ASSIGNMENT 2 – CASE STUDY
Garden City by the Bay
ROSA MALINDA SITI AISHAH ATIQAH FATHINAH
LAR5600 URBAN DESIGN STUDIO
The mouth of the Singapore River was the old
Port of Singapore, being naturally sheltered
by the southern islands
Historically, the city of Singapore initially grew
around the port so the river mouth became
the centre of trade, commerce and finance
To this day, area around the old Singapore
River mouth, the Downtown Core, remains
the most expensive and economically
important piece of land Singapore
Starting in the 1880s, there was heavy
traffic on the Singapore River due to rapid
urbanization and expanding trade
it brought in water pollution caused by the
disposal of garbage, sewage and other by-
products of industries located along the
PAST REVIEW OF SINGAPORE RIVER
Much like Hong Kong, Singapore as
an island city has been blessed with a
long coastline and waterbodies right
in the heart of the city centre. Within
and near the City Centre, we have
the Singapore River, Kallang Basin
and Marina Bay.
Marina Bay is a unique waterfront district
extending seamlessly from the CBD. It is a
dynamic, Garden-City-by-the-Bay with
multiple opportunities for business and
GARDENS BY THE BAY
Gardens by the Bay in an integral part of a strategy by the Singapore government to
transform Singapore from a “Garden city” to a “City in a Garden”. The stated aim is to raise
the quality of life by enhancing greenery and flora in the city.
Along Singapore river, we made some
inferences according to the structure factors .
These inferences apply to both the past and
The river was once polluted in the past and
present Along Singapore river, we saw some
litter floating in the river.
The river was also seen brown in colour,
stilling. There are cleaning using nets to
clean up the litter in the Singapore river.
From this, we can see that the water is
being polluted both in the past and the
Previous Singapore River was busy with trading
activities, the Tanjong Rhu area provided the
shipyards which serviced these activities. Up till
the late 1980s,
Tanjong Rhu was occupied by
shipyards, engineering workshops and
Most of these industries were on privately owned
Even as the Singapore River was cleaned up and
adapted for new uses in the 1970s and
1980s, the planners recognised that the Tanjong
Rhu area presented a great opportunity to be
turned into a high quality waterfront residential
enclave, given its proximity to the city
URA prepared a new Master Plan for Tanjong Rhu
in 1988 and provided urban design guidelines to
transform the area into a high-quality waterfront
residential area with a tropical flavour.
Create an attractive total lifestyle
The existing grid pattern of the city and
has in-built flexibility to meet changing
business needs and market demands
The regular parcels can be easily
amalgamated or sub-divided and the
sites are zoned as “white” sites to allow a
mix of uses
A variety of development intensities and
building heights, with lower-rise
buildings located along the waterfront
and higher buildings stepping up behind,
helps to create an attractive signature
A comprehensive network of reliable
utilities, road and rail transportation
system has been carefully laid out
Planned as a pedestrian friendly district
with a comprehensive pedestrian network
Pedestrian links are meticulously planned
at grade, above grade and at
To provide a series of open spaces,
gardens and signature boulevards that
will enhance the value of the land and
developments around them
A landscape master plan featuring
different trees, plants, colours and
fragrances has been drawn up for each
district so as to create distinctive
landscaped environments and treatments
Creates public green spaces for the
enjoyment of the community
Design concept : Necklace Concept (Linking one point to another point by point
we can return back to the main point)
Sustainable transport and pedestrian friendliness
Marina Bay will be served by a comprehensive public transport network to provide
greater convenience for its residents, workers and visitors.
The enhanced connectivity both within Marina Bay and to the rest of Singapore is
aimed at encouraging greater use of public transport in Marina Bay, reducing
dependence on cars, and reducing energy consumption from the use of private cars.
Innovative infrastructure and systems
To provide sophisticated infrastructure that offers modern conveniences and reliable
access to key utilities in Marina Bay.
One of the key pieces of infrastructure is the Common Services Tunnel (CST), designed
to be an environmentally-sound way to provide utilities to Marina Bay.
Features another environmentally-friendly infrastructure system within the CST
network: the District Cooling System (DCS).
Waterfront promenade has been designed as a well-shaded environment for
pedestrians, with lush tree planting. It also includes design features, such as water
features, to cool the ambient air temperature and improve pedestrian comfort.
The LED lighting and outdoor fans make use of solar energy.
The Marina Bay City Gallery is another example which incorporates sustainable design
MARINA BAY – PLANNING
After ten years of clean up, the river was ready for a new
lease of life. URA was tasked to prepare the Master Plan for
the area. We adopted three key strategies:
Creating an activity corridor for recreation and leisure
through mixed land uses;
Mixing old and new developments, and
Forging a public/private sector partnership.
Creating activity corridor for recreation & leisure through
The river is zoned for a mixture of land uses that include
Commercial, Residential, Hotel & Institutional uses. These
mixed-use developments would bring people to the area at
different times of the day.
New developments are required to have activity generating
uses on the ground floor to ensure that the area is lively at
the street level. URA also released guidelines for Kiosks and
Outdoor Refreshment Areas to encourage more
developments to spill their commercial activities onto the
waterfront promenade areas.
The precinct was envisioned to be a vibrant 24/7 “live‐work‐play” and
environmentally friendly district, with a good mix of commercial,
entertainment, hotel and residential developments.
Not only provide prime office space for global business and financial
institutions, it will also have condominiums, hotels, shops, restaurants and
Development of the area started in 2000 when the first sale site at One
Raffles Quay was launched.
By 2010, several major projects were substantially completed, such as the
Marina Bay Sands, Fullerton Heritage and the first phase of the Marina Bay
The area is now established as a major business and financial precinct to
complement Raffles Place and is already home to several major local and
overseas financial institutions.
This will continue to grow in the coming years with the completion of the
Marina Bay Financial Centre Office Tower 3, Marina Bay Suites and Asia
Square Towers 1 and 2, as well as the four land parcels to be developed by
M+S Pte Ltd.
MAP EVOLUTION OF GARDEN BY THE BAY
2003: Conceptualisation of the Gardens.
Jan 2006: Competition for masterplan and
Sept 2006: Grant Associates and Gustafson
Porter designs selected.
Nov 2007: Groundbreaking ceremony.
Apr 2008: Receives first shipment of plants.
Feb 2011: Flower Dome completed.
Nov 2011: Preview of Bay South.
29 Jun 2012: Official opening of Bay South.
Oct 2012: Wins World Building of the Year
Jan 2013: Satay by the Bay opens.
Feb 2013: Launch of GB Ambassadors.
Jun 2013: Celebrates first anniversary.
2013: Organised and hosted various events,
including Tulipmania, a Roberto Visani
exhibition, Spring Wave Music Festival and
Singapore Social Concerts.
MAP EVOLUTION OF GARDEN BY THE BAY
• Masterplan proposal for
urban and semi-urban
in the current shipping
container dockyards of
• Landscape linkages form
the connective structure
for the 5sqkm of land.
Garden By The Bay – Urban Planning
The 900 acres of Marina Bay will be Singapore’s key focus of development
for the next decade and has been designed to seamlessly extend the
downtown district and further support the city-state’s continuing growth
as a major business and financial hub in Asia.
The development parcels at Marina Bay are based on an urban grid
pattern and extend from the existing city grid network to ensure good
This grid framework has been developed to allow for the flexible
amalgamation or subdivision of land parcels into plots of different sizes,
including larger land parcels to cater for buildings with large floor plates to
offer maximum flexibility and efficiency for financial institutions.
Sites in Marina Bay are zoned 'White site' to allow
developers greater autonomy and flexibility in
deciding the most appropriate mix of uses for
each site, including housing, offices, shops, hotels,
recreation facilities and community spaces.
This increases the potential for
mixed-use developments and
Consultant Team: Design Architect: Safdie Architects
Executive Architect: Aedas, Pte, Ltd.
Structural Engineers: Arup
MEP Engineers (Design): R.G. Vanderweil, LLP
MEP Engineers (Production): Parsons Brinckerhoff
Landscape Architect(Design): Peter Walker & Partners
Landscape Architect (Production): Peridian
Lighting Consultants: Project Lighting Design
Water Features: Howard Fields Assoc. International
Casino Design: Moshe Safdie with The Rockwell Group
Theater Consultants: Fisher Dachs Associates
Graphics, Signage and
1. Hotel – 2,560 luxury rooms in three hotel towers, totaling
265,683 square meters (2,860,000 square feet)
2. Sands SkyPark – the three hotel towers are connected at
the top (200 meters/656 feet) by a 9,941 square meter
(107,000 square foot) park that brings together a public
observatory, jogging paths, gardens, restaurants, lounges,
and an infinity swimming pool
This 1.2 hectare (3 acre) tropical oasis is longer than the
Eiffel Tower is tall and large enough to park four-and-a-
half A380 jumbo jets
It spans from tower to tower and cantilevers 65 meters
(213 feet) beyond to form one of the world’s largest
It is 340 meters (1,115 feet) long from the northern tip to
the south end
The park’s maximum width is 40 meters
3. Casino – the “atrium style” casino features four levels of
gaming and entertainment in one space totaling 15,000
square meters (161,500 square feet) with the atrium ceiling
holding a 7 ton chandelier with 132,000 Swarovski crystals
and 66,000 LEDs
4. The Shoppes at Marina Bay Sands – includes over 74,322
square meters (800,000 square feet) of retail and restaurant
5. Sands Expo and Convention Center – consists of 121,000
square meters (1.3 million square feet) of flexible convention
and exhibition space, including one of the largest ballrooms in
Asia with area of 8,000 square meters (86,100 square feet)
and the capacity to host 11,000 people
6. Museum of ArtScience - is 15,000 square meters (161,500
square feet square feet) with 6,000 meters (64,580 square
feet) of gallery space, a 3,000 square meter (32,290 square
foot) lily pond at grade and has a palm measuring 80 meters
(260 feet) in diameter reaching 62 meters (203 feet) above
grade and 11 meters (36 feet) below grade
7. Theaters – the two theaters are 21,980 square meters
(236,600 square feet square feet) with a combined 4,000
8. Crystal Pavilions – the 5,914 square meters
(63,660 square feet) Crystal Pavilions house shops
and nightclubs and are the first glass and steel
structures to be set in Marina Bay
9. Event Plaza – is 5,000 square meters (54,000 square foot) and capable of hosting 10,000
people for a diverse range of local and international live performances.
Reclaiming the city’ is an oft-used phrase in the urban literature, referring to the physical
expansion of territory, the upgrading of derelict urban zones and the reclaiming of space by
disenfranchised groups. ‘worldliness’ in the reclamation process.
Urban Reclamation, they include :-
Reclaiming functionality, aimed at infusing the waterfront with new land uses;
Reclaiming access, as a way of opening up the landscape to more people; and
Reclaiming the local, as a way to commemorate local cultures and histories.
Land Reclamation 1984
DESIGN THEORIES – RECLAIMING THE CITY WATERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT IN SINGAPORE
Type of Urban Reclamation: Agent: Who is primarily Purpose: why is Urban Vision: What is
What is being reclaimed? Responsible/Pushing for reclamation necessary? The long term goal
reclamation? of reclamation?
Reclamation Function Government Authorities To recover economic An economically
i.e land use and activity planning agencies utilities if urban space Vibrant City
property developer to maximise function of
business enterprise land
Reclaiming access Local communities, To reclaim space for An accessible City
(i.e. space) citizen groups, activists personal use
occupation or communal
Reclaiming the local Tourists, cultural enthusiasts To respect the cultural A culturally rich
(i.e. culture, history, special interest group (for Significance of the sites and authentic city
identity) example, heritage, society and appreciate the
Historical value of space
RECLAIMING THE CITY: WATERFRONT DEVELOPMENT IN SINGAPORE
Marina Bay Sands provides an entirely new urban experience. Its
organization around two principal axes gives the complex a sense of
orientation, placing emphasis on the pedestrian and civic life in the context
of a mega scale structure that includes a variety of uses – convention,
museum, theaters, casino, promenade, hotel, and tourism. It has the sense
of all the rituals of urban activities. A series of layered gardens provide ample
green space throughout Marina Bay Sands, extending the tropical garden
landscape from Marina City Park towards the Bayfront. The landscape
network reinforces urban connections with the resort’s surroundings, and
every level of the district has green space that is accessible to the public.
The success of Marina Bay Sands is owed, in large part, to its completely
seamless integration of elements. None of the components work well as
independent silos, but together they create a complex microcosm of a city
that serves as a vital public meeting place. Each element adds something to
the experience of the resort as a whole.