenstinal problem, Acute colic Damage kidney 95% bone Converted into tri alkyl lead in liver Neurological development in infants 0.5-1  g m -2 long time Carbon monoxide (CO) Lead (Pb)
  • 50. Pollutants with potential carcinogenic effects Constituents of crude oil Enhance anti knocking Highly liposoluble Lung cancer; leukamia Incomplete combustion of fuel Mutagenic Absorb in lungs Eye irritation Coughing; nausea; asthma Dermal allergy Possible carcinogenic Benzene PAH (Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbon) Aldehydes Formaldehyde
  • 51. Estimates of annual health incidences in Indian cities due to ambient air pollution levels exceeding WHO guidelines Note: WHO: World Health Organization 19,561,109 319,242 725 Patna 156,452,916 2,579,210 4,477 Mumbai 27,859,487 461,966 863 Madras 49,247,224 812,381 1,894 Kanpur 31,708,958 520,947 1,145 Jaipur 25,177,173 420,958 768 Hyderabad 241,958,219 3,990,012 7,491 Delhi 179,479,908 3,022,786 5,726 Calcutta 8,326,282 135,887 254 Bangalore 72,177,644 1,183,033 2,979 Ahmedabad Incidence of minor sickness Hospital admissions and sickness requiring medical treatment Premature deaths Cities
  • 52. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (CPCB), 1997)
    • Annual Arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurement in a year taken for a week, 24 hourly at uniform interval.
    • ** 24 hour/ 8 hourly values should meet 98% of the time in a year
    Sensitive Rural and Residential Industrial 2.0 4.0 10.0 1 hr 1.0 2.0 5.0 8hr Carbon monoxide (mg m -3 ) 0.75 1.00 1.5 24 hr ** 0.50 0.75 1.0 Annual average * Lead 75 100 150 24 hr ** 50 60 120 Annual average * Respirable suspended particulate matter (<10 micron) (RSPM) 100 200 500 24 hr ** 70 140 360 Annual average * Suspended Particulate matter (SPM) 30 80 120 24 hr ** 15 60 80 Annual average * Oxide of nitrogen (NO 2 ) 30 80 120 24 hr ** 15 60 80 Annual Average * Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2 ) Concentration in Ambient air (  g m -3 ) Time weighted Average Pollutant
  • 53. SO 2 and NO 2 concentrations (µg/m 3 ) at various sites during 1989, 1990, 1994 and 2002 * Pandey et al. (1992) 116 47 37 32 52 44 51 43 Cantt Railway Station 82 57 35 34 44 50 50 44 Golgadda 76 48 30 30 33 42 32 31 Godowlia 20 29 17 16 14 26 16 14 BHU 2002 1994 1990* 1989* 2002 1994 1990* 1989* NO 2 (µg/m 3 ) SO 2 (µg/m 3 ) Site
  • 54. IMPROVEMENT OF AIR QUALITY IN VARANASI 54 RSPM 61 SPM 48 O 3 59 NO 2 71 SO 2 % Reduction Pollutants
  • 55. Exceedance Factor = Observed annual mean concentration of a pollutant Annual standard for the respective pollutant and area class Air Quality Categories: Critical pollution (C) EF> 1.5 High pollution (H) EF between 1.0 – 1.5 Moderate pollution (M) EF between 1.0 – 0.5 Low pollution (L) EF < 0.5
  • 56. CLASSIFICATION OF CITIES AS PER AQI- 2002 Critical pollution : Jodhpur, Agra, Kanpur, Kolkata, Lucknow, Dehradoon, Pune, Delhi, Raipur, Solapur, Varanasi, Jamshedpur, Jamnagar Heavy pollution : Ahmedabad, Baroda, Chandigarh, Jaipur, Kota, Patna, Surat, Vapi, Udaipur Moderate pollution : Nagpur, Nasik, Panaji, Bangalore, Chennai, Mumbai, Mysore, Hyderabad, Coimbatore, Madurai Low pollution: Cochin, Shillong, Pondicherry, Salem
  • 57. Impact of interventions on Air Quality of Delhi (2000 vs. 2007) + Increase - Decrease - 60 % Pb - 38 % SO 2 + 18 % NOx - 48 % CO - 30% RSPM - 8 % SPM
  • 58. Conclusion
    • Air pollution negatively affects the yield and quality of crops
    • Sensitivity of crops differs among species and cultivars
    • Meteorological conditions during crop growing season affect the degree of negative effects on growth and yield of crops
    • Ozone poses the greatest threat to agriculture
    • Plants also differ in their response to different air pollutant combinations
  • 59.
    • Vegetation can intercept, absorb, assimilate and significantly reduce the concentrations of SO 2 and NO 2 .
    • Trees are more efficient in reducing pollutant concentrations than other vegetation.
    • Sulphur and nitrogen being major nutrients may be beneficial to plant growth in nutrient poor soil.
    • Plants vary in their capacity of absorbing pollutants.
    • Plants also vary widely in their susceptibility to S and N pollutants.
  • 60. THANKS