Recent Trends in Ship Design – 2013
-S. Siva Chidambaram
Naval Architect / Marine Engineer
The Trends in Ship design mainly undergoes the following
Necessity of the customer
Change in Design with regard to Cost
Waste Heat Management
There are new ways to recover wa-sted heat in ships,
either as electrical power or use it to heat up cargo
Installation of Waste Heat Recovery/Utilization systems
while re-taining the ship’s basic design would lead to the
Fuel, accounts for a very large part of a ship’s operating
costs. Reusing the waste heat from engines to heat up
cargo areas, can save up to 20 % of a ship’s total annual
fuel consumption, thereby reducing CO2 emissions and
saving fuel costs.
In tests, emissions were re-duced up to 14 % by
recovering, otherwise wasted heat as electrical power.
Scrubbers are a significant option in the fore coming years.
When the global sulphur limit is enforced in the near future, Ships would be required to run on
low sulphur fuel or clean the exhaust continuously.
This will have a significant impact on the scrubbers.
A scrubber system that reduces Particulate matter mainly soot by up to 80% and Sox emis-sions
by up to 98 % is available in market which would be more environmental friendly.
More than 1 in 10 new ship buildings would be
delivered with gas fuelled engines in the next 8 years.
The number of liquefied natural gas fuelled ship
through 2020 depends heavily on fuel prices.
With LNG prices 10% above HFO, 7-8% of the new
buildings will be able to run on LNG.
If LNG prices goes down to 30% below HFO, the
uptake of LNG increases to 13%
In extreme case if LNG prices, 70% below HFO, the
LNG share on ship building is 30%
The global sulphur limit, if effective beginning in
2020, combined with 20% EEDI reduction
requirement will have a significant impact on the
implementation of gas fuelled engines.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation
The TIER III compliant engine in ECAs (Emission
control Areas) is the main challenge for Nox.
By 2016 approximately 40% of ships built by 2017
will have implemented an Exhaust gas recirculation
system(EGR) or selective catalytic reactors
Without a TIER III compliant engine, a ship built
after 2016 will not be able to enter the ECA’s
Ballast Water management
The key issue likely to have significant impact on this decade is the implementation of new
IMO Ballast water convention.
There have been many cases of alien species being introduced into new environments, with
ballast water being a major transfer mechanism in the world today.
Organisms carried away with ballast water can establish themselves in new environments
causing dramatic shifts in food webs, chemical cycling, disease outbreaks and indigenous
species extinction rates.
The cost of these invasions has been estimated to be in excess of $8 Billion annually in U.S
alone. In response to this IMO adopted the ballast water management convention
The convention is unique, that most ships dealing with international trade must have ballast
water treatment systems, installed by end of this decade.
The Ballast Water Management (BWM) Convention requires:
A ship-specific Ballast Water Management Plan approved by the Administration on board.
A Ballast Water Record Book on board.
Ballast water exchange (Regulation D-1)
An approved ballast water treatment system (Regulation D-2)
An International Ballast Water Management Certificate.
Many treatment systems are now available in the market.
Cavitation and Ultrasound Systems
Inert Gas De-oxygenation Systems
Ultraviolet Irradiation (UV) Systems
Available are some Chemical treatment plants too……
Indian - Ministry of Shipping deals with a Project titled ‘Ballast Free Ships’, where the process
is as follows. Two huge pipes running throughout the ship’s hull, where water can be
pumped in Stored, until the loading is over. Once loading is finished the water is discharged
by opening the ends of Pipes.
The minimum treatment efficiency required by IMO is outlined in the D-2 standard and type
approval is necessary to demonstrate compliance.
However, such approval is no guarantee that the treatment system will perform well in the
areas where the ship will trade. A treatment system that is optimal for one vessel may not be
the best solution for another.
Several countries have also established local restrictions on ships calling into their ports or
sailing in waters under their jurisdiction - causing confusion and concern in the market.
The careful selection of a treatment system is also important in order to ensure that the
system meets the ship-specific requirements, such as ballast water capacity, power
limitations, the integration of control systems, etc.
World’s First Zero Emission vessel
The shipping industry is leaning toward the eco-trend with several green ships being made
One such idea that has stood out among these ideas is the one to produce the world’s first
ever zero emission vessel- the E/S Orcelle.
Conceptualized by Wallenius Wilhelmsen Logistics, the vessel is to rely on wind, sun and
wave energy to run itself, not releasing any emissions into the environment, the highly
advanced design of the Orcelle is said to provide optimum cargo space to transport cars and
goods round the world.
In design, the Orcelle combines sustainable forms of energy captured through sails, solar
panels and wave energy converters to generate the energy required by the vessel.
This is then used to extract hydrogen from water with the aid of fuel cell technology. The
resultant fuel is a clean fuel that can then be made use of.
In this manner, there are zero emissions from the vessel as such. The subsequent electricity
generated, can also be used immediately or stored for times of no wind, sun or waves. The
only byproduct of this is heat and water.
The vessel is slated to launch in the next 10 years, with the advent of renewable
energy resources taking over – around 2025.
• NOISY SHIPS ARE ATTRACTING MORE HULL-FOULING.
Ships in port running generators are attracting more hull-fouling sea creatures because of the
noises they make.
Marine fouling, where barnacles, mussels, sponges and algae attach to a ship’s hull, is a huge
cost to the shipping industry through increased drag.
Millions of dollars are spent each year controlling fouling on commercial vessels and a lot of it
involves applying toxic anti-fouling paint.
Trials with underwater speakers and recording of cruise ships, logging and container ships, and
mussel larvae showed the larvae settled on the noisy hulls about 40 percent quicker than the
The scientists are hoping to suggest ways of reducing the underwater noise produced by
ships, such as dampening or eliminating sound or switching to shore-based electrical
supply when berthed.
Scientists from the Biomimetics-Innovation-Centre (B-I-C) in Germany have developed a
promising new anti-fouling surface that is toxin-free.
The new surface is based on a seed from a species of palm tree that is dispersed by ocean
Suspecting that certain seeds may have specialized surfaces that gave them the ability to
remain free of fouling to allow them to disperse further, the researchers floated seeds from
50 species in the North Sea for 12 weeks. At the end of the 12-week period, the seeds of 12
species showed no fouling at all.
They then began, by examining the micro-structure of the seeds’ surfaces, to see if they
could translate them into an artificial surface. The seeds they chose to mimic had a hairy-
To create an artificial surface similar to the seeds, the researchers used a silicone base with
fibers covering the surface.
This structure might be especially good at preventing fouling because the fibers constantly
move, preventing marine organisms from finding a place to settle.
The special vessel equipped with this topside lifting system (TLS) known as ‘Pieter Schelte’, can
lift and transport topsides of offshore platforms with a weight of up to 48,000 tons, all in one
Pieter Schelte is currently being built in South Korea and will be ready for use in early 2014.
To disassemble topsides of offshore platforms, workers would traditionally have to manually
disassemble the structure into individual parts whilst at sea – work that is both time consuming
This new vessel will completely lift the platforms from their steel ‘jacket’ and transport them
onto land, making disassembly much safer and cost-effective.
The lotus effect refers to the very high water repellence exhibited by the leaves of the lotus
flower. Because these plants have a natural cleaning mechanism and raindrops have almost no
contact with the surface.
Water droplets roll off the leaf and take dirt, insects, contaminants, water based adhesives,
honey, oil and other substances with them.
This phenomenon has been researched by scientist and can now be reproduced for use as
Time and money can be saved, and cleaning agents become almost redundant.
• X -bow is a unique bow design which was introduced by the Ulstein Group of Norway in 2006.
Since then the design has received great positive reviews from around the world and is now –
2013, used on several vessels.
So how is X-bow design different from a conventional hull design?
X Bow Hull Design:
X-bow is a “backward sloping bow” or an inverted ship bow design which is used for increasing
the fuel efficiency and safety of the vessel at sea.
As the name suggests, the inverted bow design has its farthest point at the extreme point of the
vessel (towards the waterline) which gives a continuous sharp bow shape to the hull. The sharp
design at the extreme front helps the vessel to cut through the waves and improve overall
stability, especially in heavy waves.
• The X bow design with its sharp hull does not generate a spray as it cuts through the waves.
• As the ship parts the waves efficiently, the wave energy transfer is less and the loss in vessel
speed is negligible.
• Moreover, as the X bow cuts through the waves instead of pitching over them, there is
considerable less amount of green water on the ship’s deck as compared to the ships with
• This also implies that there is almost negligible bow flare and slamming resulting from the
same in the front part of the ship.
Software s application in Ship Design
Ship designing is an aspect of ship building that has to be carried out perfectly without any
There are several ship designing software that have come up in the market to help marine
engineers and naval architects to create ships that can be used in any type of water and
The main technology that is used for the purpose of ship designs is CAD – Computer-Aided
CAD software's are used to create virtual ship models first and from them actual ships are
NAPA 2011, Maxsurf -16 , Ship constructor, NAVCAD, PROPCAD, AVEVA Marine-12,
AUTOSHIP, Autohydro, ORCA3D, Rhino, Multisurf, FastShip, Delftship, Nupas cadmatic, Tribon
M3, GHS 13 are software's which provides immense growth in Ship building.
In International shipping “Green Ship” is mainly associated with the Green Ship Award
Program. This design which is environment friendly in ship building is awarded or termed as
Green Ship Initiative, begun in 1999, successfully converting the entire diesel-powered vessel
fleet to biofuels and bio-lubricants
Green ships are the answer to fight and control sea and environmental pollution in future
The term would be provided, only when there is
Less hazardous material
Less CO2 Demand
Less Engine Exhaust gas
Low CO2 index (GHG Exhaust)
Prevent oil, noxious liquid pollution
Less sewage and garbage exhaust
A consistent trend change could be always observed for a period of every 8 years in Shipping.
But it would be better for our future, if Ship owners and Shipping companies would prefer on
Eco-friendly vessels are projected to see increased demand in 2013, as the International
Maritime Organization (IMO) has strengthened regulations on CO2 emissions and other
However, the global recession, a hike in fuel prices, and a tightening of the IMOEs
Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) should boost demand for eco-friendly vessels.
On the other hand, Ship-owners and shipping companies are not rushing their investments in
eco-friendly vessels because of tight financing.
With global merchant ship demand depressed overall, eco-friendly vessels offer little
incentive for shipbuilders. As investment paybacks could be delayed given the sluggish
market conditions, a large-scale investment does not appear to be an easy decision to make.