Diabetes Mellitus
Prepared by :
Aini Najihah Bt Nasurudin
Aifaa Anira Bt Anuar

1
Contents
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Introduction and definition
Aetiology and causes
Pathosiology
Investigation
Signs and sympt...
Introduction

Diabetes

Mellitus

Insipidus
3
 Most common is diabetes mellitus.
 Definition: excessively high levels of blood
sugar(glucose), and the presence of glu...
There are 3 types of Diabetes
mellitus
1. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
2. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
3. Gestational diabetes

5
Aetiology
• Factors of the disease:
 Gender
-for type II commonly attack men more than
women
 Aging
-usually at age 45 y...
 Heredity
i) Parents
-have diabetes type II, the kids will inherit it.
-If both parents have type I, the risk of the
kids...
Causes
 Type I Diabetes mellitus most
common caused by three area :
 Heredity
 Viral infection
 Severe physical and em...

o
o
o

Type II Diabetes Mellitus caused by
Heredity more stronger causes.
Obesity
Lack of exercise

9
Pathophysiology
Type I Diabetes
 Insulitis :Disease of the pancreas caused by
the infiltration of lymphocytes
 Lobules c...
Type II Diabetes
 Insulin resistance : Insulin become less
effective at lowering blood sugars
 Leads to raised up insuli...
Investigation






Urinalysis for ketones
Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test
Random blood sugar level
Fasting blood suga...
Symptom

13
Sign & Symptom


Type 1

 Type 2

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

Increased thirst
Increased urination
Weight loss
Blurred visio...
Complication

15
Complication
 Heart & Blood Vessel Disease
-coronary artery disease, chest pain, heart
attack, stroke, high blood pressur...
Complication
 Foot damage
-cuts and blister can become serious
infection, leg amputation
 Skin & mouth condition
-fungal...
Doctor’s Management

18
Doctor’s Management


Type 1

i. Insulin Injections
ii. Dietary plan
iii. Regular check up
of blood sugar levels
iv. Dail...
Reference
 Diabetes.co.uk (2013)
 Jerry Edelwich & Archie Brodsky.
(1988).Diabetes : Caring For Your
Emotions As Well As...
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Diabetes mellitus

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Diabetes mellitus

  1. 1. Diabetes Mellitus Prepared by : Aini Najihah Bt Nasurudin Aifaa Anira Bt Anuar 1
  2. 2. Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Introduction and definition Aetiology and causes Pathosiology Investigation Signs and symptoms Complications Doctor’s management 2
  3. 3. Introduction Diabetes Mellitus Insipidus 3
  4. 4.  Most common is diabetes mellitus.  Definition: excessively high levels of blood sugar(glucose), and the presence of glucose in the urine.  The term diabetes mellitus describes as a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar) with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting on effects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both  It is estimated that in 2010 there were globally 285 million people (approximately 6.4% of the adult population) suffering from this disease. 4
  5. 5. There are 3 types of Diabetes mellitus 1. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 2. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 3. Gestational diabetes 5
  6. 6. Aetiology • Factors of the disease:  Gender -for type II commonly attack men more than women  Aging -usually at age 45 years, will rise considerably at age 65 years  Environmental disease -unavoidable virus infection -too much stress -high alcohol intake 6
  7. 7.  Heredity i) Parents -have diabetes type II, the kids will inherit it. -If both parents have type I, the risk of the kids to inherit are less 20% ii) Identical Twins -if one twin develops Type II diabetes, the other twin chances is almost 100% will develop it. -In Type I diabetes, only 40 to 50% of the second twins will develop the disease if other twin have it. 7
  8. 8. Causes  Type I Diabetes mellitus most common caused by three area :  Heredity  Viral infection  Severe physical and emotional stress 8
  9. 9.  o o o Type II Diabetes Mellitus caused by Heredity more stronger causes. Obesity Lack of exercise 9
  10. 10. Pathophysiology Type I Diabetes  Insulitis :Disease of the pancreas caused by the infiltration of lymphocytes  Lobules containing heavily infiltrated islets seen adjacent to unaffected lobules  Beta cells destroyed: the glucagon and other hormone-secreting cells in the islet remaining intact  No insulin is available 10
  11. 11. Type II Diabetes  Insulin resistance : Insulin become less effective at lowering blood sugars  Leads to raised up insulin secretion in order to maintain normal blood glucose levels  Pancreatic B-cells unable to sustain the increased demand for insulin and slowly progressive insulin deficiency develops  Pancreatic B-cells failure 11
  12. 12. Investigation      Urinalysis for ketones Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test Random blood sugar level Fasting blood sugar level Oral glucose tolerance test 12
  13. 13. Symptom 13
  14. 14. Sign & Symptom  Type 1  Type 2 i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Increased thirst Increased urination Weight loss Blurred vision Extreme tiredness Constant hunger i. Unusual Thirst ii. Frequent urination(especially at night) iii. Weight loss iv. Blurred vision v. Feeling tired vi. Frequent infections vii. Slow wound healing 14
  15. 15. Complication 15
  16. 16. Complication  Heart & Blood Vessel Disease -coronary artery disease, chest pain, heart attack, stroke, high blood pressure  Nerve Damage -injured capillaries that nourish nerve, loss sense of feeling in affected limb  Kidney Damage -kidney failure, damage blood vessel clusters that filter waste from blood  Eye Damage -Blindness, Glaucoma, Cataracts 16
  17. 17. Complication  Foot damage -cuts and blister can become serious infection, leg amputation  Skin & mouth condition -fungal infection, Gum infection  Pregnancy complication -miscarriage, dangerous for both  Hearing problem 17
  18. 18. Doctor’s Management 18
  19. 19. Doctor’s Management  Type 1 i. Insulin Injections ii. Dietary plan iii. Regular check up of blood sugar levels iv. Daily exercise v. prevent/treat chronic complications vi. Enhance health with food/PA  Type 2 i. Diet ii. Exercise for weight loss iii. Insulin Injections may also be used 19
  20. 20. Reference  Diabetes.co.uk (2013)  Jerry Edelwich & Archie Brodsky. (1988).Diabetes : Caring For Your Emotions As Well As Your Health  Davidson’s Principles & Practice of Medicine 20

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