Research Data Management for librarians Sarah Jones & Marieke Guy Digital Curation CentreMiggie Pickton, University of Northampton
About this course Short presentations with exercises and discussion Five main sections ― Research data and RDM (30 mins) ― Data Management Planning (30 mins) ― Data sharing (20 mins) ― Skills (30 mins) ― RDM at Northampton (30 mins) Coffee break halfway through, after data sharing
IntroductionsIntroduce yourself and offer a reflection on the questions: What is your understanding of research? Do you know anything about data management? What do you want to find out today? Do you see a role for librarians in supporting RDM?
Exercise: What are research data? In pairs, list as many types of data as you can, focusing (if appropriate) on the subject areas you support You have 5 minutes
What are research data? All manner of things produced in the course of research
Defining research data Research data are collected, observed or created, for the purposes of analysis to produce and validate original research results Both analogue and digital materials are data Lab notebooks and software may be classed as data Digital data can be: ― created in a digital form (born digital) ― converted to a digital form (digitised)
Types of research data Instrument measurements Experimental observations Still images, video and audio Text documents, spreadsheets, databases Quantitative data (e.g. household survey data) Survey results & interview transcripts Simulation data, models & software Slides, artefacts, specimens, samples Sketches, diaries, lab notebooks …
What is data management?“the active management and appraisal of data overthe lifecycle of scholarly and scientific interest” Digital Curation Centre
What is involved in RDM? Data Management Planning Creating data Documenting data Create Accessing / using data Preserve Document Storage and backup Sharing data Share Use Preserving data Store
RDM principles and adviceto share with researchersn.b. Data Management Planning and Data Sharing arecovered in separate sectionsSee in particular:UK Data Archive, Managing and sharing data: best practice for researchershttp://data-archive.ac.uk/media/2894/managingsharing.pdf
Data creation Decide what data will be created and how - this should be communicated to the whole research team Develop procedures for consistency and data quality Choose appropriate software and formats - some are better for long-term preservation and reuse Ensure consent forms, licences and partnership agreements don’t limit options to share data if desired
Documentation Collect together all the information users would need to understand and reuse the data Create metadata at the time - it’s hard to do later Use standards where possible Name, structure and version files clearly
Access and use Restrict access to those who need to read/edit data Consider the data security implications or where you store data and from which devices you access files Choose appropriate methods to transfer / share data ― filestores & encrypted media rather than email & Dropbox
Storage and backup Use managed services where possible e.g. University filestores rather than local or external hard drives Ask the local IT team for advice 3… 2… 1… backup! ― at least 3 copies of a file ― on at least 2 different media ― with at least 1 offsite
Data selection It’s not possible to keep everything. Select based on: ― What has to be kept e.g. data underlying publications ― What legally must be destroyed ― What can’t be recreated e.g. environmental recordings ― What is potentially useful to others ― The scientific or historical value ― ...How to select and appraise research data:www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/how-guides/appraise-select-research-data
Data preservation Be aware of requirements to preserve data Consult and work with experts in this field Use available subject repositories, data centres and structured databases ― http://databib.org
Data Management PlanningDMPs are written at the start of a project to define: What data will be collected or created? How the data will be documented and described? Where the data will be stored? Who will be responsible for data security and backup? Which data will be shared and/or preserved? How the data will be shared and with whom?
Why develop a DMP?DMPs are often submitted with grant applications, butare useful whenever researchers are creating data.They can help researchers to: Make informed decisions to anticipate & avoid problems Avoid duplication, data loss and security breaches Develop procedures early on for consistency Ensure data are accurate, complete, reliable and secure
Which funders require a DMP?www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/policy-and-legal/ overview-funders-data-policies
What do research funders want? A brief plan submitted in grant applications, and in the case of NERC, a more detailed plan once funded 1-3 sides of A4 as attachment or a section in Je-S form Typically a prose statement covering suggested themes Outline data management and sharing plans, justifying decisions and any limitations
Five common themes / questions Description of data to be collected / created (i.e. content, type, format, volume...) Standards / methodologies for data collection & management Ethics and Intellectual Property (highlight any restrictions on data sharing e.g. embargoes, confidentiality) Plans for data sharing and access (i.e. how, when, to whom) Strategy for long-term preservation
Exercise: My DMP - a satire Read through the satirical DMP Highlight examples of bad practice Suggest alternative methods / approaches You have 15 minutesMy Data Management Plan – a satire, Dr C. Titus Brownhttp://ivory.idyll.org/blog/data-management.html
A useful framework to get started Think about why the questions are being asked Look at examples to get an idea of what to includewww.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/content/datamanagement/dmp/framework.html
Help from the DCC https://dmponline.dcc.ac.ukwww.dcc.ac.uk/resources/how-guides/develop-data-plan
How DMPonline works Create a plan based on relevant funder / institutional templates......and thenanswer the questions using the guidance provided
Supporting researchers with DMPsVarious types of support could be provided by libraries: Guidelines and templates on what to include in plans Example answers, guidance and links to local support A library of successful DMPs to reuse Training courses and guidance websites Tailored consultancy services Online tools (e.g. customised DMPonline)
Tips to share: writing DMPs Keep it simple, short and specific Seek advice - consult and collaborate Base plans on available skills and support Make sure implementation is feasible Justify any resources or restrictions neededAlso see: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7OJtiA53-Fk
What is data sharing? “… the practice of making data used for scholarly research available to others.” [Wikipedia]Who’s involved? the data sharer the data repository the secondary data user support staff!
Reasons to share dataBENEFITS DRIVERS Avoid duplication Public expectations Scientific integrity Government agenda More collaboration RCUK Data Policy Better research ― www.rcuk.ac.uk/research/Pages/ DataPolicy.aspx Increased citation Northampton RDM policy 69% increase shown in study ― http://tiny.cc/Research-Data- (Piwowar, 2007, PLoS) Policy
The expectation of public accessThe RCUK Common Principles state that: “Publicly funded research data are a public good, produced in the public interest, which should be made openly available with as few restrictions as possible in a timely and responsible manner that does not harm intellectual property.”
Exercise: barriers to data sharing Briefly list some reasons why certain data can’t be shared and consider whether any actions could be taken to reduce or overcome these restrictions You have 10 minutesConstraints on data sharing Possible solutions / approaches
Managing restrictions on sharingEthicsBalance data protection with data sharing Informed consent – cover current and future use Confidentiality – is anonymisation appropriate? Access control – who, what, when?IPR Clarify copyright before research starts Consider licensing options e.g. Creative Commons
Select formats for data sharingIt’s better to use formats that are: Unencrypted Uncompressed Non-proprietary/patent-encumbered Research360 Open, documented standard Standard representation (ASCII, Unicode) Type Recommended Avoid for data sharingTabular data CSV, TSV, SPSS portable ExcelText Plain text, HTML, RTF Word PDF/A only if layout mattersMedia Container: MP4, Ogg Quicktime Codec: Theora, Dirac, FLAC H264Images TIFF, JPEG2000, PNG GIF, JPGStructured data XML, RDF RDBMS Further examples: http://www.data-archive.ac.uk/create-manage/format/formats-table
How to share research data Use appropriate repositories ― http://databib.org License the data so it is clear how it can be reused ― www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/how-guides/license-research-data Make sure it’s clear how to cite the data ― http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/how-guides/cite-datasets
How are libraries engaging in RDM?The library is leading on most DCC institutional engagements.They are involved in: defining the institutional strategy developing RDM policy delivering training courses helping researchers to write DMPs advising on data sharing and citation setting up data repositories Library ... Researchwww.dcc.ac.uk/community/institutional-engagements Office IT
Why should libraries support RDM?RDM requires the input of all support services, butlibraries are taking the lead in the UK – why? ― existing data and open access leadership roles ― often run publication repositories ― have good relationships with researchers ― proven liaison and negotiation skills ― knowledge of information management, metadata etc ― highly relevant skill set
Exercise: skills to support RDM Based on the activities we discussed earlier, consider who may have relevant skills or expertise to share. You have 15 minutes Activity Library and IT Services Other professional Learning Services services Copyright Data citation Information literacy Data storage Digital preservation Metadata ...
Possible Library RDM roles Leading on local (institutional) data policy Bringing data into undergraduate research-based learning Teaching data literacy to postgraduate students Developing researcher data awareness Providing advice, e.g. on writing DMPs or advice on RDM within a project Explaining the impact of sharing data, and how to cite data Signposting who in the Uni to consult in relation to a particular question Auditing to identify data sets for archiving or RDM needs Developing and managing access to data collections Documenting what datasets an institution has Developing local data curation capacity RDMRose Lite Promoting data reuse by making known what is available
An exciting opportunity “Researchers need help to manage their data. This is a really exciting opportunity for libraries….” Liz Lyon, VALA 2012 Leadership Providing tools and support Advocacy and training Developing data informatics capacity & capability
Potential challenges Librarians are already over-taxed! ― Other challenges in supporting research (Auckland, 2012) ― Getting up-to-speed and keeping up-to-date How deep is our understanding of research, especially scientific research and our level of subject knowledge? Translating library practices to research data issues Will researchers look to libraries for this support? RDMRose Lite Still need to resource and develop infrastructure
RDM drivers at Northampton REF: research environment; impact Institutional reputation Pressure from funders: government; RCUK; EPSRC (sharing mandates) Publisher demands: evidence to support published work Legislative requirements: FOI/EIR requests; Data Protection Long term (open) access: reuse and repurpose Good research practice
A (very) brief history of RDM at NorthamptonMay-June • First research data (DAF) project aims to establish researchers’ current RDM practices 2010 • DAF project report presented to University Research Committee (URC)October 2010 • URC working group convened to develop research data policyJan-June • Research Data Policy proposed, refined and approved by URC 2011 • Research data roadmap created in response to EPSRC requirementsApril 2012 • DCC ‘engagement starts • RDM training and guidance for researchers – led by DCC, supported by LLSOngoing • Piloting of TUNDRA2 for research data storage and access
Northampton RDM policy Adopt the RCUK code of good practice Write and follow a Data Management Plan Make data accessible wherever possible Deposit in a repository for preservation www.northampton.ac.uk/info/20283/academic- research/1606/research-data-policy
UoN research data roadmap Maps current and planned practice to EPSRC expectations Covers: awareness of regulatory environment; connection with published papers; access to datasets; use of metadata; and data curation Coverage extended to all subject areas to encourage good data management practice and ensure equality of provision Roadmap approved by R&EC in April 2012 But extra resources still need approval by UET
DCC Engagement So far DCC staff have run training sessions on: ― Managing your PhD data (for research students) ― Managing data through the research lifecycle (Business) ― Meeting funders’ requirements for RDM (Social Sciences) And provided guidance: ― Creation of a DMPonline template for the University of Northampton, with attached guidelines ― Development of a guide to meeting ESRC data management planning requirements (in conjunction with John Horton) We have also run one-to-one RDM clinics for researchers Still to come: ― Further training for Schools ― Series of posts on the Research Support Hub ― Further support for research data storage...
TUNDRA2 for research data The University (led by Phil Oakman) is rolling out TUNDRA 2 ― open content management system ― to store, manage and preserve files ― facility to share internally and externally Jane Callaghan & colleagues are piloting this for managing research data in her big European project Phil hopes to develop a generic template in TUNDRA2 that will serve other research projects Let us know if you know of others who would like to be involved
Exercise: supporting RDM at Northampton? In small groups, discuss which activities you think should fall within your role and which shouldn’t. Do you feel confident to support RDM? How would you like to see things develop? You have 15 minutes
Summary In the light of external drivers, researchers at Northampton need support for RDM LLS has a key role in shaping services for researchers in this area LLS staff have an opportunity to apply their skills in a new and exciting way
Feedback Has the event met your expectations? ― If not, what would you have liked to see more / less of? Was the content useful? Did you like the mix of exercises?
AcknowledgementIdeas and content have been taken from various courses: ― Skills matrix, ADMIRe project, University of Nottingham http://admire.jiscinvolve.org/wp/2012/09/18/rdmnottingham-training-event ― DIY Training Kit for Librarians, University of Edinburgh http://datalib.edina.ac.uk/mantra/libtraining.html ― Managing your research data, Research360, University of Bath http://opus.bath.ac.uk/32296 ― RDMRose Lite, University of Sheffield http://rdmrose.group.shef.ac.uk/?page_id=364 ― RoaDMaP training materials, University of Leeds http://library.leeds.ac.uk/roadmap-project-outputs ― SupportDM modules, University of East London http://www.uel.ac.uk/trad/outputs/resources
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