Roboticists develop man-made mechanicaldevices that can move bythemselves, whose motion must bemodelled, planned, sensed, actuated andcontrolled, and whose motion behaviourcan be influenced by “programming”.Robots are called “intelligent” if theysucceed in moving in safe interaction withan unstructured environment, whileautonomously achieving their specified
Definition of a RobotAn automatic device thatperforms functions normallyascribed to humans or amachine in the form of ahuman."
The word robotics was first used in Runaround, a shortstory published in 1942, by Isaac Asimov (born Jan.2, 1920, died Apr. 6, 1992). I, Robot, a collection of severalof these stories, was published in 1950.One of the first robots Asimov wrote about was arobotherapist. A modern counterpart to Asimovs fictionalcharacter is Eliza. Eliza was born in 1966 by aMassachusetts Institute of Technology Professor JosephWeizenbaum who wrote Eliza -- a computer program for thestudy of natural language communication between man andmachine.
Law Zero: A robot may not injurehumanity, or, through inaction, allow humanity tocome to harm.Law One: A robot may not injure a humanbeing, or, through inaction, allow a human being tocome to harm, unless this would violate a higherorder law.Law Two: A robot must obey orders given it byhuman beings, except where such orders wouldconflict with a higher order law.Law Three: A robot must protect its own existenceas long as such protection does not conflict with ahigher order law.
Most industrial robots have at least the following fiveparts:Sensors, Effectors, Actuators, Controllers, and commoneffectors known as Arms.Many other robots also have Artificial Intelligence andeffectors that help it achieve Mobility.This section discusses the basic technologies of a robot.
TYPES OF ROBOS• Mobile robots• Rolling robots• Walking robots• Stationary Robots• Autonomous Robots• Remote-control Robots
Mobile robots are able to move, usually they performtask such as search areas. A prime example is the MarsExplorer, specifically designed to roam the marssurface. Mobile robots are a great help to such collapsedbuilding for survivors Mobile robots are used for taskwhere people cannot go. Either because it is toodangerous of because people cannot reach the areathat needs to be searched.
Rolling robots have wheels to movearound. These are the type of robots that canquickly and easily search movearound. However they are only useful in flatareas, rocky terrains give them a hard time. Flatterrains are their territory.
Robots on legs are usually brought in when the terrainis rocky and difficult to enter with wheels. Robots havea hard time shifting balance and keep them fromtumbling. That’s why most robots with have at least 4 ofthem, usually they have 6 legs or more. Even whenthey lift one or more legs they still keep theirbalance. Development of legged robots is oftenmodeled after insects or crawfish..
Robots are not only used to explore areas or imitate ahuman being. Most robots perform repeating taskswithout ever moving an inch. Most robots are ‘working’in industry settings. Especially dull and repeatingtasks are suitable for robots. A robot never growstired, it will perform its duty day and night without evercomplaining. In case the tasks at hand are done, therobots will be reprogrammed to perform other tasks..
Autonomous robots are self supporting or in other words self contained. Ina way they rely on their own ‘brains’. Autonomous robots run a program that give them the opportunity todecide on the action to perform depending on their surroundings. At timesthese robots even learn new behavior. They start out with a short routineand adapt this routine to be more successful at the task they perform. Themost successful routine will be repeated as such their behavior isshaped. Autonomous robots can learn to walk or avoid obstacles they findin their way. Think about a six legged robot, at first the legs move adrandom, after a little while the robot adjust its program and performs apattern which enables it to move in a direction.
Remote-control RobotsAn autonomous robot is despite its autonomous not a very clever orintelligent unit. The memory and brain capacity is usually limited, anautonomous robot can be compared to an insect in that respect. In case a robot needs to perform more complicated yetundetermined tasks an autonomous robot is not the right choice. Complicated tasks are still best performed by human beings withreal brainpower. A person can guide a robot by remote control. Aperson can perform difficult and usually dangerous tasks withoutbeing at the spot where the tasks are performed. To detonate abomb it is safer to send the robot to the danger area.
BenefitsRobots offer specific benefits to workers, industries and countries. If introducedcorrectly, industrial robots can improve the quality of life by freeing workers fromdirty, boring, dangerous and heavy labor. it is true that robots can causeunemployment by replacing human workers but robots also create jobs: robottechnicians, salesmen, engineers, programmers and supervisors.The benefits of robots to industry include improved management control andproductivity and consistently high quality products. Industrial robots can worktirelessly night and day on an assembly line without an loss in performance.Consequently, they can greatly reduce the costs of manufactured goods. As a result ofthese industrial benefits, countries that effectively use robots in their industries willhave an economic advantage on world market.
PRESENTATION DONE BY SRI SIVA SAI REDDY.G IX CLASS RJD-ONCS
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