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01 Basic Presentation1



Communication Notes

Communication Notes



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01 Basic Presentation1 01 Basic Presentation1 Presentation Transcript

  • Unit I: Basic Speech
    Visual Aid Speech
  • Public Speaking Inspires Us
  • Develop a basic understanding of public speaking.
    Deliver a 1 ½ - 3 minute speech following the appropriate organizational format while using a visual aid.
  • Basic Information
  • Why Study Public Speaking?
    • Vital life skill and a secret weapon in career development
    • According to a 2006 Job Outlook Survey, it is the number one skill that employers value.
    • Public speaking ranked higher than honesty, team work, strong work ethic, analytic skills, flexibility, interpersonal skills and motivation.
    • Recruiters of top graduate school programs convey that the most sought-after students are the ones with the “soft skills” of communication over the “hard” knowledge of a given career path.
    (O’Hair, Dan. A Pocket Guide to Public Speaking. 2007. Print.)
  • Why Study Public Speaking?
    • Helps you to reason and think critically
    • Learn how to logically construct claims and support them with evidence.
    • Organizing and outlining speeches will help you to structure ideas and strengthen ideas
    • Offers a way to express yourself, beliefs and values in a public format
  • Public Speaking Anxiety (Stage Fright)
  • What is Public Speaking?
    • Audience Centered
    • Good speakers always consider an appropriate topic for their audience and occasion
    • They develop their speeches so that the audience finds their speeches INTERESTING and UNDERSTANDABLE.
    • Emphasizes the Spoken Word
    • Good speakers focus on speaking TO the audience.
    • They choose their words wisely.
    • Additionally, they use gestures, voice intonation, eye contact and posture to emphasize their language.
  • What is Public Speaking?
    • Prepared Presentation
    • Few speakers walk up to the lectern and make up their speech as they go.
    • The best speakers always prepare in advance.
    • Occasionally, speakers must give an impromptu speech.
    • Impromptu speaking is when a speaker is given little or no notice that they will be required to say something in public.
    • Most likely when this happens the speaker knows the topic well or will accept an award.
    • Even impromptu speakers know how to quickly prepare a speech when called upon.
  • Public Speaking Anxiety
    What is it?
    Fear or anxiety associated with actual or anticipated communication to an audience as a speaker.
    It is often referred to as “stage fright.”
    One study reports that at least 75 percent of students enrolled in public speaking courses approach the course with anxiety.
    Channeled properly nervousness can boost performance
    The difference between veteran and novice speakers is that veterans have more practice at making their nervousness work for them rather than against them.
    (O’Hair, Dan. A Pocket Guide to Public Speaking. 2007.)
  • Public Speaking Anxiety
    • Why am I so nervous?
    Lack of positive experience or no experience
    Feeling different
    Being the center of attention
    • Pinpointing the onset of nervousness
    Pre-preparation anxiety – hits you when hear that you have to give a speech
    Preparation anxiety – starts when you being to prepare for your speech
    Pre-performance anxiety – begins when you start to practice your speech and realize that you’ll e giving it soon
    Performance anxiety – commences when you start to speak. It usually subsides as you continue giving your speech. This is type is most common.
  • Public Speaking Anxiety
    Symptoms of stage fright/anxiety
    Dry mouth
    Fast breathing
    Pounding heart
    Shaky legs
    Sweaty palms
    Butterflies or churning stomach
    Tense voice
    Flushed Face
  • Public Speaking Anxiety
    How to cope?
    No matter the stage or level of severity or your stage fright, you must manage your anxiety and not let it control you.
    Keep in mind that everyone at one time or another experiences public speaking anxiety.
    There are several techniques that you can use to minimize your nervous feelings.
  • Coping Strategies
    • Prepare
    • Don’t procrastinate. Start preparing as soon as the speech is assigned
    • Select a topic that you’re familiar with or will enjoy researching
    • When you’re naturally interested in a subject, your interest adds enthusiasm to your speaking voice and engages the audience
    • Practice
    • Practice your speech the same way you plan to give it.
    • Give your speech to a parent or friend, practice it in front of a mirror or use a web cam to view it on your computer
    • Practice makes for a confident speaker
  • II. Coping Strategies
    Visualize success
    Researchers have found that visualizing success reduces anxiety
    Be specific when you visualize
    For example, presenting your speech without a mistake, receiving a high score, audience applause, etc.
    Relaxation techniques help to reduce muscle tension and negative thoughts
    (Fraleigh, Douglas M. Speak Up. 2009. Print.)
  • Coping Strategies
    • Use relaxation techniques (cont.)
    • Stress-Control Breathing
    Inhale and exhale from your abdomen (diaphragm) slowly. Keep practicing until you develop a rhythm.
    After you get the hang of it, think of a soothing word such as “calm,” “relax,” or “success” to add to your breathing routine.
    Ex. Inhale calm, abdomen out, exhale calm, abdomen in
    • Other techniques
    • Taking time to read, have a snack, exercise, listen to music when preparing for a speech will help to spark creativity
  • Coping Strategies
    Volunteer to speak first
    Anxiety is at its worst right before you go to speak, so volunteer to go first
    If you go first or early on, you’ll have less time to stress and worry
    Learn from your experience
    By making the most of feedback, you’ll improve.
    Research strongly suggests that you a lot from the objective evaluations of others.
  • Building a Speech
  • Extemporaneous Speaking
  • Extemporaneous Speaking
    • General Speech Purposes
    Inform – increase the audience’s awareness on a particular subject
    Persuade – influence the beliefs, values and behaviors of audience members
    Mark a special occasion – to entertain, celebrate, commemorate, inspire or set a social agenda
  • Extemporaneous Speaking
    • Extemporaneous Speaking
    • The majority of speeches delivered in this class are extemporaneous in nature.
    • Extemporaneous speaking is when a speech is developed in advance by using an outline and given from note cards with spot words.
    • Benefits of Extemporaneous Speaking
    • Makes the speech conversational
    • Talking to versus reading to
    • Promotes better eye contact by removing the script barrier
    • Adaptability
    • Change speech based on audience feedback
    • Ability to clarify a point or shorten speech based on time requirements
  • V. Basic Outline Format
    Basic Format
    All speeches must have:
  • Outlining/Basic Format
  • Introduction
    Establishes the purpose of the speech and shows its relevance to the audience
    There are three main parts:
  • Capture
    Capture – gains the audience’s attention
    Pose question(s)
    Questions can be real such as polling an audience
    Use rhetorical questions that get audience members to think but do not invite an actual response
    Make a reference – to people, surroundings, significance of occasion, audience experience
    Use humor
    Make a startling statement - statistics
    Give a quotation – adds style, sophistication
    Tell a story/anecdote
  • Motivate
    • Motivate – provides an incentive for the audience to listen to the speech
    • Motivate statements are designed to create common ground between the audience and the speaker.
    • This part of your speech must be at least 3 – 5 sentences in length
    • Shows the audience the big picture
    • Develops a bridge between the audience and the topic
    • Why is this topic important to me?
    • How does it touch my life?
    • How does it affect me?
  • Assert/Preview
    Assert/Preview – states the focus (thesis) of speech and mentions the main topics of the body.
    Statement that tells your audience exactly what you will be speaking about.
    Should clarify the overall goal of your speech
    State your specific topic/or particular focus of your topic.
    Give overview of the major areas/points that will be discussed.
    Keep the points in the same order in the body of speech
  • Body
    The main portion of the speech where each preview point is expanded
    How to develop supporting material
    Offer examples
    Share stories
    Provide facts and statistics
  • Body
    Tips to creating a memorable speech
    Be concise in expressing your thoughts
    Use repetition to emphasis important ideas and help listeners follow your logic
    Use vivid imagery to help listeners “see” what you are saying
    Create a verbal “roadmap” with frequent transitions and a clear organizational pattern
  • Conclusion
    • Provides the speaker the opportunity to close his speech by accomplishing the following goals:
    Signals that the speech is ending and provides closure
    Summarizes key points
    Challenges the audience or memorably ends the speech.
    • Has two specific parts: summary statement and clincher
  • Summary Statement
    Recaps the main assert statement and main points of the speech
  • Clincher
    Ends the speech in a memorable way
    Must be the last line that a speaker says
    Use quotes, stories, questions, startling statements, humor and references to the occasion
    Should tie into the introduction
  • Outlining Tips
    An outline is a road map of your speech
    It presents the main ideas and subparts of any topic.
    Whether you're assigned to write a topic outline or a full sentence outline, taking the time to organize your thoughts in outline form will help you to create a quality, complete speech.
    For a formal outline, follow the general MLA pattern listed on the next several slides.
  • Outlining
    Use the appropriate MLA heading
    Class Period
    Sidney Crosby
    Mrs. Sitler
    Speech Period 3
    September 3, 2009
  • Outlining
    Additional Tips for Creating an Outline
    You should start by creating a full sentence outline
    Write out your assert statement
    Establish your main points (optimally two to five)
    Begin to figure out supporting points
    Fill in the rest of the outline in full sentences
    Remember every “A” must have a “B” and every “1” must have a “2.”
  • Delivery
  • Eye Contact
    Establishing good sustained eye contact is the goal of a speaker.
    Sustained eye contact is looking at all audience members during the course of a speech.
    It is important to maintain direct eye contact with the audience.
    Avoid looking over their heads or at a spot on the wall. The audience will be able to tell.
    The goal for all speeches is to look at the audience between 85 – 100% of the time.
  • Rate
    The pace at which a speech is conveyed
    The normal speaking rate for the average adult is between 120 and 150 words per minute.
    The most common problem with rate is that speakers deliver their speech too quickly which causes the audience to lose interest or become confused.
    How do you control your rate?
    Use strategic pauses
    Carefully pronounce and articulate words
  • Volume
    • Is the relative loudness of a speaker’s voice
    • The proper volume for delivering a speech is somewhat louder than that of a normal conversation
    • Loudness depends on 3 factors
    Size of the room and number of people in it
    Background noise
    Microphone if present
    • Most common problem with volume is that speakers are too soft and this is corrected by projecting your voice and breathing correctly.
  • Fluency
    Use of words such as like, uh, uhm, you know, and, etc.
    These words fill dead space in a speech and must be avoided
    You eliminate the use of fillers by being prepared to deliver your speech
  • Visual Aids
  • Visual Aids
    Are a necessary part of the speech
    Focus the audience’s attention
    Introduce new concepts and reinforce main ideas
    Set a mood and stimulate emotional involvement
    Heighten listeners grasp and recall of new or complicated material
    Add interest, humor or a visual break
  • Visual Aid Speech
  • Visual Aid Requirements
    You are to create a digital visual aid for this speech.
    It can be a power point, glogster or other type of multimedia presentation software.
    It must contain pictures of what you’ll be talking about in your speech with little to no text.
    It should be easy to see and not cluttered.
  • Delivery Goals for Visual Aid Speech
    Eye contact – looking at the audience at least 85% of the time.
    Rate – speaking at an appropriate pace that’s not to fast or too slow.
    Volume – speaking loud enough so that everyone in the room can hear your speech.
    Fillers – using no more than 3 fillers in your entire speech.
  • Examples of Visual Aid Power Points
  • Theme: Relating experiences with best friend to Dr. Seuss books.
    Example #1
  • Roxanne
    “Oh, The Places You’ll Go”
  • Laura
    “The Cat in the Hat”
  • Sam
    “Green Eggs and Ham”
  • “Don’t cry because it’s over.
    Smile because it happened.”
  • Example #2
    Theme: Using a football analogy to describe family members
  • Dad
  • Kory
  • Kate
    The Munchkins
  • Example #3
    Theme: Using the analogy of a hamburger to describe family members.
  • My Family Hamburger
  • Megan
    • Meat
    • Likes to be the center of attention
    • Responsible
  • Katie
    • Toppings
    • Creative
    • Artsy
  • Michael
    • Bun
    • Oldest
    • Stops us from fighting
  • Even if the bun doesn’t always taste good with the toppings or meat, and the flavors just don’t mix well, I know that the hamburger that represents my family would definitely not be better if one part was missing.
  • Theme: Using the elements earth, wind and fire to discuss family members.
    Example #4
  • Earth. Wind. Fire
    All that I need is my family.
  • My Earth Is My Dad
    Always there for me
    Provides support
  • My Wind Is My Mom
    Picks me up
    Pushes me to go for anything
  • My Sister Is My Fire
    She is my best friend
    Brings light
  • My Earth, Wind and Fire
  • You may use 1 or 2– 4x6 note cards with spot words for this speech.
    Note Card
  • Tips for Using Note Cards
    Leave blank space at the margins. This will help you to find your place as you glance at the cards
    Number your note cards so that you can follow them with ease
    Slide the cards under one another instead of turning them
    Use only key words and phrases on them.
    Only write out stats or direct quotes
  • A typed MLA outline with appropriate heading will be required for this speech.
    1-2 Note cards with spot words.
    Required Documents
  • Bibliography
    Fraleigh, Douglas M. Speak Up: An Illustrated Guide to Public Speaking. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009. Print.
    Franklin, Sharon and Clark, Deborah. Essentials of Speech Communication. China: McDougal Littell, 2001. Print.
    O’Hair, Dan. A Pocket Guide to Public Speaking. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2007. Print.