Note..Psikologi Abnormal

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  • Technology Tip: The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Homepage Provides information for children and their families (including research, education, and treatment) on many childhood disorders. http://www.aacap.org/
  • Technology Tip: Early Childhood Links This web site provides links related to early intervention information for developmental disorders. http://www.dec-sped.org/
  • Technology Tip: Attention Deficit Disorder This site contains a wealth of scholarly information and links related to ADHD. http://www.mentalhealth.com/dis/p20-ch01.html
  • Technology Tip: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (NIMH) This NIMH web site provides a wealth of information and resources related to ADHD. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/HealthInformation/adhdmenu.cfm
  • Technology Tip: CH.A.D.D. (Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Disorders) CH.A.D.D. is a non-profit organization devoted to educating the public about attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders. This site includes information on the symptoms of ADDHD, treatments, and as well as CH.A.D.D. chapters throughout the country. http://www.chadd.org/
  • Strattera - Selective norepinephrine-reuptake inhibitor
    Imipramine - Antidepressants
    Clonidine - Antihypertensive
  • Superior to individual treatments? Yes, according to early data, with more questions related to study design problems and the possibility that meds alone were as effective. See text for clarification
  • Technology Tip: Learning Disabilities Association of America This web site provides information and news updates on learning disabilities. This site is aimed at parents, teachers, and other professionals. http://www.ldanatl.org/
    Technology Tip: NLDline This is a non-verbal learning disabilities website with a huge array of information about learning disabilities common in people with pervasive developmental disorders. http://www.NLDline.com
  • Figure 14.1 Uneven distribution. The highest percentages of schoolchildren diagnosed with learning disabilities are in the wealthiest states.
  • Photo 14.3 These functional MRI scans of composite data from six dyslexic adults and eight controls show a horizontal slice though the brain, with the face at the top. Imaging shows atypical brain activity in dyslexia.
  • Technology Tip: Dyslexia Online A website maintained by Dr. Harold Levinson devoted to "resolving the traditional misconceptions of dyslexia and related attention deficit and anxiety disorders." http://www.dyslexiaonline.com/
  • Teaching Tip: Have students participate in the following Instructor Resource Manual Activity: The Movie “Rainman.”
  • Photo 14.5 Researchers are exploring how people with autism view social interactions among other people.
    Technology Tip: Autistic Disorder This site contains a wealth of scholarly information and links related to autistic disorder. http://www.mentalhealth.com/dis/p20-ch06.html
  • Technology Tip: Ask NOAH about Autism This is an excellent mega site on information related to child developmental disorders and includes many useful links to teaching and scholarly resources. http://www.noah-health.org/en/bns/disorders/autism/index.html
  • Teaching Tip: Have students participate in the following Instructor Resource Manual Activity: Lecture Discussion about Savants
  • Behavioral correlates – echolalia, self injury (head banging) were thought to be unique, but are also parts of other disorders and normal child development
    Technology Tip: New York Autism Network This site provides a wealth of information related to research and treatment of autism. http://www.albany.edu/psy/autism/autism.html
  • Behavioral correlates – echolalia, self injury (head banging) were thought to be unique, but are also parts of other disorders and normal child development
  • Technology Tip: New York Autism Network This site provides a wealth of information related to research and treatment of autism. http://www.albany.edu/psy/autism/autism.html
  • Technology Tip: Asperger's Disorder This site contains a wealth of scholarly information and links related to Asperger’s disorder. http://www.mentalhealth.com/dis/p20-ch07.html
  • Teaching Tip: Have students participate in the following Instructor Resource Manual Video Activity: Autism and Mainstreaming
    Technology Tip: Autism at NIMH This NIMH web site is exclusively devoted to the nature and treatment of autism. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/HealthInformation/autismmenu.cfm
  • Technology Tip: Autism Center This web page, in addition to providing links to other related sources on the web, gives information on the symptoms of autism, guidelines for families and caregivers, and relevant books and resources. http://www.patientcenters.com/autism/
  • Technology Tip: An excellent resource of historical information related to intelligence testing: http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/map.html
  • Technology Tip: Information on mental retardation. Provided by the US Centers for Disease Control & Prevention : www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/dd/ddmr.htm
  • Technology Tip: Visit the American Association of Mental Retardation website for more information: http://www.aamr.org/
  • Environmental – Deprivation, abuse
    Prenatal – Exposure to disease or a drug / toxin
    Perinatal – Difficulties during labor
    Postnatal – Head injury, toxic exposure, infections
  • Technology Tip: Information on mental retardation. Provided by the US Centers for Disease Control & Prevention : www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/dd/ddmr.htm
    Technology Tip: For more information on Phenylketonuria, visit the following websites:
    www.mayoclinic.com/health/phenylketonuria/DS00514
    www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/disease/Phenylketo.html
  • Technology Tip: Down Syndrome WWW Page This WWW page was established in 1995 and provides information on healthcare guidelines for patients, education resources, events & conferences, and Down Syndrome organizations worldwide. http://www.nas.com/downsyn/
  • Figure14.2 The increasing likelihood of Down Syndrome with maternal age (based on data from Hook, 1982).
  • Technology Tip: Visit the website for the ARC, a voluntary organization committed to the welfare of all children and adults with mental retardation and their families: www.thearc.org
  • Teaching Tip: Have students participate in the following Instructor Resource Manual Activity: Guest Lecture by a Special Education Instructor
  • Teaching Tip: Have students participate in the following Instructor Resource Manual Activity: Would You Want to Know?
  • Teaching Tip: Have students participate in the following Instructor Resource Manual Activity: Would You Want to Know?
  • Note..Psikologi Abnormal

    1. 1. LECTURE 5 Developmental Disorders
    2. 2. Developmental Psychopathology: An Overview  Development  Normal vs. Abnormal  Psychopathology  Etiology  Course  Developmental impact of early skill impairments
    3. 3. Developmental Psychopathology: An Overview  Developmental Disorders  First diagnosed = infancy, childhood, adolescence     Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Learning disorders Autism Mental retardation
    4. 4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  Central Features and DSM Symptom Types  Inattentive  Hyperactive  Impulsive  Impairments  Behavioral  Cognitive  Social  Academic
    5. 5. Edward PLAY VIDEO
    6. 6. ADHD: Statistics  Prevalence = 3-7% of school-aged children  5.2% worldwide  Onset = age 3 or 4  Boys : Girls = 3:1  Different symptom manifestations?  Possible cultural construct?  Likely not
    7. 7. ADHD: Statistics  ~50% have problems as adults  Inattention persists  Hyperactivity, impulsivity decline  High comorbidity  80% of children  ODD  90% of adults  Mood disorders
    8. 8. ADHD: Sean PLAY VIDEO
    9. 9. ADHD: Causes  Genetics  Familial component  Dopamine  DRD4, DAT1, and DRD5 genes  Norepinephrine  GABA  Serotonin
    10. 10. ADHD: Causes  Neurobiological Contributions  Smaller brain volume  3-4%  Frontal cortex and basal ganglia  Inactivity  Abnormal development
    11. 11. ADHD: Causes  The Role of Toxins  Allergens and food additives  No evidence  Maternal smoking  Increases risk  Interacts with genetic predisposition
    12. 12. ADHD : Causes  Psychosocial Factors  Negative feedback  Teachers  Peers  Adults  Peer rejection  Social isolation  Low self-esteem  Poor self-image
    13. 13. Treatment of ADHD : Biological  Goals  Reduce impulsivity and hyperactivity  Improve attention  Stimulants  Effective for 70%  Ex: Ritalin, Addreall  Other Medications  Strattera  Imipramine  Clonidine
    14. 14. Treatment of ADHD : Biological  Effects of Medications  Improve compliance  Decrease negative behaviors  Do not affect learning and academic performance  Benefits are not lasting following discontinuation
    15. 15. Treatment of ADHD : Behavioral and Combined  Behavioral Treatment  Reinforcement programs  Reward – appropriate behaviors  Punish – inappropriate behaviors  Parent training  Social skills training  Combined Treatments  Recommended  Superior to individual treatments?
    16. 16. Learning Disorders  Performance substantially below expected levels  IQ  Age  Education  Actual vs. expected achievement  Not due to sensory deficits  Reading Disorder  Mathematics Disorder  Disorder of Written Expression
    17. 17. Learning Disorders: Facts and Statistics  Prevalence = 5-10% (US)  1% Caucasian  2.6% African American  4-10% for reading difficulties  Boys : Girls = 1:1  Higher drop-out rates  Negative school experiences
    18. 18. Learning Disorders: Uneven Distributions
    19. 19. Learning Disorders : Causes  Genetic and Neurobiological Contributions  Familial component  Polygenetic influence  Cortical structure = inconclusive  Cortical activation = different patterns
    20. 20. Learning Disorders : Causes  Psychosocial Contributions  Motivational factors  Socioeconomic status  Cultural expectations  Parental interactions  Expectancies
    21. 21. Treatment of Learning Disorders  Educational Interventions  Specific skills instructions  Vocabulary  Discerning meaning  Fact finding  Strategy instruction  Decision making  Critical thinking  Compensatory skills
    22. 22. Pervasive Developmental Disorders  Language, socialization, and cognitive problems  Pervasive = significant impairment across lifespan  Examples  Autistic disorder  Asperger’s syndrome
    23. 23. Autistic Disorder  Clinical Description 1) Impairment in social interactions  Relative to age  Few to no friends  Joint attention problems  Social awareness
    24. 24. Autistic Disorder  Clinical Description (cont.) 2) Communication problems  1/3 never acquire speech  Echolalia  Conversational impairments
    25. 25. Autistic Disorder  Clinical Description (cont.) 3) Restricted patterns  Behaviors  Interests  Activities  Maintenance of sameness  Stereotyped and ritualistic behaviors
    26. 26. Autism: Christina PLAY VIDEO
    27. 27. Rebecca PLAY VIDEO
    28. 28. Autistic Disorder: Statistics  Prevalence:  1 in every 500 births  1 in every 150 for spectrum  Gender and IQ interaction  IQs < 35 = Females  High IQs = Males  Occurs worldwide  Onset = age 3
    29. 29. Autistic Disorder: Statistics  Autism and Intellectual Functioning  40-55% with mental retardation  Indicator of prognosis  Language ability  IQ
    30. 30. Causes of Autism: Psychological and Social  Historical Views  Bad parenting  Lack of self-awareness  Limited self-concept  Behavioral correlates  Echolalia  Self-injury  Social deficiencies are primary distinguishers
    31. 31. Causes of Autism: Biological  Genetic influences  Familial component  5-10% risk of second child with autism  50 to 200 fold increase in risk  Polygenetic influences  Oxytocin receptor genes  Bonding and social memory
    32. 32. Causes of Autism: Biological  Neurobiological Influences  Amygdala  Larger size at birth = higher anxiety, fear  Elevated cortisol  Neuronal damage  Similar size when older  Fewer neurons  Vaccinations?  Mercury?
    33. 33. Asperger Disorder  Clinical Description  Significant social impairments  Stereotyped behaviors  Restricted and repetitive  Coordination problems  Highly verbal  No severe delays  Language  Cognitive
    34. 34. Asperger Disorder  Prevalence  Often under diagnosed  1 to 2 per 10,000  Boys > Girls  Causes  Genetics?  Amygdala?
    35. 35. Treatment of Pervasive Developmental Disorders  Psychosocial Treatments  Behavioral approaches  Skill building  Reduce problem behaviors  Communication and language training  Increase socialization  Early intervention is critical
    36. 36. Treatment of Pervasive Developmental Disorders  Biological Treatments  Decrease agitation  Tranquilizers  SSRIs
    37. 37. Treatment of Pervasive Developmental Disorders  Integrated Treatments  Preferred model  Multidimensional, comprehensive focus  Children  Families  Schools  Home  Community and social support
    38. 38. Mental Retardation (MR)  Clinical Description 1) Below-average intellectual functioning  Measured by standardized tests  IQ of 70 or below  2-3% of general population  Statistical decision  2 SD from mean
    39. 39. Mental Retardation (MR)  Clinical Description (cont.) 2) Adaptive problems  Must be present in two areas for diagnosis  Communication  Self-care  Home living  Social, interpersonal  Work  Leisure  Health, safety
    40. 40. Mental Retardation (MR)  Clinical Description (cont.) 3) Disorder of childhood  Present before age 18  Coded on Axis II
    41. 41. Levels of Mental Retardation (MR)  Mild  IQ = 50 or 55 to 70  Moderate  IQ = 35-40 to 50-55  Severe  IQs = 20-25 to 35-40  Profound  IQ = below 20-25
    42. 42. Lauren PLAY VIDEO
    43. 43. Other Classification Systems for Mental Retardation  American Association of Mental Retardation (AAMR)  Based on assistance required  Intermittent  Limited  Extensive  Pervasive  Educational Systems Classification  Educable (IQ = 50 to 70-75)  Trainable (IQ = 30 to 50)  Severe (IQ = below 30)  Implications
    44. 44. Mental Retardation (MR): Statistics  Prevalence = 1-3%  90% = mild MR  Male : Female = 1.6:1  Chronic course  Highly variable individual prognosis
    45. 45. Causes of MR  Hundreds of known causes  Environmental  Prenatal  Perinatal  Postnatal
    46. 46. Causes : Biological Contributions  Genetic Influences  Multiple genes  Single genes  Dominant  Recessive  Phenylketonuria  Lesch-Nyham syndrome  X-linked (males)
    47. 47. Causes : Biological Contributions  Chromosomal Influences  Down syndrome  Extra 21st chromosome  Trisomy 21  Physical symptoms  Increased prevalence of Alzheimer’s  Risk increases with maternal age  Fragile X syndrome  Learning disabilities  Hyperactivity  Perseverative speech  Gaze avoidance
    48. 48. Rates of Down Syndrome Births
    49. 49. Causes : Psychological and Social Dimensions  Nearly 75% not associated with biological cause  Mild levels, impairments  Good adaptive skills  Cultural-familial retardation  Abuse  Neglect  Social deprivation
    50. 50. Treatment of Mental Retardation (MR)  Skill instruction  Productivity  Independence  Education  Behavioral management  Task analysis  Living and self-care  Communication training  Employment  Community and supportive interventions
    51. 51. Prevention of Developmental Disorders  Early intervention  At-risk children, families  Ex: Head Start Program  Educational  Medical  Social supports  Genetic screening  Detection and correction  Prenatal gene therapy
    52. 52. Future Directions  Psychopharmacogenetics  Helpful “Designer Drugs”  Complement specific needs  Right treatment for right person  Genetic screening  Ethical questions abound

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