Hs 220


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Hs 220

  3. 3. First of all it is necessary to examine the meaning of the words Science and Ethics, independently and then in the context of socitey HS 220
  4. 4. SCIENCE: Science is a process, a system, a way to acquire knowledge about the physical world around us. Science, in its pure form, doesn’t have sides, good or bad, positive or negative. Science, one could propose, is the force of understanding HS 220
  5. 5. ETHICS: It is the attempt to arrive at general moral standards that tell us (people) how to judge right from wrong, or good from bad, and how to live moral lives It is a set of criteria, created by man, to define a guideline to his existence. A guideline between what should and what should not occur. HS 220
  6. 6. The above interpretations are, at first glance, not connected to each other. HS 220
  7. 7. Why should we need Ethics in Science? HS 220
  8. 8.  Science can furnish a strong factual account of the world but it lacks the internal resources to deal with the many normative questions it raises.  On its own, science cannot answer questions about right and wrong about how we ought to make decisions and act. HS 220
  9. 9. Hence it must appeal to ethics to help formulate adequate responses. HS 220
  10. 10. Is Science Objective and Value Free? HS 220
  11. 11.  The common characterization of science as value-free or valueneutral can be misleading.  Scientists strongly disvalue fraud, error and "pseudoscience", for example.  At the same time, scientists typically value reliability, testability, accuracy, precision, generality, simplicity of concepts and heuristic power HS 220
  12. 12. Ethos of Science by Robert Merton:  Universalism: Race, nationality, religion, class, or other personal or social attributes of the researcher should not matter to the validity of conclusion.  Communism: Open communication and common ownership of knowledge.  Dis intrestedness: Beliefs not biased by authority--achieved through accountability to expert peers  Organized Skepticism: It means that scientific claims must be exposed to critical scrutiny before being accepted. HS 220
  13. 13. Clash between Merton ethos and ethical values: Weapons research, even if conducted according to Merton's norms and its results evaluated using scientific standards, is not ethically idle or value-neutral. Research into better agricultural methods aimed to alleviate hunger or lowcost forms of harnessing solar or wind energy in poor rural areas is also not ethical. HS 220
  14. 14. Ethics in Research There are several reasons why it is important to adhere to ethical norms in research. Norms promote the aims of research, such as knowledge, truth, and avoidance of error. For example, prohibitions against fabricating, falsifying, or misrepresenting research data promote the truth and avoid error. HS 220
  15. 15. Ethics in Research Ethical standards promote the values that are essential to collaborative work, such as trust, accountability, mutual respect, and fairness. For example, many ethical norms in research, such as guidelines for authorship, copyright and patenting policies, data sharing policies, and confidentiality rules in peer review, are designed to protect intellectual property interests while encouraging collaboration. Most researchers want to receive credit for their contributions and do not want to have their ideas stolen or disclosed prematurely. HS 220
  16. 16. Ethics in Research  Many of the ethical norms help to ensure that researchers can be held accountable to the public. For Instance, federal policies on research misconduct, conflicts of interest, the human subjects protections, and animal care and use are necessary in order to make sure that researchers who are funded by public money can be held accountable to the public HS 220
  17. 17. Ethics in Research Ethical norms in research also help to build public support for research. For example, People more likely to fund research project if they can trust the quality and integrity of research. HS 220
  18. 18. Ethics in Research Many of the norms of research promote a variety of other important moral and social values, such as social responsibility, human rights, animal welfare, compliance with the law, and health and safety. Ethical lapses in research can significantly harm human and animal subjects, students, and the public. For example, a researcher who fabricates data in a clinical trial may harm or even kill patients, and a researcher who fails to abide by regulations and guidelines relating to radiation or biological safety may jeopardize his health and safety or the health and safety of staff and students HS 220
  19. 19. Codes and Policies for Research Ethics • Honesty: Strive for honesty in all scientific communications. Honestly report data, results, methods and procedures, and publication status • Objectivity: Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review, personnel decisions, grant writing, expert testimony, and other aspects of research where objectivity is expected or required • Integrity: Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of thought and action. • Carefullness: Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically examine your own work and the work of your peers • Openness: Share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. Be open to criticism and new ideas. HS 220
  20. 20. • Respect for Intellectual property: Honor patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property. Do not use unpublished data, methods, or results without permission. Never plagiarize • Responsible Publication: Publish in order to advance research and scholarship, not to advance just your own career. Avoid wasteful and duplicative publication. • Confidentiality: Protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for publication, personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records. • Responsible Mentoring: Help to educate, mentor, and advise students. Promote their welfare and allow them to make their own decisions • Respect for colleagues: Respect your colleagues and treat them fairly. HS 220
  21. 21. • Social Responsibility: Strive to promote social good and prevent or mitigate social harms through research, public education, and advocacy. • Non-Discrimination: Avoid discrimination against colleagues or students on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or other factors that are not related to their scientific competence and integrity. • Competence: Maintain and improve your own professional competence and expertise through lifelong education and learning; take steps to promote competence in science as a whole. • Legality: Know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies. • Animal Care: Show proper respect and care for animals when using them in research. Do not conduct unnecessary or poorly designed animal experiments. HS 220
  22. 22. • Human Subjects Protection: When conducting research on human subjects, minimize harms and risks and maximize benefits; respect human dignity, privacy, and autonomy; take special precautions with vulnerable populations; and strive to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly. HS 220
  23. 23. Are there any people who can offer ethical advice? It may be useful to seek advice from a colleague, a senior researcher, your department chair, or anyone else you can trust(?) HS 220
  24. 24. Example for Research Plagiarism In 1953 when James Watson and Francis Crick were credited for discovering the structure of the DNA, when in fact the credit should have gone to a brilliant female biologist Rosalind Franklin. Franklin came up with the double helix structure based on X-ray images of the DNA. Her supervisor passed her data to Watson and Crick who at the time were also studying the DNA and realized Franklin was on the right track. In 1962 Watson and Crick received the Nobel Prize for 'their' discovery. Franklin on the other hand was already dead. She died at the age of 38 due to radiation exposure she got from taking X-rays as part of her original research. HS 220
  25. 25. Right & Wrong of New Knowledge HS 220
  26. 26. The USA alone is estimated to have spent over $ 10 trillion on nuclear arms during the Cold War (1945 - 1990). What could have been achieved if this money would have been spent on infrastructure, health care, education and medical research? HS 220
  27. 27. Right & Wrong in Science Today Genetic research is a modern area of study that raises many ethical questions. For example, for gene therapies it is sometime necessary to harvest stem cells from human embryos. HS 220
  28. 28. Right & Wrong in Science Today Is it right to harvest these cells, even if it is done to cure someone? The embryo could develop into a healthy baby. However due to advancement in scientific knowledge only let the people to raise the question about embryo which was once considered as non living So pursuit of new knowledge and technologies force us to face new ethical questions HS 220
  29. 29. Right & Wrong in Science Today To study human genes researchers have fertilized eggs that contain both human and animal DNA. Is producing hybrid fetuses morally right? Are we playing god when we conduct such experiments? Some hybrid animals that have been created by researches are quite bizarre like a mouse with a human ear. Some genetically manipulated animals are used to produce medicine, for example genetically manipulated cows that produce insulin for diabetics. HS 220
  30. 30. Right & Wrong in Science Today Thus we can conclude from above “Morality to exist at all, there must be somethings that, regardless of consequences, should not be done” HS 220
  31. 31. However the advancement of genetic research holds much promise. In 2003 researchers managed to map out entire human DNA. We now are at verge of understanding the genetic basis for many diseases, and with genetic manipulation possibly curing them. For example couples could be screened so they know what risk they have to give births to a baby with a hereditary disease. If the risk is great they could opt to have a test tube baby that has been screened not to carry faulty genes, or through genetic manipulation the faulty gene could be replaced by a healthy one before planting the egg in the womb Thus, through rational and balanced arguments we may be able to come to wise judgments regarding the use of new knowledge and technologies even when it is impossible to predict all the consequences these may bring about. HS 220
  32. 32. Scientists about Ethics “Change is one thing, progress is another. Change is scientific, progress is ethical. Change is indubitable where as progress is a matter of controversy” -Bertrand Arthur William Russel But scientists proclaim that “Scientific Progress requires a critical mind, free of prejudice and open to new way of thinking” HS 220
  33. 33. “Relativity applies to Physics, not Ethics” -Einstein But finally Einstein regretted that was the great mistake in his life. HS 220
  34. 34. Universal Code of Ethics for Scientists “I will not, knowingly, carry out research which is to the detriment of humanity. If, in the event, research to which I have contributed is used, in my view, to the detriment of the human race then I shall work actively to combat its development”. -Proposed by Sir Arnold Wolfendale HS 220
  35. 35. Universal Code of Ethics for Scientists World conference on science Science Agenda—Framework for Action, Ethical issues  Ethics should be part of the education and training of all scientists.  Research institutions should foster the study of ethical aspects of scientific work.  The international scientific community should promote environmental ethics.  Scientific institutions should comply with ethical norms.  Governments and civil society should set up ethics committees.  Governments and civil society should organize debates on the ethical implications of the scientific work  UNESCO should strengthen its Bioethics Committee and the World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology. HS 220
  36. 36. Universal Code of Ethics for Scientists “Solutions to ethical problems that come from scientific progress cannot be imposed by dogma of faith, or by law. It is the civil society that must find an acceptable solution” HS 220
  37. 37. Bibliography Science and Ethics • B. Glass, "The Ethical Basis of Science" Science, Vol. 150. 1965, p. 1254. [Q1 S35] • C.E. Reagan, Ethics for Scientific Researchers, 2nd Ed. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1971. [BJ57 R4 1971] • J.A. Knight, "Exploring the Compromise of Ethical Principles in Science" Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. Vol. 27, 1984, p. 432. [QH301 P4] HS 220
  38. 38. Bibliography Norms of Science • C. J. Sindermann, "Winning the Games Scientists Play" (Plenum: New York, 1982). • H. Zuckerman. "Deviant Behavior and Social Control in Science" in Deviance and Social Change (Ed Sagarin, Ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, p. 87. [HM291 D483] • W. Schmaus. "Fraud and the Norms of Science" Science, Technology, & Human Values. Fall 1983. Vol. 8, #4, p. 12. [BJ57 N49] HS 220
  39. 39. Bibliography Plagiarism • M. Hunt. "A fraud that shook the world of science" New York Times Magazine. November 1, 1981, p. 1. [AP2 N675] • A.S. Brown and D.R. Murphy. "Cryptomnesia: Delineating indadvertent plagiarism" Journal of Experimental Psychology. Vol. 15, 1989, p. 432. [BF1 J615] • D.S. Greenberg. "Academic fraud is no longer a family affair" Los Angeles Times, December 6, 1988, p. 7. [AN L6] HS 220
  40. 40. Bibliography Scientific Credit • P. Zurer, "Making federal cases out of disputes over scientific credit" Chemical & Engineering News Feb. 24, 1997, p. 40. [TP1 C35] • R. L. Rawls, "Obesity gene battle shapes up: New uncoupling protein looks to be promising for antiobesity drugs, but who found its gene first? Chemical Engineering News May 24, 1997, p. 44. [TP1 C35] HS 220
  41. 41. Bibliography Last but not least Sambit Mallick’s Lecture Notes Ethos of Science HS 220
  42. 42. THANK YOU HS 220