Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
A Location-A...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Agenda
 Int...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Opportunitie...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Mobile Compu...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Examples of ...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Google Maps/...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Known LBS Ar...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Link Layer
(...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Location-Awa...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Limitations ...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Known Arch. ...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Known Arch. ...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
14
8.04
0
2
...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
14
7.02
0
2
...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
14
4.21
0
2
...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Known Arch. ...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Cellular Dat...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Known Arch. ...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
 SOAP and S...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Known Arch. ...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Lack of eval...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Key Challeng...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
How can we a...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Demand for a...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Location-Awa...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
LAISYC Archi...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
LAISYC – Dev...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
LAISYC – Ser...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
LAISYC Devic...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
U.S. Patent ...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
GPS Auto-Sle...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
GPS Tracking...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
GPS Tracking...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
 Purpose – ...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
State
[0]
St...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
IEEE Pervasi...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Critical Poi...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
38
Critical ...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Critical Poi...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
40
START
(In...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
IEEE Pervasi...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
42
Introduct...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Session Mana...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
2. App Data ...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
IEEE Pervasi...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Adaptive Loc...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Adaptive Loc...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Quantificati...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
U.S. Patent ...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
50
8.04
10.7...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
GPS Auto-Sle...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
52
0
50
100
...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
53
Introduct...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
IEEE Pervasi...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
55
Sanyo 705...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Critical Poi...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
• Angle 1
In...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
• Angle 2
In...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
• Angle 3
In...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
• Angle 4
In...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
• Angle 5
In...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
• Angle 6
In...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
• Angle 7
In...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
• Angle 8
In...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
• Angle 10
I...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
• Angle 11
I...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
• Angle 15
I...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
• Angle 18
I...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Accuracy Eva...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
0.00%
2.00%
...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
0.00%
2.00%
...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
 Avg. GPS r...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
IEEE Pervasi...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
LAISYC Proto...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
POST /bussto...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
76
7.02
12.6...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
77
0
0.05
0....
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
78
1
9
17
25...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Demonstratio...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Apps impleme...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Example bene...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
The Contribu...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Contribution...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Contribution...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Future Work
...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Permissions ...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Publications...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Publications...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Issued U.S. ...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Acknowledgem...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Acknowledgem...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
And support ...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Thank You to...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Questions?
9...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Extra slides...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Known LBS Ar...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Known LBS Ar...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
My focus – M...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
U.S. Patent ...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
 stopped_sp...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
GPS Auto-Sle...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
102
 high_h...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
IEEE Pervasi...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Critical Poi...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Critical Poi...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Critical Poi...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
 When compa...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
 Over 97% o...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Critical Poi...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Funded by:
•...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
TRAC-IT
 Cr...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
TRAC-IT Depl...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
TRAC-IT Depl...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Funded by:
•...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Travel Assis...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
Travel Train...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
TAD Mobile A...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
TAD Bus Stop...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
TAD Analysis...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
LAISYC Publi...
Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012
LAISYC Publi...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

A Location-Aware Architecture Supporting Intelligent Real-time Mobile Applications

318

Published on

My Ph.D. dissertation defense! :)

With the number of Global Positioning System (GPS)-enabled mobile phones rapidly increasing due to maturing positioning technologies, intelligent location-aware applications are poised to become the next innovation in mobile phones. However, innovations bring new challenges. As cellular data networks achieve broadband speeds, constrained device resources (e.g. battery life) replace bandwidth as a primary limiting factor for mobile applications. IP-based networking protocols, now widely available in Java Micro Edition devices, must be carefully integrated into existing architectures to meet application needs and maximize system efficiency. Evolving location-aware architectures require intelligent clients for low-latency real-time applications and efficient management of device resources, as well as server-side intelligence to analyze past user behavior. This paper expands previous work on location-aware architectures and presents Location-Aware Information Systems Client (LAISYC), a comprehensive location-aware framework supporting intelligent real-time mobile applications.

Short version is in this IEEE Pervasive Computing publication:
http://bit.ly/IEEE_Per_Com_LAISYC

Full dissertation:
http://bit.ly/BarbeauDissertation

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
318
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
35
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Lack of integration with existing platforms on commercially-available devices Uses protocols or device modifications that can’t be deployed in appsBattery energy limitations are not addressedBattery capacity is finiteGPS and wireless affect batteryNetwork data transfer limitations are not addressedLimited data plansLack of evaluation of efficacy of location-aware architecturesFew tests with real devices
  • Lack of integration with existing platforms on commercially-available devices Uses protocols or device modifications that can’t be deployed in appsBattery energy limitations are not addressedBattery capacity is finiteGPS and wireless affect batteryNetwork data transfer limitations are not addressedLimited data plansLack of evaluation of efficacy of location-aware architecturesFew tests with real devices
  • Lack of integration with existing platforms on commercially-available devices Uses protocols or device modifications that can’t be deployed in appsBattery energy limitations are not addressedBattery capacity is finiteGPS and wireless affect batteryNetwork data transfer limitations are not addressedLimited data plansLack of evaluation of efficacy of location-aware architecturesFew tests with real devices
  • Lack of integration with existing platforms on commercially-available devices Uses protocols or device modifications that can’t be deployed in appsBattery energy limitations are not addressedBattery capacity is finiteGPS and wireless affect batteryNetwork data transfer limitations are not addressedLimited data plansLack of evaluation of efficacy of location-aware architecturesFew tests with real devices
  • Lack of integration with existing platforms on commercially-available devices Uses protocols or device modifications that can’t be deployed in appsBattery energy limitations are not addressedBattery capacity is finiteGPS and wireless affect batteryNetwork data transfer limitations are not addressedLimited data plansLack of evaluation of efficacy of location-aware architecturesFew tests with real devices
  • Lack of integration with existing platforms on commercially-available devices Uses protocols or device modifications that can’t be deployed in appsBattery energy limitations are not addressedBattery capacity is finiteGPS and wireless affect batteryNetwork data transfer limitations are not addressedLimited data plansLack of evaluation of efficacy of location-aware architecturesFew tests with real devices
  • A Location-Aware Architecture Supporting Intelligent Real-time Mobile Applications

    1. 1. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 A Location-Aware Architecture Supporting Intelligent Real-time Mobile Applications Sean J. Barbeau, M.S. Research Associate - Center for Urban Transportation Research Ph.D. Candidate - Department of Computer Science & Engineering University of South Florida
    2. 2. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Agenda  Introduction  Known LBS Architectures  Limitations of Current LBS  Proposed LAISYC Architecture  Evaluation  Conclusions  Permissions and Notices 2 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    3. 3. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Opportunities for Mobile Applications 3 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    4. 4. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Mobile Computing Opportunities  Proliferation of cell phones & apps  5.9B mobile subscriptions worldwide, approx. 87% of global population (Sept. 11)[1]  102.4% U.S. mobile subscriber rate (322.9M) (Jun. 11) [2]  26.6% of U.S. Households are Wireless–Only (April 11) [3]  29B apps downloaded in 2011, up from 9B in 2010 [4]  Evolution of positioning technologies  U.S. F.C.C. e-911 mandate for locating cell phones ~2001  79.9% of cell phones shipped in Q4 2011 (318.3M) had integrated GPS [5] [1] International Telecommunications Union, “ITC Facts and Figures – The World in 2011” International Telecommunications Union, Sept 2011. [2] CTIA. “Wireless Quick Facts,” http://www.ctia.org/advocacy/research/index.cfm/aid/ 10323 [3] National Center for Health Statistics. “Wireless Substitution: State-level Estimates from the National Health Interview Survey”, National Health Statistics Reports, Number 39, April 20, 2011. [4] ABIresearch. “Android Overtakes Apple with 44% Worldwide Share of Mobile Apps Downloads,” October 24, 2011. [5] Rebello, Jagdish. “Four Out of Five Cell Phones to Integrate GPS by End of 2011,” Integrate-GPS-by-End-of-2011.aspx Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 4
    5. 5. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Examples of currently known LBS apps and architectures 5 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    6. 6. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Google Maps/Inrix/Foursquare/Facebook/Latitude  Maps and Navigation  Real-time traffic  Allows users to “check-in” to locations to earn points/rewards/discounts  Alerts you to friend check- ins  Limitations:  Proprietary  User-managed location 6 Sugar Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    7. 7. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Known LBS Architectures  Evolution of architectures has been from low to high levels in the device and network stacks 7 Link Layer (e.g., CDMA IS-95) Network Layer (e.g., IP) Tranport Layer (e.g., TCP, UDP) Application Layer (e.g., HTTP, FTP, VOIP) Hardware (e.g., Qualcomm chipset) Operating System (e.g., Linux) Virtual Machine (e.g., Java ME) 3rd party Apps Embedded Apps Device Cell Network Introduction Known LBS Architectures Challenges Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions Hardware (e.g., Intel CPU/ Motherboard) Operating System (e.g., Linux) Application Server Server
    8. 8. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Link Layer (e.g., CDMA IS-95) Network Layer (e.g., IP) TCP Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) HTTP RTP/RTSP SOAP (Using XML) Hardware (e.g., Qualcomm chipset) Operating System (e.g., Linux) Virtual Machine (e.g., Java ME) 3rd party Apps Embedded Apps  Recent arch. are based on mobile apps  Proposed protocols - Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) with XML 8Device Cell Network + Internet Introduction Known LBS Architectures Challenges Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions Known LBS Architectures Hardware (e.g., Intel CPU/ Motherboard) Operating System (e.g., Linux) Application Server Server 3rd party Apps Hardware (e.g., Qualcomm chipset) Operating System (e.g., Linux) Virtual Machine (e.g., Java ME) 3rd party Apps Embedded Apps
    9. 9. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Location-Aware Application (Device-side) Server Legend Location Data Device Platform Software Location API I/O API Virtual Machine Java ME / Android 9 Known LBS Architectures 1. Obtain GPS at fixed interval (e.g., every 4 s) 2. Send data to server via SOAP or SIP 1. Fixed- interval Location updates 2. Send data to server SOAP / SIP Mobile Device
    10. 10. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Limitations of known architectures 10 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    11. 11. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Known Arch. Limitations 1. Battery energy limitations are not addressed 11 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    12. 12. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Known Arch. Limitations  Frequent GPS sampling (4 s) and transmissions to server cost significant battery energy 12 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions Location-Aware Application (Device-side) Server Legend Location Data Device Platform Software Location API I/O API Virtual Machine Java ME / Android 1. Fixed- interval Location updates 2. Send data to server SOAP / SIP Mobile Device
    13. 13. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 14 8.04 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 sec. sampling interval BatteryLife(hours) Impact of GPS on Battery Life Requirement Sanyo Pro 200 13 Sprint CDMA EV-DO Rev. A network Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    14. 14. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 14 7.02 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 sec. Tx interval BatteryLife(hours) Impact of Wireless Tx on Battery Life Requirement Motorola i580 14 Nextel iDEN Network JAX-RPC Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    15. 15. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 14 4.21 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 sec. sampling interval BatteryLife(hours) Impact of GPS & WirelessTx on Battery Life Requirement Sanyo Pro 200 15 Sprint CDMA EV-DO Rev. A Network UDP Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    16. 16. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Known Arch. Limitations 1. Battery energy limitations are not addressed 2. Cellular data transfer limitations are not addressed 16 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    17. 17. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Cellular Data Transfer Limitations  Location tracking once per second equals 86,400 records (~10.3MB) for one user on one day  Most cellular carriers only offer limited data plans  e.g., Verizon = $20 per month for 1GB  ~10.3MB per day = 319.3MB per month  Almost 1/3 of user’s plan would be location data 17 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    18. 18. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Known Arch. Limitations 1. Battery energy limitations are not addressed 2. Cellular data transfer limitations are not addressed 3. Lack of integration with existing platforms on commercially-available devices 18 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    19. 19. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012  SOAP and SIP w/ location APIs aren’t available on Java Micro Edition, Android, iPhone 19 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions Location-Aware Application (Device-side) Server Legend Location Data Device Platform Software Location API I/O API Virtual Machine Java ME / Android Send data to server SOAP / SIP Mobile Device
    20. 20. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Known Arch. Limitations 1. Battery energy limitations are not addressed 2. Cellular data transfer limitations are not addressed 3. Lack of integration with existing platforms on commercially-available devices 4. Lack of evaluation of efficacy of location-aware architectures 20 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    21. 21. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Lack of evaluation on real devices  Devices, cellular plans are expensive  On Java Micro Edition, Location API access has been restricted to carrier industry partners  Laptops, emulators, and simulations have been used as proxies for real devices  Do not model energy consumption  Do not consider GPS error  Make sets of assumptions that don’t apply to real devices 21 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    22. 22. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Key Challenges  How do we add device-based intelligence to reduce energy expenditures while supporting real-time apps?  We must consider that:  Acting on real-time data consumes limited device resources  Mobile hardware is proprietary and rapidly changing 22 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    23. 23. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 How can we advance the state-of-the-art in LBS? 23 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    24. 24. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Demand for a new LBS architecture Should meet following needs:  Need #1 - Intelligently manages limited device/network resources (e.g., battery energy)  Need #2 - Support real-time applications  Need #3 - Support high-precision and high-accuracy positioning systems  Need #4 - Is fully implementable by third-party mobile app developers  This is the goal of this dissertation 24 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    25. 25. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Location-Aware Information SYstems Client (LAISYC) 25 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    26. 26. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 LAISYC Architecture 26 LAISYC - Server-side Web Application Server LAISYC - Device-side Mobile App Mobile Device Web Application Server-based softwareDevice-based software Database Server Persistent Datastore App/Location DataApp/Location Data Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions  My dissertation focus = LAISYC device-side modules
    27. 27. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 LAISYC – Device components 27 Critical Point Algorithm Location Data Signing GPS Auto-Sleep Adaptive Location Buffering Location Data Encryption SessionManagement Legend Real-time Phone-Generated Location Data Flow Control Signals Application Data Flow UDP HTTP(S) TCP Location Data Flow Control Device Platform Software LAISYC – Communications Management LAISYC – Positioning Systems Management Server Location API Persistent Storage API I/O API Virtual Machine Java ME / Android LAISYC Comm. APILAISYC Positioning API Location-Aware Application (Device-side) Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    28. 28. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 LAISYC – Server components 28 UDP HTTP(S) TCP Critical Point Algorithm Application Server Spatial Database SessionManagement Spatial Analysis Adaptive Location Data Buffering (Control Only) Relational Database Mobile Phone(s) Legend Real-time Phone-Generated Location Data Flow Control Signals Application Data Flow Location Data Flow Control LAISYC – Communications Management LAISYC – Data Analysis Existing Software Solutions LAISYC Comm. API LAISYC Data Analysis API Location-Aware Application (Server-side) Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    29. 29. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 LAISYC Device-side Modules and Needs LAISYC Device-side Modules Need #1: Intelligently manages limited device/network resources Need #2: Still supports real-time applications? Need #3: Supports high- precision and high- accuracy positioning systems Need #4: Fully implementable by 3rd party mobile app developer Session Management X X X* GPS Auto-Sleep X X X X* Critical Point Algorithm X X X X Adaptive Location Buffering X X X* Location Data Encryption X X X Location Data Signing X X X 29 *Interacts directly with the mobile device platform via Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions Today’s presentation
    30. 30. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 U.S. Patent # 8,036,679 – Optimizing performance of location-aware applications using state machines. IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 58-67, July-Sept. 2011. © 2011 IEEE Proceedings of IEEE UBICOMM 2008 – The Second International Conference on Mobile Ubiquitous Computing, Systems, Services, and Technologies, Valencia, Spain, September 29 – October 4, 2008. © 2008 IEEE The Journal of Navigation, volume 64, issue 03, pp. 381-399. July 2011. © 2011 The Royal Institute of Navigation. 30 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    31. 31. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 GPS Auto-Sleep 31 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions GPS Auto-Sleep Critical Point Algorithm Location Data Signing Adaptive Location Buffering Location Data Encryption SessionManagement Legend Real-time Phone-Generated Location Data Flow Control Signals Application Data Flow UDP HTTP(S) TCP Location Data Flow Control Device Platform Software LAISYC – Communications Management LAISYC – Positioning Systems Management Server Location API Persistent Storage API I/O API Virtual Machine Java ME / Android LAISYC Comm. APILAISYC Positioning API Location-Aware Application (Device-side)
    32. 32. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 GPS Tracking  “High-definition” view of travel  Frequent sampling allows us to determine:  Path, distance traveled  Origin-Destination pairs  Avg. speeds  Enables high-accuracy real- time, historical LBS  Challenges:  Battery life  Amount of data 32 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    33. 33. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 GPS Tracking  Infrequent tracking solves energy, data problems  BUT, doesn’t give us the data we want:  Path, distance traveled  Origin-Destination pairs  Avg. speeds 33 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    34. 34. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012  Purpose – to save battery energy & reduce data transfer to server by dynamically adjusting the GPS sampling interval based on user movement  Change states based on speed/distance/time thresholds GPS-Auto Sleep ASLEEPAWAKE Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions State [0] State [1] State [n – 1] State [n] Move directly to state[0] when current_speed > high_speed_threshold. GPS Sampling Interval = 4 sec. GPS Sampling Interval = 8 sec. GPS Sampling Interval = 128 sec. GPS Sampling Interval = 256 sec. After leaving state[0], gradually move towards state[n] when ((current_speed < low_speed value) AND (distance_between_fixes < moved_distance_threshold)) OR if a GPS fix can’t be acquired. Gradually move towards state[0] when (low_speed_threshold < current_speed < high_speed_threshold) OR (distance_between_fixes > moved_distance_threshold). 34
    35. 35. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 State [0] State [1] State [n – 1] State [n] Move directly to state[0] when current_speed > high_speed_threshold. GPS Sampling Interval = 4 sec. GPS Sampling Interval = 8 sec. GPS Sampling Interval = 128 sec. GPS Sampling Interval = 256 sec. After leaving state[0], gradually move towards state[n] when ((current_speed < low_speed value) AND (distance_between_fixes < moved_distance_threshold)) OR if a GPS fix can’t be acquired. Gradually move towards state[0] when (low_speed_threshold < current_speed < high_speed_threshold) OR (distance_between_fixes > moved_distance_threshold). ASLEEPAWAKE Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 35
    36. 36. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 58-67, July-Sept. 2011, doi:10.1109/MPRV.2010.48 © 2011 IEEE The Journal of Navigation, volume 64, issue 03, pp. 381-399. July 2011. © 2011 The Royal Institute of Navigation. Proceedings of IEEE UBICOMM 2008 – The Second International Conference on Mobile Ubiquitous Computing, Systems, Services, and Technologies, Valencia, Spain, September 29 – October 4, 2008. © 2008 IEEE 36 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    37. 37. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Critical Point Algorithm 37 Critical Point Algorithm Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions Location Data Signing GPS Auto-Sleep Adaptive Location Buffering Location Data Encryption SessionManagement Legend Real-time Phone-Generated Location Data Flow Control Signals Application Data Flow UDP HTTP(S) TCP Location Data Flow Control Device Platform Software LAISYC – Communications Management LAISYC – Positioning Systems Management Server Location API Persistent Storage API I/O API Virtual Machine Java ME / Android LAISYC Comm. APILAISYC Positioning API Location-Aware Application (Device-side)
    38. 38. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 38 Critical Point Algorithm Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 38  Purpose – to reduce battery energy expenditures and amount of data transferred by eliminating non-essential GPS data  Pre-filters real-time GPS data on mobile device before it is wirelessly transmitted
    39. 39. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Critical Point Algorithm 39 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions changeInDirection() = |Angle2 – Angle1| NORTH Last Critical Point Current Point Last Trigger Point (Under Evaluation) Angle1 Angle2 = Mobile Device Path = Location Points
    40. 40. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 40 START (Input = currentLocation) TransportationMode= WALKING TransportationMode= VEHICLE First Point? lastCriticalPoint= currentLocation lastCriticalPoint=lastTriggerPoint YES NO YES NO YES NO (Since currentLocation is first point in sequence, it is saved as both the lastCriticalPoint and LastValidPoint) (lastTriggerPoint is a CriticalPoint, and is stored as lastCriticalPoint for future executions of CP algorithm and returned to application) (No Critical Points were found) NO YES Return currentLocation lastTriggerPoint= currentLocation lastTriggerPoint=currentLocation (Optional) Reset Conditional Evaluation Variables (for Real-time Applications) Return lastCriticaPointReturn null Speed > max_walk_speed (Optional) Conditional Evaluations = TRUE? (for Real-time Applications) (changeInDirection() > angle_threshold) AND (currentSpeed > min_speed_threshold)?  changeInDirection()  Uses angle threshold  Changed per speed  min_speed()  If currentSpeed > min_speed, device is moving  Real-time Conditional Evaluations (Optional)  timerExpired()?  distanceCounterExceeded?  receivedServerProbe? Critical Point Algorithm
    41. 41. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 58-67, July-Sept. 2011, doi:10.1109/MPRV.2010.48 © 2011 IEEE IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 44, No. 11, pp. 156- 163, November 2006. © 2006 IEEE IEEE Network Magazine, Vol.24 No.4, July 2010. © 2010 IEEE 41 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    42. 42. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 42 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions Critical Point Algorithm Location Data Signing GPS Auto-Sleep Adaptive Location Buffering Location Data Encryption Legend Real-time Phone-Generated Location Data Flow Control Signals Application Data Flow UDP HTTP(S) TCP Location Data Flow Control Device Platform Software LAISYC – Communications Management LAISYC – Positioning Systems Management Server Location API Persistent Storage API I/O API Virtual Machine Java ME / Android LAISYC Comm. APILAISYC Positioning API Location-Aware Application (Device-side) Session Management SessionManagement
    43. 43. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Session Management Purpose - to save battery energy and reduce data transfer while supporting real-time location data communication Transmits two types of data: 1. Location data (e.g., latitude, longitude, time):  Real-time, streaming data exchange  Timeliness, efficiency is more important than 100% reliability  We choose User Datagram Protocol (UDP) instead of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) for energy and timeliness benefits 2. Application data (e.g., server login)  Request-response model  Reliable, occasional data exchange  We choose web services to transfer this data in LAISYC 43 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    44. 44. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 2. App Data – SOAP vs. HTTP  Two common ways to implement web services:  SOAP  XML-based messaging protocol  Advanced functionality  HTTP (e.g. REST-ful Web Service)  Directly uses HTTP methods  (e.g. POST)  No additional tags required for data  We chose HTTP-POST for energy and data efficiency 44 Layered Networking Model Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 44 TCP (Transport Layer) HTTP (Application Layer) SOAP (using XML tags) UDP (Transport Layer)
    45. 45. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 58-67, July-Sept. 2011, doi:10.1109/MPRV.2010.48 © 2011 IEEE 45 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    46. 46. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Adaptive Location Data Buffering  Purpose - To increase the reliability of real-time location data communication with the server in an energy-efficient manner.  UDP does not have any guaranteed quality of service  While occasional loss of location data over UDP is acceptable, large gaps in data are problematic:  Sparse network coverage  Active voice calls on CDMA devices  Solution – occasionally query server via TCP, buffer data if TCP fails 46 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    47. 47. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Adaptive Location Data Buffering 47 Server Mobile Device Data is buffered because of TCP failure All Buffered Data is sent because of TCP success UDP Transmission (successful) TCP Transmission (successful) UDP Transmission (Failed) TCP Transmission (Failed) Key t 0
    48. 48. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Quantification of architecture module benefits 48 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    49. 49. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 U.S. Patent # 8,036,679 – Optimizing performance of location-aware applications using state machines. IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 58-67, July-Sept. 2011. © 2011 IEEE Proceedings of IEEE UBICOMM 2008 – The Second International Conference on Mobile Ubiquitous Computing, Systems, Services, and Technologies, Valencia, Spain, September 29 – October 4, 2008. © 2008 IEEE The Journal of Navigation, volume 64, issue 03, pp. 381-399. July 2011. © 2011 The Royal Institute of Navigation. 49 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    50. 50. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 50 8.04 10.71 13.01 14.20 15.68 18.77 41.94 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 4 8 15 30 60 150 300 BatteryLife(hours) Interval Between GPS Fixes (s) Impact of Interval Between GPS Fixes on Battery Life Sanyo Pro 200 Sprint CDMA EV-DO Rev. A network Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    51. 51. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 GPS Auto-Sleep  Uses several thresholds for states changes (based on observed data):  stopped_speed_threshold = 1 m/s  95th percentile of speed error  high_speed_threshold = 1.5 m/s  98th percentile of speed error  moved_distance_threshold = 100 m  Based on max. observed horizontal error of 90.69 m  high_horizontal_accuracy_threshold = 80 m  Based on max. observed hor. acc. of 58 m  first_fix_timeout = 20 sec.  backoff_time_threshold = 120 sec.  Running time -  Memory requirement - where = number of GPS data points processed 51 𝑓 𝑛 = 𝑂 𝑛 𝑛 𝑓 𝑛 = 𝑂(1)
    52. 52. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 52 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 1 23 45 67 89 111 133 155 177 199 221 243 265 287 309 331 353 375 397 419 441 463 485 507 529 551 573 595 617 639 661 683 705 727 749 771 793 815 837 859 881 903 925 947 969 991 1013 1035 IntervalBetweenGPSFixes(seconds) GPS Auto-Sleep Transitions - “Awake” to “Asleep” Sanyo Pro 200 Sprint CDMA EV-DO Rev. A network “Asleep” “Awake” Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions State errors No GPS signal
    53. 53. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 53 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 0.51% 29.10% 11.60% 10.54% 15.67% 23.97% 7.37% 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% 35.00% Min Max Mean 50th 68th 95th STD DEV GPS Auto-Sleep - State ErrorPercentage  Approx. 88% mean accuracy in state tracking  Avg. doubling of battery life (based on TRAC-IT tests) n = 30
    54. 54. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 58-67, July-Sept. 2011, doi:10.1109/MPRV.2010.48 © 2011 IEEE The Journal of Navigation, volume 64, issue 03, pp. 381-399. July 2011. © 2011 The Royal Institute of Navigation. Proceedings of IEEE UBICOMM 2008 – The Second International Conference on Mobile Ubiquitous Computing, Systems, Services, and Technologies, Valencia, Spain, September 29 – October 4, 2008. © 2008 IEEE 54 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    55. 55. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 55 Sanyo 7050 Sprint CDMA 1xRTT Network UDP Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions Effect of Wireless Transmission Interval on Battery Life
    56. 56. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Critical Point Algorithm  Uses several thresholds for filtering points, based on observed data:  min_speed_threshold = 0.1 m/s  Based on walk speed 25th percentile of 0.2 m/s, 20th percent. of 0 m/s  max_walk_speed = 2.6 m/s  Used to determine angle_threshold  Mean max. walk speed just over 2.5 m/s from literature  angle_threshold = 4.5 degrees for walk trips, 3 degrees for car trips  Methodology shown in following slides  Running time -  Memory requirement - where = number of GPS data points processed 56 𝑓 𝑛 = 𝑂 𝑛 𝑛 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 𝑓 𝑛 = 𝑂(1)
    57. 57. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 • Angle 1 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 57
    58. 58. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 • Angle 2 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 58
    59. 59. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 • Angle 3 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 59
    60. 60. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 • Angle 4 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 60
    61. 61. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 • Angle 5 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 61
    62. 62. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 • Angle 6 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 62
    63. 63. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 • Angle 7 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 63
    64. 64. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 • Angle 8 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 64
    65. 65. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 • Angle 10 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 65
    66. 66. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 • Angle 11 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 66
    67. 67. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 • Angle 15 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 67
    68. 68. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 • Angle 18 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 68
    69. 69. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Accuracy Evaluation using Distance 69 Sampled GPS position Critical Point path Full GPS Path Critical Point a b c d e f g x y Distancefull_GPS_path = a + b + c + d + e + f + g Distancecritical_point_path = x + y 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑒𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 = 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑓𝑢𝑙𝑙 _𝐺𝑃𝑆_𝑝𝑎𝑡 𝑕 − 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 _𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 _𝑝𝑎𝑡 𝑕 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑓𝑢𝑙𝑙 _𝐺𝑃𝑆_𝑝𝑎𝑡 𝑕 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    70. 70. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 18.00% 20.00% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 DistanceErrorPercentage NumberofCriticdalPoints Angle Threshold (Degrees) Number of Critical Points Total Number of Points Distance Error Percentage # Critical Points vs. Distance Error Percentage Walk 70 Chosen Walk Angle Threshold = 4.5 degrees Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    71. 71. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 18.00% 20.00% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 DistanceErrorPercentage NumberofCriticdalPoints Angle Threshold (Degrees) Number of Critical Points Total Number of Points Distance Error Percentage # Critical Points vs. Distance Error Percentage Car 71 Chosen Car Angle Threshold = 3 degrees Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    72. 72. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012  Avg. GPS reduction of 77% per trip  Avg. 18.8kB saved per trip  Average distance error percentage under 10%  On avg., as Tx interval doubles battery life doubles Critical Point Algorithm 72 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions Min Max Avg. 5th percentile 25th percentile 50th percentile 68th percentile 95th percentile Total Critical Point Count 2 322 35 3 13 27 38 97 Total GPS Fix Count 20 3,710 193 31 74 130 188 511 % Savings 20.83% 99.40% 77.43% 47.97% 69.49% 80.00% 86.83% 95.84% Bytes Saved* 595 403,172 18,883 2,380 6,426 12,138 17,493 54,788 Distance Critical Points (m) 0.00 1,043,805.50 7,437.09 328.14 1,162.37 2,675.00 4,049.37 22,815.61 Total Distance (m) 2.36 1,087,043.20 7,878.02 380.79 1,252.55 2,913.39 4,345.91 24,231.34 Distance Error Percentage 0.00% 100.00% 8.90% 1.94% 3.98% 6.20% 8.70% 24.11% * Based on 119 bytes per UDP payload
    73. 73. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 58-67, July-Sept. 2011, doi:10.1109/MPRV.2010.48 © 2011 IEEE IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 44, No. 11, pp. 156-163, November 2006. © 2006 IEEE IEEE Network Magazine, Vol.24 No.4, July 2010. © 2010 IEEE 73 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    74. 74. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 LAISYC Protocol Choices Application Data 74 Layered Networking Model Location Data TCP (Transport Layer) HTTP (Application Layer) SOAP (using XML tags) UDP (Transport Layer)
    75. 75. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 POST /busstoparrival/busstopws.asmx HTTP/1.1 Host: 73.205.128.123 Content-Type: text/xml; charset=utf-8 Content-Length: length SOAPAction: "http://tempuri.org/GetNextNVehicleArrivals" <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <soap:Envelope xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:soap="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/"> <soap:Body> <GetNextNVehicleArrivals xmlns="http://tempuri.org/"> <n>int</n> <RouteID>int</RouteID> <DirectionCodeID>int</DirectionCodeID> <BusStopID>int</BusStopID> <TripID_External>string</TripID_External> </GetNextNVehicleArrivals> </soap:Body> </soap:Envelope> SOAP Request via HTTP GET /busstoparrival/busstopws.asmx/GetNextNVehicleArrivals? n=string&RouteID=string&DirectionCodeID=string &BusStopID=string& TripID_External=string HTTP/1.1 Host: 73.205.128.123 HTTP-POST Request • 3.7 times more characters using SOAP! • Plus, many mobile platforms don’t natively support SOAP • Java ME • Android Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 75 1. App Data - SOAP vs. HTTP
    76. 76. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 76 7.02 12.68 16.76 19.37 9.44 17.77 18.62 24.01 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 4 15 30 60 BatteryLife(hours) Interval Between Wireless Transmissions (s) Using HTTP Increases Battery Life by 28% on Avg. JAX-RPC HTTP-POST Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions SOAP 1. App Data – SOAP vs. HTTP
    77. 77. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 77 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 1 16 31 46 61 76 91 106 121 136 151 166 181 196 211 226 241 256 271 286 PowerConsumption(W) Elapsed Time (sec) Energy Consumption of TCP vs. UDP (a)Wireless TransmissionEvery 4 seconds TCP UDP At 4 sec, TCP and UDP consume around the same power Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions 2. Location Data - TCP vs. UDP
    78. 78. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 78 1 9 17 25 33 41 49 57 65 73 81 89 97 105 113 121 129 137 145 153 161 169 177 185 193 201 209 217 225 233 241 249 257 265 273 281 289 297 Elapsed Time (sec) EnergyConsumption of TCP vs. UDP (a)Wireless TransmissionEvery 10 seconds TCP UDP PowerConsumption(W)  At 10 sec, TCP consumes approx. 38% more power than UDP  UDP = avg. 3.68 joules/transmission  TCP = avg. 5.08 joules/transmission Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    79. 79. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Demonstration of architecture through innovative apps 79 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    80. 80. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Apps implemented using LAISYC  LAISYC has been used to implement two innovative mobile apps  TRAC-IT – simultaneous multimodal travel behavior data collection and real-time traffic alerts  Travel Assistance Device (TAD) – real-time transit navigation to help riders with intellectual disabilities  LAISYC modules provide key benefits that make apps possible:  High-resolution real-time GPS tracking  Significantly increased battery life  Reduced data communication between phone and server 80
    81. 81. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Example benefits of LAISYC 81 GPS Sampling Real-time server communication Encryption Battery Life TRAC-IT 4 s 8.04 hrs TRAC-IT 4 s UDP packet loss = 2.7% 4.21 hrs TRAC-IT w/ LAISYC Dynamic (4 s moving, 300 s stopped) Adap. Loc. Data Buff. UDP packet loss = 0.54% HTTPS - SSL UDP - 128-bit AES 15.44 hrs Avg, n = 1857n = 2,642,309  2011 USDOT-sponsored TRAC-IT deployment  30 users with Sanyo Pro 200 phones on Sprint network  Over 4 million GPS data points collected during ~2 months n = 46,785
    82. 82. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 The Contributions of LAISYC to the State-of-the-Art of Location-Aware Mobile Applications 82 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    83. 83. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Contributions of research (A)  A modular software architecture that is:  Intelligent, dynamic, and efficient – balances real-time requirements with limited device resources:  Reduces battery energy footprint  Reduces data communications with server  Supports real-time applications  Device-based modules  Supports high-precision and high-accuracy positioning systems (GPS)  Fully implementable by 3rd party mobile app developers  Uses existing mobile device APIs 83 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    84. 84. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Contributions of research (B)  Experimental results that validate architecture components  Quantitative results from real devices and real GPS data  Defined methodologies to select threshold values  Innovative apps that demonstrate utility of LAISYC  TRAC-IT – simultaneous real-time travel behavior data collection with real-time location-based services  TAD – real-time transit navigation that alerts the user when to exit the bus  Observation - Importance of contributions continues to increase with evolving mobile hardware 84 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    85. 85. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Future Work  GPS Auto-Sleep  Kalman filter addition to increase mean state accuracy from 88.4% to 92%  Memorize sleep locations, rather than wait for timeout  Resolve GPS periodic sampling issues in Android  Location Data Buffering  Using Critical Point Algorithm to determine TCP transmissions  New LAISYC modules:  Position Estimation  Privacy Filter 85
    86. 86. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Permissions and Notices  We have been successful in publishing and presenting our research in a variety of peer-reviewed venues:  6 issued U.S. patents  11 pending U.S. and international patents  8 journal publications  9 conference proceeding publications  56 conference presentations  We have obtained permission from IEEE, Transportation Research Board, Journal of Navigation, Institution of Engineering and Technology, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Word Congress, and ITS America to reprint published content  Various technologies licensed to DAJUTA, LLC in 2010 86
    87. 87. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Publications – Journals 1. "A Location-Aware Framework for Intelligent Real-Time Mobile Applications," IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 58-67, July-Sept. 2011. 2. “Positional Accuracy of Assisted GPS Data from High-Sensitivity GPS-enabled Mobile Phones,” The Journal of Navigation, volume 64, issue 03, pp. 381-399. July 2011. 3. “Global Positioning System Integrated with Personalized Real-Time Transit Information from Automatic Vehicle Location,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Transit 2010 Vol 1, No. 2143, pp. 168-176, October 2010. 4. “G-Sense: A Scalable Architecture for Global Sensing and Monitoring”, IEEE Network Magazine, Vol.24 No.4, July 2010. 5. “Automating Mode Detection for Travel Behavior Analysis by Using GPS-enabled Mobile Phones and Neural Networks,” Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2010, Vol. 4, Iss. 1, pp. 37–49. doi: 10.1049/iet-its.2009.0029. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010. 6. “Location API 2.0 for J2ME – A New Standard in Location for Java-enabled Mobile Phones,” Computer Communications, Volume 31, Issue 6, pp. 1091-1103, 18 April 2008. doi:10.1016/j.comcom.2008.01.045. 7. “The Travel Assistance Device: Utilizing GPS-enabled Mobile Phones to Aid Transit Riders with Special Needs,” Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2010, Vol. 4, Iss. 1, pp. 12– 23. doi: 10.1049/iet-its.2009.0028. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010. 8. “A General Architecture in Support of Interactive, Multimedia, Location-based Mobile Applications”, IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 44, No. 11, pp. 156-163, November 2006. 87
    88. 88. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Publications – Conference Proceedings 88 1. “TAD – Travel Assistance Mobile App to Help Transit Riders,” Proceedings of the 2011 ITS World Congress, Orlando, FL, October 18, 2011. 2. “From Idealism to Realism: Lessons Learned from Development of Standards-Based Software for Advanced Public Transportation Systems,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences’ Transportation Research Board 90th Annual Meeting, Paper #11-2254. January 24, 2011. Paper #11-2254. 3. “Evaluating the Deployment of a Mobile Navigation Device at Four Transit Agencies in Florida,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences’ Transportation Research Board 90th Annual Meeting, Paper #11-2213. January 24, 2011. 4. “Integration of GPS-Enabled Mobile Phones and AVL: Personalized Real-Time Transit Navigation Information on Your Phone,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences’ Transportation Research Board 89th Annual Meeting, Paper # 10-2571. Washington, D.C., January 12th, 2010. 5. “TRAC-IT: A Software Architecture Supporting Simultaneous Travel Behavior Data Collection and Real-Time Location-Based Services for GPS-Enabled Mobile Phones,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences’ Transportation Research Board 88th Annual Meeting, Paper #09-3175. January, 2009. 6. “The Travel Assistant Device: Utilizing GPS-Enabled Mobile Phones to Aid Transit Riders with Special Needs,” 15th World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems, New York, New York, November 16-20, 2008. Paper # 30429. 7. “Real-time Travel Path Prediction using GPS-enabled Mobile Phones,” 15th World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems, New York, New York, November 16-20, 2008. Paper # 30413. 8. “Trac-It - A ‘Smart’ User Interface For A Real-Time, Location-Aware, Multimodal Transportation Survey,” 15th World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems, New York, New York, November 16-20, 2008. Paper # 30153. 9. “Dynamic Management of Real-Time Location Data on GPS-enabled Mobile Phones,” Proceedings of IEEE UBICOMM 2008 – The Second International Conference on Mobile Ubiquitous Computing, Systems, Services, and Technologies, Valencia, Spain, September 29 – October 4, 2008.
    89. 89. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Issued U.S. Patents 1. U.S. Patent # 8,036,679 – Optimizing performance of location-aware applications using state machines. Issued March 20, 2012, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. 2. U.S. Patent # 8,045,954 – Wireless Emergency-Reporting System. Issued March 20, 2012, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. 3. U.S. Patent # 8,145,183 - On-Demand Emergency Notification System using GPS-equipped Devices. Issued March 27, 2012, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. 4. U.S. Patent # 8,138,907 – Travel Assistant Device. Issued March 20, 2012, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. 5. U.S. Patent # 8,169,342 - Method of Providing a Destination Alert to a Transit System Rider. Issued May 1, 2012, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. 89
    90. 90. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Acknowledgements  My major professors, Dr. Rafael Perez & Dr. Miguel Labrador, for their mentoring, patience, and guidance throughout my untraditional doctoral journey  My committee:  Dr. Rafael Perez  Dr. Miguel Labrador  Dr. Hyun Kim  Dr. Thomas Weller  Dr. Dewey Rundus  Dr. Tapas Das, Chair 90 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    91. 91. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Acknowledgements  Phil Winters, for his trust and supervision as I built my research career  Nevine Georggi, Ed Hillsman, and rest of the TDM Team for their support and collaborations  CUTR Management, for their support of our many research projects  REU and graduate students who contributed to our research:  Alfredo Perez, Isaac Taylor, Marcy Gordon, Khoa Tran, Leon Augustine, David Aguilar, Josh Kuhn, Ismael Roman, Oscar Lara, Narin Persad, Dmitry Belov, Jeremy Weinstein, Paola Gonzalez, Tiffany Burrell, Francis Gelderloos, Joksan Flores, Jorge Castro, Richard Meana, Theo Larkins, Hector Tosado, Marcel Munoz 91 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    92. 92. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 And support from:  National Center for Transit Research  Florida Department of Transportation  US Department of Transportation  National Science Foundation  Sprint-Nextel Application Developer Program 92 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    93. 93. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Thank You to Family and Friends!  This is dedicated to Carlene, my wonderful wife, for her undying faith, hope, love, encouragement, and belief in me, and Zach, my new son  To my family - Mom and Dad, my brother Ryan and sister-in-law Daphna, Momma Brown and Matt  Everyone else who has supported me 93 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    94. 94. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Questions? 94 Research Associate & Ph.D. Candidate Center for Urban Transportation Research & Department of Computer Science & Engineering University of South Florida (813) 974-7208 USF Location-Aware Information Systems Lab: http://www.locationaware.usf.edu/ Sean J. Barbeau, M.S. Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    95. 95. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Extra slides 95
    96. 96. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Known LBS Architectures  Early architectures implemented positioning systems such as assisted GPS 96 Hardware (e.g., Qualcomm chipset) Operating System (e.g., Linux) Device Cell Network Link Layer (e.g., CDMA IS-95) Introduction Known LBS Architectures Challenges Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions Carrier Servers Hardware (e.g., Intel CPU/Motherboard) Operating System (e.g., Linux) Custom Network Server
    97. 97. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Known LBS Architectures  Next, servers were added to communicate with public safety access points (PSAPs) for e911  Not accessible to apps 97 Hardware (e.g., Qualcomm chipset) Operating System (e.g., Linux) Device Cell Network Link Layer (e.g., CDMA IS-95) Private Network PSAP Introduction Known LBS Architectures Challenges Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions Link Layer (e.g., Fiber) Network Layer (e.g., IP) Tranport Layer (e.g., TCP, UDP) Application Layer (e.g., HTTP, FTP, VOIP) Hardware (e.g., Intel CPU/Motherboard) Operating System (e.g., Linux) Custom PSAP Server
    98. 98. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 My focus – Mobile LAISYC platform  There have been other contributors to our research  I have implemented ~96% of mobile LAISYC platform/test code in Java over ~7 years 98 19,940 893 LAISYC Device-side Lines of Code Barbeau Others 5,139 9,905 LAISYC Server-side Lines of Code Barbeau Others Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    99. 99. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 U.S. Patent # 8,036,679 – Optimizing performance of location-aware applications using state machines. IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 58-67, July-Sept. 2011. © 2011 IEEE Proceedings of IEEE UBICOMM 2008 – The Second International Conference on Mobile Ubiquitous Computing, Systems, Services, and Technologies, Valencia, Spain, September 29 – October 4, 2008. © 2008 IEEE The Journal of Navigation, volume 64, issue 03, pp. 381-399. July 2011. © 2011 The Royal Institute of Navigation. 99 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    100. 100. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012  stopped_speed_threshold = 1 m/s  95th percentile of horizontal error  high_speed_threshold = 1.5 m/s  98th percentile of horizontal error 100 0.00 3.25 0.36 0.25 0.5 1 1.435 1.5925 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 Min Max Avg 50th percent. 68th percent. 95th percent. 98th percent. 99th percent. Speed(m/s) Speed Error GPS Speed Observations When Stationary Indoors (n = 165, recorded over 5.5 hours)
    101. 101. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 GPS Auto-Sleep 101 Device GPS Type Sample Size Min Max Avg 50th 68th 95th RMSE Motorola i580 Assisted 478 0.74 90.69 15.16 9.78 15.15 47.9 21.64 Sanyo 7050 Assisted 1513 0.16 32.04 8.78 6.23 9.33 24.44 11.33 Horizontal Error Statistics (meters) Motorola i580 Sanyo 7050 True Location  moved_distance_threshold = 100 m  Based on max. observed horizontal error of 90.69 m
    102. 102. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 102  high_horizontal_accuracy_threshold = 80 m  Based on max. observed hor. acc. of 58 m GPS Auto-Sleep
    103. 103. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 58-67, July-Sept. 2011, doi:10.1109/MPRV.2010.48 © 2011 IEEE The Journal of Navigation, volume 64, issue 03, pp. 381-399. July 2011. © 2011 The Royal Institute of Navigation. Proceedings of IEEE UBICOMM 2008 – The Second International Conference on Mobile Ubiquitous Computing, Systems, Services, and Technologies, Valencia, Spain, September 29 – October 4, 2008. © 2008 IEEE 103 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    104. 104. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Critical Point Algorithm 104 Critical Point Evaluation Sliding Window Non-critical Point (discarded) Last Critical Point Current Point [ ] [ ] [ ] Last Trigger Point (Under Evaluation)
    105. 105. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Critical Point Algorithm 105 Critical Point Sliding Window Memory Requirements Non-critical Point (discarded) Last Critical Point Current Point [ ] [ ] [ ] Last Trigger Point (Under Evaluation) [ ] [ ] [ ] Iteration X Iteration X+1 Iteration X+2 [ ] [ ] [ ]
    106. 106. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Critical Point Algorithm 106 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 Min Max Avg 20th percent 25th percent 50th percent 68th percent 95th percent Std dev Speed(meterspersecond) Outdoor Walking GPS Speed n = 53  min_speed_threshold = 0.1 m/s  Based on walk speed 25th percentile of 0.2 m/s, 20th percent. of 0 m/s
    107. 107. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012  When comparing a) all points to b) critical points using a min_speed_threshold of 0.1 meters per second, the general walking path of the user is preserved, with some filtering at the beginning of the trip (bottom left of each image) 107 a) b)
    108. 108. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012  Over 97% of the GPS drift shown here at an indoor stationary location can be filtered out by the Critical Point Algorithm when using a 0.1 meters per second min_speed_threshold 108 Min Speed Number of Critical Points Total Number of Points % Savings Bytes Saved* Walking 0 50 53 5.66% 357 0.1 39 53 26.42% 1,666 Min Speed Number of Critical Points Total Number of Points % Savings Bytes Saved* Stationary 0 904 3519 74.31% 311,185 0.1 91 3519 97.41% 407,932 *Based on 119 bytes per UDP payload
    109. 109. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Critical Point Algorithm 109 Possible true position when sampled Sampled GPS position Estimated horizontal accuracy (68th percentile by Java ME specification) Possible true path Observed Path
    110. 110. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Funded by: • National Center for Transit Research • US Department of Transportation • Florida Department of Transportation 110 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    111. 111. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 TRAC-IT  Created for bus, bike, walk, car travel data collection  Passive and Active modes  Simultaneous location- based services as incentive 111 TRAC-ITTRAC-IT <- Back Select (1) Work Related (2) Shopping (3) Pickup Someone (4) Go Home etc. ... Purpose of Trip:
    112. 112. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 TRAC-IT Deployment 112 Date Range 2/10/2011 to 4/29/2011 Total Number of Users 30 Total Number of Sessions 1,857 Avg. Session Length (hrs) 15.44 Total Survey Time (days) 1,194.80 Avg. Survey Time per User (days) 39.83 Total Number of GPS fixes Received 4,023,917 Avg. Number of GPS fixes per Session 2,166.89 Avg. Number of GPS fixes per User 134,130.57 TRAC-IT Data Collection for USDOT-funded project  2011 USDOT Value Pricing project in Tampa, FL  30 participants, 40 days avg. per participant  4,023,917 GPS fixes, 1,633 processed trips
    113. 113. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 TRAC-IT Deployment Analysis  95% of 899 sessions had less than 3.95% of lost UDP packets  Average session length was 15.44 hrs  (Avg. battery life was at least this long) 113 # Lost Per Session % Lost Per Session Min 0 0.00% Max 290 66.15% Avg 15.67 1.19% 50th percentile 8 0.48% 68th percentile 13 0.88% 95th percentile 59.15 3.95% UDP and Location Data Buffering - Packets Lost
    114. 114. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Funded by: • National Center for Transit Research • US Department of Transportation • Florida Department of Transportation • Transportation Research Board (TRB) IDEA program 114 Introduction Known LBS Architectures Limitations Proposed LAISYC Architecture Evaluation Conclusions
    115. 115. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Travel Assistance Device 115  Transit navigation app - Assists transit riders with intellectual disabilities by telling them when to exit the bus in real-time
    116. 116. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 Travel Trainers Plan trips via TAD website 116
    117. 117. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 TAD Mobile App Interface  TAD cell phone app tells the traveler to “Get Ready” and “Pull the Cord Now!” when it is time for them to exit the bus.  Prompts are visual, auditory, and tactile. 117 TADTAD Cancel Select Select Trip (1) Home to Work (2) Work to Home (3) Home to Movie Work to HomeWork to Home Back # Distance to Final Stop: 5.6 miles 18 Livingston West TADTAD OK Pull the Cord Now! (+Sound and Vibration)
    118. 118. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 TAD Bus Stop Detection Algorithm  Multiple iterations of algorithm after field tests  2 U.S. patents issued on final version, TAD system 118 Second-to-Last Stop Transit Vehicle Direction “Pull the Cord Now” Alert Location Legend Destination Stop Second-to-Last Stop Transit Vehicle Direction Zone2 Departure Check: If ((Zone1Arrival = true || Zone1Departure = true) && (Device in Zone 2) )Then Trigger “Pull Cord Now Get Ready Check: If (Device within W meters of 2nd to Last Stop) Then Trigger “Get Ready” Destination Stop Y X
    119. 119. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 TAD Analysis  Collaboration with Florida Mental Health Institute  33 trials with 3 individuals with moderate mental retardation (TAD = 100% accuracy for alerts)  Riders only requested stop and exited bus at correct location when TAD alerted was used 119 0 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 StepsCompleted Trials Baseline With TAD Baseline With TAD
    120. 120. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 LAISYC Publications (A) Session Management  IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 58-67, July-Sept. 2011, doi:10.1109/MPRV.2010.48  IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 44, No. 11, pp. 156-163, November 2006.  IEEE Network Magazine, Vol.24 No.4, July 2010. GPS Auto-Sleep  IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 58-67, July-Sept. 2011, doi:10.1109/MPRV.2010.48  The Journal of Navigation, volume 64, issue 03, pp. 381-399. July 2011. (C) 2011 The Royal Institute of Navigation.  Proceedings of IEEE UBICOMM 2008 – The Second International Conference on Mobile Ubiquitous Computing, Systems, Services, and Technologies, Valencia, Spain, September 29 – October 4, 2008.  U.S. Patent # 8,036,679 – Optimizing performance of location-aware applications using state machines. Critical Point Algorithm  IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 58-67, July-Sept. 2011, doi:10.1109/MPRV.2010.48  The Journal of Navigation, volume 64, issue 03, pp. 381-399. July 2011. (C) 2011 The Royal Institute of Navigation.  Proceedings of IEEE UBICOMM 2008 – The Second International Conference on Mobile Ubiquitous Computing, Systems, Services, and Technologies, Valencia, Spain, September 29 – October 4, 2008. Adaptive Location Data Buffering  IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 58-67, July-Sept. 2011, doi:10.1109/MPRV.2010.48 Location Data Encryption  IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 58-67, July-Sept. 2011, doi:10.1109/MPRV.2010.48 Location Data Signing  IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 58-67, July-Sept. 2011, doi:10.1109/MPRV.2010.48 120
    121. 121. Protected under U.S. Patents #8036679, #8045954, #8140256, #8145183, #8169342, Other Patents Pending USF 2012 LAISYC Publications (B) TRAC-IT  IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 58-67, July-Sept. 2011, doi:10.1109/MPRV.2010.48  15th World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems, New York, New York, November 16-20, 2008. Paper # 30153.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences’ Transportation Research Board 88th Annual Meeting, Paper #09-3175. January, 2009.  15th World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems, New York, New York, November 16-20, 2008. Paper # 30413. Travel Assistance Device (TAD)  IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 58-67, July-Sept. 2011, doi:10.1109/MPRV.2010.48  15th World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems, New York, New York, November 16-20, 2008. Paper # 30429.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences’ Transportation Research Board 89th Annual Meeting, Paper # 10-2571. Washington, D.C., January 12th, 2010.  Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Transit 2010 Vol 1, No. 2143, pp. 168- 176, October 2010.  Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2010, Vol. 4, Iss. 1, pp. 37–49. doi: 10.1049/iet-its.2009.0029. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010.  Proceedings of the 2011 ITS World Congress, Orlando, FL, October 18, 2011.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences’ Transportation Research Board 90th Annual Meeting, Paper #11-2254. January 24, 2011. Paper #11-2254.  Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2010, Vol. 4, Iss. 1, pp. 12–23. doi: 10.1049/iet-its.2009.0028. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences’ Transportation Research Board 90th Annual Meeting, Paper #11-2213. January 24, 2011.  U.S. Patent # 8,138,907 – Travel Assistant Device.  U.S. Patent # 8,169,342 - Method of Providing a Destination Alert to a Transit System Rider 121
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×