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Diabetes mellitus

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  • 1. Diabetes Mellitus Prepared by : Aini Najihah Bt Nasurudin Aifaa Anira Bt Anuar 1
  • 2. Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Introduction and definition Aetiology and causes Pathosiology Investigation Signs and symptoms Complications Doctor’s management 2
  • 3. Introduction Diabetes Mellitus Insipidus 3
  • 4.  Most common is diabetes mellitus.  Definition: excessively high levels of blood sugar(glucose), and the presence of glucose in the urine.  The term diabetes mellitus describes as a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar) with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting on effects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both  It is estimated that in 2010 there were globally 285 million people (approximately 6.4% of the adult population) suffering from this disease. 4
  • 5. There are 3 types of Diabetes mellitus 1. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 2. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 3. Gestational diabetes 5
  • 6. Aetiology • Factors of the disease:  Gender -for type II commonly attack men more than women  Aging -usually at age 45 years, will rise considerably at age 65 years  Environmental disease -unavoidable virus infection -too much stress -high alcohol intake 6
  • 7.  Heredity i) Parents -have diabetes type II, the kids will inherit it. -If both parents have type I, the risk of the kids to inherit are less 20% ii) Identical Twins -if one twin develops Type II diabetes, the other twin chances is almost 100% will develop it. -In Type I diabetes, only 40 to 50% of the second twins will develop the disease if other twin have it. 7
  • 8. Causes  Type I Diabetes mellitus most common caused by three area :  Heredity  Viral infection  Severe physical and emotional stress 8
  • 9.  o o o Type II Diabetes Mellitus caused by Heredity more stronger causes. Obesity Lack of exercise 9
  • 10. Pathophysiology Type I Diabetes  Insulitis :Disease of the pancreas caused by the infiltration of lymphocytes  Lobules containing heavily infiltrated islets seen adjacent to unaffected lobules  Beta cells destroyed: the glucagon and other hormone-secreting cells in the islet remaining intact  No insulin is available 10
  • 11. Type II Diabetes  Insulin resistance : Insulin become less effective at lowering blood sugars  Leads to raised up insulin secretion in order to maintain normal blood glucose levels  Pancreatic B-cells unable to sustain the increased demand for insulin and slowly progressive insulin deficiency develops  Pancreatic B-cells failure 11
  • 12. Investigation      Urinalysis for ketones Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test Random blood sugar level Fasting blood sugar level Oral glucose tolerance test 12
  • 13. Symptom 13
  • 14. Sign & Symptom  Type 1  Type 2 i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Increased thirst Increased urination Weight loss Blurred vision Extreme tiredness Constant hunger i. Unusual Thirst ii. Frequent urination(especially at night) iii. Weight loss iv. Blurred vision v. Feeling tired vi. Frequent infections vii. Slow wound healing 14
  • 15. Complication 15
  • 16. Complication  Heart & Blood Vessel Disease -coronary artery disease, chest pain, heart attack, stroke, high blood pressure  Nerve Damage -injured capillaries that nourish nerve, loss sense of feeling in affected limb  Kidney Damage -kidney failure, damage blood vessel clusters that filter waste from blood  Eye Damage -Blindness, Glaucoma, Cataracts 16
  • 17. Complication  Foot damage -cuts and blister can become serious infection, leg amputation  Skin & mouth condition -fungal infection, Gum infection  Pregnancy complication -miscarriage, dangerous for both  Hearing problem 17
  • 18. Doctor’s Management 18
  • 19. Doctor’s Management  Type 1 i. Insulin Injections ii. Dietary plan iii. Regular check up of blood sugar levels iv. Daily exercise v. prevent/treat chronic complications vi. Enhance health with food/PA  Type 2 i. Diet ii. Exercise for weight loss iii. Insulin Injections may also be used 19
  • 20. Reference  Diabetes.co.uk (2013)  Jerry Edelwich & Archie Brodsky. (1988).Diabetes : Caring For Your Emotions As Well As Your Health  Davidson’s Principles & Practice of Medicine 20