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Content Introduction of culture changes Definition of culture changes Causes of culture changes Diffussion Assimilation Acculturation Cultural Lost Cultural Maintenance Conclusion
Introduction• All culture change through time. Noculture is static.• However, most cultures are basicallyconservative in that they tend toresist change. Some resist morethan others by enacting laws for thepreservation and protection oftraditional cultural patterns whileputting up barriers to alien ideas andthings.
Definition of CulturalChangesCulture changes is continuousand change in one area is usuallyassociated with change in others.
Causes of culture changes- Economicgrowth- Natural Changes- Inventions- Colonialism- Changes ofsubsistence- Conflict within acountry- Globalisation-contact- Leader-Technology
Spread of a culture item from its place oforigin to other(Titiev 1959:446)Process by which discrete culture traits aretransferred from one society to anotherthrough migration, trade, war, or othercontact.(Winthrop 1991:82)Spread over a wide area(oxford dictionary)One of the mechanism by which thesubstantial uniformity of socioculturalevolution was made possible(Harris 1968:177)Definitionof diffusion
Diffusionist research originated in themiddle of the nineteenth century as ameans of understanding the nature of thedistribution of human culture across theworld. Human culture had evolve or spread frominnovation centers (culture center)bydiffusion. They were a number of culture centers ,the culture traits which spread throughmigration
Diffusion theoriesHeliocentricdiffusionismall culturesoriginated from oneculture.Culture circlesdiffusionism(Kulturkreise)cultures originatedfrom a small numberof culturesEvolutionary diffusionismsocieties are influencedby others and that allhumans sharepsychological traits thatmake them equally likelyto innovateculture bulletsuggested a model ofscale of invasion vs.gradual migration vs.diffusion
Definition of AssimilationIntense process of consistent integrationabsorbed into an established and generallylarger community
Assimilation describe change in individualor group identity that results fromcontinuous social interaction betweenmembers of one group that’s are theminority and the majority culture group. The minority culture may disappear to themajority due to its more dominant culturegroup Example is interracial marriage
FullassimilationCulturalorientationCultural behavior Personal identityBeliefs ,attitudes andvaluesCustoms andtraditions Missing identity
Both minority andmajority lose sometraits and take onsome traits fromnew groupConsequencesof assimilationReligions may alsoblenddemonstratingassimilation
Acculturation the absorption of an individual orminority group of people into anothersociety or group. This is achieved bylearning and adopting the culturaltraditions of the society to whichassimilation occurs. It is also oftenhastened by intermarriage and by de-emphasizing cultural and or biologicaldifferences.
Theories of acculturationtheoryKroeber(1948)acculturation comprises those changes in aculture brought about by another culture and willresult in an increased similarity between the twoculturesWinthrop1991:82-83Acculturation, then, is the process of systematiccultural change of a particular society carriedout by an alien, dominant societyMilton Gordon(1964)assimilation can be described as a series ofstages through which an individual must passTitiev(1958:200)Complete assimilation is not the inevitableconsequence of acculturation, because valuesystems of the minority or weaker culture are apart of the entire configuration of culture
Culture Lost andMaintenancesculture loss isinevitable result ofold cultural patternsbeing replaced bynew onesmeaning
The lost of that culturetraits Culture lost is the loss of thatparticular traits As culture changes it acquire new traitsthe old or popular ones inevitablydisappear For example the disappearance overtime of certain word and phrases in alanguage not only that some languageacquire new and different meaning
Reasons why it happens some cultures are extremely open tosome kinds of change great influences of other culture Technological- material culture used toexploit environment (most important)Sociological- interactive behavior ofindividualsIdeological- non- material
Purpose of CULTUREmaintenancesto protectthe cultureputting upbarriers to alienideas and thingskeep theculture alivefor futuregeneration
Cultural Maintenance Learn how to appreciate our ownheritage. Enacting laws to protect the culture Teach our child how to practice cultureactivities. Provide strong religion, moraljustification and support to preventculture loss.
Results of culture changes - Alcoholism- Spread of languages / knowledge- Change in beliefs / structure- Syncretism- Genocide / ethnocide- Segregation- Exploitation (e.g. slavery)- Cultural relativism- Changes in standard of living- Armed resistance
conclusion Within a society , the process of changing willoccur , the process of changing is somehowunavoidable . It is up to us to change for thegood or bad.