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Recycling

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  • 1. RecyclingRecycling
  • 2. Every day we damp a lot of domestic,Every day we damp a lot of domestic,industrial & agricultural wastes. Some ofindustrial & agricultural wastes. Some ofthe materials in the rubbish will decay:the materials in the rubbish will decay:this include the left-over food, fruitthis include the left-over food, fruitpeelings, etc. They can be broken downpeelings, etc. They can be broken downinto simple inorganic materials by theinto simple inorganic materials by theaction of bacteria and fungi. We call thisaction of bacteria and fungi. We call thissort of pollutant biodegradable. Othersort of pollutant biodegradable. Otherkinds of rubbish will not decay, becausekinds of rubbish will not decay, becausethey are made of substances whichthey are made of substances whichcannot be broken down into simplecannot be broken down into simpleinorganic materials. They are called non-inorganic materials. They are called non-biodegradable. They include plastic,biodegradable. They include plastic,polystyrene, metal, etc.polystyrene, metal, etc.
  • 3. This kind of rubbish wastes aThis kind of rubbish wastes alarge space of the landfill site andlarge space of the landfill site andcannot burn. But we may usecannot burn. But we may useanother method to treat with thisanother method to treat with thiskind of rubbish, which is calledkind of rubbish, which is calledrecycling. By recycling, we canrecycling. By recycling, we canmake use of used materials likemake use of used materials likepaper, metal products and plasticpaper, metal products and plasticproducts from the waste again.products from the waste again.For example, we can collect andFor example, we can collect andmelt used glass and metals for themelt used glass and metals for theproduction of new glass bottlesproduction of new glass bottlesand new aluminum cans.and new aluminum cans.
  • 4. Type of rubbish can be recycleType of rubbish can be recycletimber productstimber products(e.g. furniture)(e.g. furniture)paperpapermetal productsmetal productsaluminium canaluminium canplastics (e.g. tires,plastics (e.g. tires,plastic bottles, etc)plastic bottles, etc)
  • 5. Aim of recyclingAim of recyclingSave resourcesSave resourcesTimber, metal and plastic are non-renewableTimber, metal and plastic are non-renewableresources. Recycling can help to reduce theresources. Recycling can help to reduce theusing the left materials.using the left materials.Reduce deposal wasteReduce deposal wasteAs part of the rubbish are taken to recycle. ThusAs part of the rubbish are taken to recycle. Thusreduce the area of landfill site use.reduce the area of landfill site use.Protect the environmentProtect the environmentAs it prevent the burning of plastic in incineratorAs it prevent the burning of plastic in incineratorand reduce the area of landfill site use.and reduce the area of landfill site use.
  • 6. The fact in Hong Kong of recyclingThe fact in Hong Kong of recyclingAbout 1.94 million tones of waste wereAbout 1.94 million tones of waste wererecovered in Hong Kong in 2001. Thisrecovered in Hong Kong in 2001. Thisrepresented about 36% of the total waste arisingrepresented about 36% of the total waste arisingin the city. The recovered wastes were eitherin the city. The recovered wastes were eitherrecycled locally (0.17 million tonnes1) orrecycled locally (0.17 million tonnes1) orexported to the Mainland and other countries forexported to the Mainland and other countries forrecycling (1.77 million tonnes2).recycling (1.77 million tonnes2).The major kinds of recyclable wastes recoveredThe major kinds of recyclable wastes recoveredincluded paper, plastics and metal, whichincluded paper, plastics and metal, whichaccounted for about 98% of the wasteaccounted for about 98% of the wasterecovered. The remaining 2% were glass, wood,recovered. The remaining 2% were glass, wood,rubber tires and textile.rubber tires and textile.
  • 7. The fact of paper recyclingThe fact of paper recyclingThe paper recycling process starts byThe paper recycling process starts bybeating waste paper into pieces in abeating waste paper into pieces in astirring tank to generate paper pulp.stirring tank to generate paper pulp.Contaminants are removed while theContaminants are removed while theremaining fibers are fed into fiber refinersremaining fibers are fed into fiber refinersto produce refined fibers. The flowingto produce refined fibers. The flowingrefined pulp is then directed to a paperrefined pulp is then directed to a paperformer for layer deposition. The paperformer for layer deposition. The paperlayer is de-watered by a mechanicallayer is de-watered by a mechanicalpress, followed by vacuum suction andpress, followed by vacuum suction andthermal drying to produce corrugatedthermal drying to produce corrugatedmedium for paper container andmedium for paper container andpaperboard.paperboard.
  • 8. The recycled paper produced by localThe recycled paper produced by localrecyclers confines to corrugated paperrecyclers confines to corrugated paperand duplex paper card for packaging. Aand duplex paper card for packaging. Avariety of waste paper including the highvariety of waste paper including the highvalue waste paper (e.g. white paper andvalue waste paper (e.g. white paper andcomputer printout), old corrugatedcomputer printout), old corrugatedcardboard, newspapers and other mixedcardboard, newspapers and other mixedpaper, are being exported to overseaspaper, are being exported to overseascountries for recycling.countries for recycling.About 800,000 tones of waste paper wereAbout 800,000 tones of waste paper wererecovered in Hong Kong. This representedrecovered in Hong Kong. This representedabout 58% of the waste paper generatedabout 58% of the waste paper generated(dry weight).(dry weight).
  • 9. The fact of plastic recyclingThe fact of plastic recyclingThe recycling of plastic waste is limited toThe recycling of plastic waste is limited toclean scraps and rejects fromclean scraps and rejects frommanufacturing sources. Though domesticmanufacturing sources. Though domesticrecovery of plastic bottles has increasedrecovery of plastic bottles has increasedsignificantly since the introduction of thesignificantly since the introduction of thewaste separation bins in housing estateswaste separation bins in housing estatesand public places, there is still limitedand public places, there is still limitedreprocessing of post-consumer plasticreprocessing of post-consumer plasticsuch as plastic bottles and plastic bagssuch as plastic bottles and plastic bagsdue to many practical constraints anddue to many practical constraints andbarriers.barriers.
  • 10. Most local plastic recyclers consume onlyMost local plastic recyclers consume onlyclean and homogeneous pre-consumerclean and homogeneous pre-consumerplastic waste collected from the industrialplastic waste collected from the industrialsector. The plastic waste recyclingsector. The plastic waste recyclingprocess starts with the sorting by resinprocess starts with the sorting by resintypes. The plastics are rinsed to removetypes. The plastics are rinsed to removecontaminants. The sorted and washedcontaminants. The sorted and washedwaste is then crushed and mixed withwaste is then crushed and mixed withcolourant before melting and pelletising.colourant before melting and pelletising.The pellets produced will be sold to plasticThe pellets produced will be sold to plasticproduct manufacturers as raw material.product manufacturers as raw material.
  • 11. The fact of metal recyclingThe fact of metal recyclingWaste metals are broadly classified intoWaste metals are broadly classified intotwo types: ferrous and non-ferrous metal.two types: ferrous and non-ferrous metal.The most common ferrous metalsThe most common ferrous metalsrecovered in Hong Kong are: -ironrecovered in Hong Kong are: -iron-tinplate -alloy steel scrap -other scrap-tinplate -alloy steel scrap -other scrapNon-ferrous metals recovered include:Non-ferrous metals recovered include:-copper & alloys -zinc -nickel -tin-copper & alloys -zinc -nickel -tin-aluminium -precious metal -lead -metal-aluminium -precious metal -lead -metalash & residuesash & residues
  • 12. About 803,000 tones of ferrous metal wereAbout 803,000 tones of ferrous metal wererecovered. This represented about 91% ofrecovered. This represented about 91% ofthe ferrous metal waste arising in thethe ferrous metal waste arising in theterritory. The major kinds of ferrous metalsterritory. The major kinds of ferrous metalsrecovered included structural steel, scraprecovered included structural steel, scrapvehicle and scrap home appliances.vehicle and scrap home appliances.About 76% of the total non-ferrous metalAbout 76% of the total non-ferrous metalarising was recovered. Out of the 76,800arising was recovered. Out of the 76,800tones recovered.tones recovered.The recovered metal is first classified, meltThe recovered metal is first classified, meltand then turn to it shape by molding.and then turn to it shape by molding.
  • 13. The limiting factor of recyclingThe limiting factor of recyclingAlthough the environmental awareness of theAlthough the environmental awareness of thegeneral public has increased significantly ingeneral public has increased significantly inrecent years, their willingness to activelyrecent years, their willingness to activelyparticipate in waste reduction still needs to beparticipate in waste reduction still needs to beenhanced.enhanced.Promoting waste avoidance on purelyPromoting waste avoidance on purelyenvironmental reasons may not be sufficient.environmental reasons may not be sufficient.As costs for collection and disposal servicesAs costs for collection and disposal servicesare not linked directly with the quantity ofare not linked directly with the quantity ofwastes generated through charging, there iswastes generated through charging, there isno financial incentive for waste producers tono financial incentive for waste producers toreduce waste.reduce waste.
  • 14. The built environment inhibits recyclingThe built environment inhibits recyclingactivities from the domestic waste stream.activities from the domestic waste stream.Small flat sizes restrict source separationSmall flat sizes restrict source separationand storage practices.and storage practices.Low values, high transportation cost orLow values, high transportation cost orlack of market demand for recoveredlack of market demand for recoveredmaterials particularly for plastics, glass,materials particularly for plastics, glass,paper, metal, textiles, tires and organicpaper, metal, textiles, tires and organicmaterials.materials.The predominance of small and mediumThe predominance of small and mediumrecovery and recycling enterprisesrecovery and recycling enterprisesdiscourages investments in wastediscourages investments in wasterecovery technologies.recovery technologies.
  • 15. On Government level,On Government level,Provide more Waste Separation Bins at eachProvide more Waste Separation Bins at eachbuildings, plazas, leisure and cultural venues,buildings, plazas, leisure and cultural venues,schools, country parks, offices & factories.schools, country parks, offices & factories.Encourages materials re-use, recovery andEncourages materials re-use, recovery andrecycling to help achieve waste reduction.recycling to help achieve waste reduction.Allocating suitable land solely for recyclingAllocating suitable land solely for recyclingpurpose at affordable rent is a major measurepurpose at affordable rent is a major measurefor supporting the waste recycling industry. Asfor supporting the waste recycling industry. Asthe profit of waste recovery and recycling isthe profit of waste recovery and recycling isoften marginal, leasing land through openoften marginal, leasing land through opentendering exclusively to waste recyclers couldtendering exclusively to waste recyclers couldlower their operation cost. This would helplower their operation cost. This would helppromote the local recycling activity in Hongpromote the local recycling activity in HongKong.Kong.
  • 16. Organise more activities which are promotingOrganise more activities which are promotingthe recycling and reusing of useful rubbish.the recycling and reusing of useful rubbish.Set up a recycling fund scheme for theSet up a recycling fund scheme for therecycling factories, and for organisingrecycling factories, and for organisingrecycling activities.recycling activities.
  • 17. On personal level,On personal level,Collect & classify the rubbish likeCollect & classify the rubbish likealuminium can and paper which can bealuminium can and paper which can berecycle or reuse. Put these kind of rubbishrecycle or reuse. Put these kind of rubbishinto the Waste Separation Bins.into the Waste Separation Bins.Use both side of paper.Use both side of paper.Reduce the using of products made byReduce the using of products made byplastic (e.g. plastic bag or bottle), alwaysplastic (e.g. plastic bag or bottle), alwaysreuse and put into the Waste Separationreuse and put into the Waste SeparationBins.Bins.
  • 18. ENDEND