Develop a basic understanding of public speaking. Deliver a 1 ½ - 3 minute speech following the appropriate organizational format while using a visual aid. Goals:
Why Study Public Speaking?
Vital life skill and a secret weapon in career development
According to a 2006 Job Outlook Survey, it is the number one skill that employers value.
Public speaking ranked higher than honesty, team work, strong work ethic, analytic skills, flexibility, interpersonal skills and motivation.
Recruiters of top graduate school programs convey that the most sought-after students are the ones with the “soft skills” of communication over the “hard” knowledge of a given career path.
(O’Hair, Dan. A Pocket Guide to Public Speaking. 2007. Print.)
Why Study Public Speaking?
Helps you to reason and think critically
Learn how to logically construct claims and support them with evidence.
Organizing and outlining speeches will help you to structure ideas and strengthen ideas
Offers a way to express yourself, beliefs and values in a public format
Public Speaking Anxiety (Stage Fright)
What is Public Speaking?
Good speakers always consider an appropriate topic for their audience and occasion
They develop their speeches so that the audience finds their speeches INTERESTING and UNDERSTANDABLE.
Emphasizes the Spoken Word
Good speakers focus on speaking TO the audience.
They choose their words wisely.
Additionally, they use gestures, voice intonation, eye contact and posture to emphasize their language.
What is Public Speaking?
Few speakers walk up to the lectern and make up their speech as they go.
The best speakers always prepare in advance.
Occasionally, speakers must give an impromptu speech.
Impromptu speaking is when a speaker is given little or no notice that they will be required to say something in public.
Most likely when this happens the speaker knows the topic well or will accept an award.
Even impromptu speakers know how to quickly prepare a speech when called upon.
Public Speaking Anxiety What is it? Fear or anxiety associated with actual or anticipated communication to an audience as a speaker. It is often referred to as “stage fright.” One study reports that at least 75 percent of students enrolled in public speaking courses approach the course with anxiety. Channeled properly nervousness can boost performance The difference between veteran and novice speakers is that veterans have more practice at making their nervousness work for them rather than against them. (O’Hair, Dan. A Pocket Guide to Public Speaking. 2007.)
Public Speaking Anxiety
Why am I so nervous?
Lack of positive experience or no experience Feeling different Being the center of attention
Pinpointing the onset of nervousness
Pre-preparation anxiety – hits you when hear that you have to give a speech Preparation anxiety – starts when you being to prepare for your speech Pre-performance anxiety – begins when you start to practice your speech and realize that you’ll e giving it soon Performance anxiety – commences when you start to speak. It usually subsides as you continue giving your speech. This is type is most common.
Public Speaking Anxiety Symptoms of stage fright/anxiety Dry mouth Fast breathing Pounding heart Shaky legs Sweaty palms Butterflies or churning stomach Tense voice Flushed Face
Public Speaking Anxiety How to cope? No matter the stage or level of severity or your stage fright, you must manage your anxiety and not let it control you. Keep in mind that everyone at one time or another experiences public speaking anxiety. There are several techniques that you can use to minimize your nervous feelings.
Don’t procrastinate. Start preparing as soon as the speech is assigned
Select a topic that you’re familiar with or will enjoy researching
When you’re naturally interested in a subject, your interest adds enthusiasm to your speaking voice and engages the audience
Practice your speech the same way you plan to give it.
Give your speech to a parent or friend, practice it in front of a mirror or use a web cam to view it on your computer
Practice makes for a confident speaker
II. Coping Strategies Visualize success Researchers have found that visualizing success reduces anxiety Be specific when you visualize For example, presenting your speech without a mistake, receiving a high score, audience applause, etc. Relaxation techniques help to reduce muscle tension and negative thoughts (Fraleigh, Douglas M. Speak Up. 2009. Print.)
Use relaxation techniques (cont.)
Inhale and exhale from your abdomen (diaphragm) slowly. Keep practicing until you develop a rhythm. After you get the hang of it, think of a soothing word such as “calm,” “relax,” or “success” to add to your breathing routine. Ex. Inhale calm, abdomen out, exhale calm, abdomen in
Taking time to read, have a snack, exercise, listen to music when preparing for a speech will help to spark creativity
Coping Strategies Volunteer to speak first Anxiety is at its worst right before you go to speak, so volunteer to go first If you go first or early on, you’ll have less time to stress and worry Learn from your experience By making the most of feedback, you’ll improve. Research strongly suggests that you a lot from the objective evaluations of others.
Building a Speech
General Speech Purposes
Inform – increase the audience’s awareness on a particular subject Persuade – influence the beliefs, values and behaviors of audience members Mark a special occasion – to entertain, celebrate, commemorate, inspire or set a social agenda
The majority of speeches delivered in this class are extemporaneous in nature.
Extemporaneous speaking is when a speech is developed in advance by using an outline and given from note cards with spot words.
Benefits of Extemporaneous Speaking
Makes the speech conversational
Talking to versus reading to
Promotes better eye contact by removing the script barrier
Change speech based on audience feedback
Ability to clarify a point or shorten speech based on time requirements
V. Basic Outline Format Basic Format All speeches must have: Introduction Body Conclusion
Introduction Establishes the purpose of the speech and shows its relevance to the audience There are three main parts: Capture Motivate Assert/preview
Capture Capture – gains the audience’s attention Pose question(s) Questions can be real such as polling an audience Use rhetorical questions that get audience members to think but do not invite an actual response Make a reference – to people, surroundings, significance of occasion, audience experience Use humor Make a startling statement - statistics Give a quotation – adds style, sophistication Tell a story/anecdote
Motivate – provides an incentive for the audience to listen to the speech
Motivate statements are designed to create common ground between the audience and the speaker.
This part of your speech must be at least 3 – 5 sentences in length
Shows the audience the big picture
Develops a bridge between the audience and the topic
Why is this topic important to me?
How does it touch my life?
How does it affect me?
Assert/Preview Assert/Preview – states the focus (thesis) of speech and mentions the main topics of the body. Statement that tells your audience exactly what you will be speaking about. Should clarify the overall goal of your speech State your specific topic/or particular focus of your topic. Give overview of the major areas/points that will be discussed. Keep the points in the same order in the body of speech
Body The main portion of the speech where each preview point is expanded How to develop supporting material Offer examples Share stories Provide facts and statistics
Body Tips to creating a memorable speech Be concise in expressing your thoughts Use repetition to emphasis important ideas and help listeners follow your logic Use vivid imagery to help listeners “see” what you are saying Create a verbal “roadmap” with frequent transitions and a clear organizational pattern
Provides the speaker the opportunity to close his speech by accomplishing the following goals:
Signals that the speech is ending and provides closure Summarizes key points Challenges the audience or memorably ends the speech.
Has two specific parts: summary statement and clincher
Summary Statement Recaps the main assert statement and main points of the speech
Clincher Ends the speech in a memorable way Must be the last line that a speaker says Use quotes, stories, questions, startling statements, humor and references to the occasion Should tie into the introduction
Outlining Tips An outline is a road map of your speech It presents the main ideas and subparts of any topic. Whether you're assigned to write a topic outline or a full sentence outline, taking the time to organize your thoughts in outline form will help you to create a quality, complete speech. For a formal outline, follow the general MLA pattern listed on the next several slides.
Outlining Use the appropriate MLA heading Name Teacher Class Period Date Sidney Crosby Mrs. Sitler Speech Period 3 September 3, 2009
Outlining Additional Tips for Creating an Outline You should start by creating a full sentence outline Write out your assert statement Establish your main points (optimally two to five) Begin to figure out supporting points Fill in the rest of the outline in full sentences Remember every “A” must have a “B” and every “1” must have a “2.”
Eye Contact Establishing good sustained eye contact is the goal of a speaker. Sustained eye contact is looking at all audience members during the course of a speech. It is important to maintain direct eye contact with the audience. Avoid looking over their heads or at a spot on the wall. The audience will be able to tell. The goal for all speeches is to look at the audience between 85 – 100% of the time.
Rate The pace at which a speech is conveyed The normal speaking rate for the average adult is between 120 and 150 words per minute. The most common problem with rate is that speakers deliver their speech too quickly which causes the audience to lose interest or become confused. How do you control your rate? Use strategic pauses Carefully pronounce and articulate words
Is the relative loudness of a speaker’s voice
The proper volume for delivering a speech is somewhat louder than that of a normal conversation
Loudness depends on 3 factors
Size of the room and number of people in it Background noise Microphone if present
Most common problem with volume is that speakers are too soft and this is corrected by projecting your voice and breathing correctly.
Fluency Use of words such as like, uh, uhm, you know, and, etc. These words fill dead space in a speech and must be avoided You eliminate the use of fillers by being prepared to deliver your speech
Visual Aids Are a necessary part of the speech Focus the audience’s attention Introduce new concepts and reinforce main ideas Set a mood and stimulate emotional involvement Heighten listeners grasp and recall of new or complicated material Add interest, humor or a visual break
Visual Aid Speech
Visual Aid Requirements You are to create a digital visual aid for this speech. It can be a power point, glogster or other type of multimedia presentation software. It must contain pictures of what you’ll be talking about in your speech with little to no text. It should be easy to see and not cluttered.
Delivery Goals for Visual Aid Speech Eye contact – looking at the audience at least 85% of the time. Rate – speaking at an appropriate pace that’s not to fast or too slow. Volume – speaking loud enough so that everyone in the room can hear your speech. Fillers – using no more than 3 fillers in your entire speech.
Examples of Visual Aid Power Points
Theme: Relating experiences with best friend to Dr. Seuss books. Example #1
Roxanne “Oh, The Places You’ll Go”
Laura “The Cat in the Hat”
Sam “Green Eggs and Ham”
“Don’t cry because it’s over. Smile because it happened.”
Example #2 Theme: Using a football analogy to describe family members
Kate Ky The Munchkins
Example #3 Theme: Using the analogy of a hamburger to describe family members.
My Family Hamburger
Likes to be the center of attention
Stops us from fighting
Even if the bun doesn’t always taste good with the toppings or meat, and the flavors just don’t mix well, I know that the hamburger that represents my family would definitely not be better if one part was missing.
Theme: Using the elements earth, wind and fire to discuss family members. Example #4
Earth. Wind. Fire All that I need is my family.
My Earth Is My Dad Always there for me Provides support
My Wind Is My Mom Picks me up Pushes me to go for anything
My Sister Is My Fire She is my best friend Brings light
My Earth, Wind and Fire
You may use 1 or 2– 4x6 note cards with spot words for this speech. Note Card
Tips for Using Note Cards Leave blank space at the margins. This will help you to find your place as you glance at the cards Number your note cards so that you can follow them with ease Slide the cards under one another instead of turning them Use only key words and phrases on them. Only write out stats or direct quotes
A typed MLA outline with appropriate heading will be required for this speech. 1-2 Note cards with spot words. Required Documents
Bibliography Fraleigh, Douglas M. Speak Up: An Illustrated Guide to Public Speaking. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009. Print. Franklin, Sharon and Clark, Deborah. Essentials of Speech Communication. China: McDougal Littell, 2001. Print. O’Hair, Dan. A Pocket Guide to Public Speaking. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2007. Print.