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American Domestic Issues in the 20th Century SOL USII.9 Lisa Pennington Social Studies Instructional Specialist Portsmouth Public Schools
Vocabulary National Defense Student Loan: established in 1958 to help students attend college; a response to the U.S.-Soviet space race. Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965: supplied federal money to city school districts who lost tax revenues when people moved to the suburbs. 14th Amendment: guaranteed equal protection under the law and citizenship rights.
Vocabulary 15th Amendment: race cannot be used to deny the right to vote. Civil Rights Act of 1964: prohibited employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, gender, or national origin. Voting Rights Act of 1965: guaranteed African Americans the right to vote by outlawing literacy tests at election polls. 24th Amendment: the rights of citizens to vote in federal elections could not be denied because of failure to pay a poll tax.
Vocabulary NOW: National Organization of Women was created in 1966 to end restrictions on women and to secure equal employment opportunities; part of the Women’s Liberation Movement. NAACP: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; formed in 1909 as an advocacy group for African Americans. Montgomery Bus Boycott: took place in 1955 after Rosa Parks was arrested for not giving up her bus seat; Supreme Court ruled Alabama segregation laws were unconstitutional.
Vocabulary March on Washington: people gathered in 1963 to give support to Civil Rights legislation; Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his “I Have a Dream” speech. Equal Rights Amendment: proposed in 1972 to guarantee equal rights for women, but it failed to be adopted. Section 90 (a) of Title IX of the Education Amendment of 1972: no person on the basis of gender will be excluded from participating in or denied benefits of or be subject to any discrimination in any program that receives federal financial assistance.
Vocabulary Section 844 of the Education Amendment of 1974: discrimination based on gender was prohibited in intercollegiate athletic activities at institutions that received federal financial aid.
The Civil Rights Movement The Civil Rights Movement resulted in legislation that ensured constitutional rights to all citizens regardless of race. http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=7546&rendTypeId=4
Some Effects of Segregation Separate educational facilities and resources for white and African American students. http://www.vahistory.org/massive.resistance/photos/3/Dp0008.jpg
Some Effects of Segregation Separate public facilities (i.e., restrooms, drinking fountains, restaurants)
Some Effects of Segregation Social isolation of races http://www.sitemason.com/files/fwyiD6/hotelclark.jpg
The Civil Rights Movement Opposition to Plessy v. Ferguson (“separate but equal” was legal) http://supreme.lp.findlaw.com/supreme_court/landmark/landmarkimages/plessy2.gif http://www.stus.com/images/products/con0008.gif
The Civil Rights Movement Brown v. Board of Education (desegregation of schools) The Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education integrated the schools. Here, the first day of desegregation, on Sept. 8, 1954, at Fort Myer Elementary School in Fort Myer, Va. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/10/weekinreview/10liptak.html
The Civil Rights Movement Martin Luther King, Jr. and his use of passive resistance against segregated facilities; “I have a dream…” speech. http://www.medaloffreedom.com/MartinLutherKingHaveaDream.jpg
The Civil Rights Movement Rosa Parks and the Montgomery bus boycott. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/images/br0119s.jpg Rosa Parks being fingerprinted after her arrest for refusing to give up her seat on the bus.
The Civil Rights Movement Organized protests, Freedom Riders (helped African Americans vote and work for civil rights, sit-ins, marches.) http://img.groundspeak.com/waymarking/display/d31694f7-01d5-43a7-89dc-db608be87c0e.jpg Sign reads: On Mother’s Day, May 14, 1961, a group of black and white CORE youth on a “Freedom Ride” from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans arrived by bus at the Birmingham Greyhound terminal. They were riding through the deep south to test a court case “Boynton vs. Virginia,” declaring segregation in bus terminals unconstitutional. Here they were met and attacked by a mob of Klansmen. The riders were severely assaulted while the police watched, yet the youth stood their ground.
The Civil Rights Movement Expansion of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) http://www.albany.edu/~naacp/images/naacp-logo.gif
The Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Act of 1964. What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 do? It prohibited employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, gender, or national origin. http://www.governor.state.az.us/eop/images/CivilRights.jpg President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Notice Martin Luther King, Jr. in the background.
The Civil Rights Movement Voting Rights Act of 1965. What did the Voting Rights Act of 1965 do? It guaranteed African Americans the right to vote by outlawing literacy test at election polls.
Women’s Rights Women activists were inspired by the achievements of the Civil Rights Movement and took action to gain equality for themselves, particularly in the workplace.
Workplace Disadvantages Discrimination in hiring practices against women. http://www.robrogers.com/gallery/old_favorites/images/best_93/050293%20Glass%20Ceiling.gif
Workplace Disadvantages Lower wages for women than for men doing the same job. What do you think the term “glass ceiling” refers to? http://www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/image8-2.gif
http://www.smh.com.au/ffximage/2007/05/17/wages18507_narrowweb__300x318,0.jpg How does this chart illustrate the “glass ceiling” concept?
Improved Conditions National Organization for Women (NOW) http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/6/6b/Logo-sign2.gif
Improved Conditions Federal legislation to force colleges to give women equal athletic opportunities.
Improved Conditions The Equal Rights Amendment despite its failure, and a focus on equal opportunity employment, created a wider range of options and advancement for women in business and public service. http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=27002&rendTypeId=4
New Technologies After the war, Americans turned their energies to the development of peacetime technologies.
Industries Benefiting From New Technologies Airline industry: jets.
Industries Benefiting From New Technologies Automobile industry and interstate highway system.
Industries Benefiting From New Technologies Entertainment and new media.
Industries Benefiting From New Technologies Exploration of space. http://www.hashemian.com/blog/images/space-exploration.jpg
Industries Benefiting From New Technologies Computer industry.
Industries Benefiting From New Technologies Satellite system: telecommunications (pagers, cell phones, television.)
Industries Benefiting From New Technologies Internet.
Impact of New Technologies on American Life Increased domestic and international travel for business and pleasure.
Impact of New Technologies on American Life Greater access to news and other information.
Impact of New Technologies on American Life Cheaper and more convenient means of communication.
Impact of New Technologies on American Life Greater access to heating and air conditioning improved the quality of life and encouraged population growth in certain areas of the country. http://www.acunit.com/images/heat-pump.jpg
Impact of New Technologies on American Life Decreased regional variation, resulting from nationwide access to entertainment and information provided by national television and radio programming, Internet Services, and computer games.
Influence of Individual Citizens Individual citizens have influenced America scientifically, culturally, academically, and economically.
Science Charles Drew-plasma J. Robert Oppenheimer-physics (Manhattan Team Project) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Nagasakibomb.jpg/300px-Nagasakibomb.jpg
Culture Frank Lloyd Wright-architecture Martha Graham-dance http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Frank_Lloyd_Wright_-_Robie_House_2.JPG
Academic Henry Louis Gates-historian Maya Angelou-literature "These yet to be the United States"
Tremors of your network cause kings to disappear. Your open mouth in anger makes nations bow in fear. Your bombs can change the seasons, obliterate the spring. What more do you long for? Why are you suffering? You control the human lives in Rome and Timbuktu. Lonely nomads wandering owe Telstar to you. Seas shift at your bidding your mushrooms fill the sky Why are you unhappy? Why do your children cry? They kneel alone in terror with dread in every glance. Their rights are threatened daily by a grim inheritance. You dwell in whitened castles with deep and poisoned moats and cannot hear the curses which fill your children's throats. -Maya Angelou
Economics Bill Gates-computer technology Ray Kroc-franchising http://www.union.umd.edu/food/images/mcdonalds.jpg
Emerging Issues in America American foreign policy, immigration policies, energy policies, and environmental policies affect both people in the United States and in other countries.
Foreign Policy Increase in terrorist activities. Incidents of Terrorism Worldwide, 2005 Incidents of terrorism worldwide: 11,111 Incidents resulting in death, injury, or kidnapping of at least one individual: 8,016 Incidents resulting in the death of at least one individual: 5,131 Incidents resulting in the death of zero individuals: 5,980 Incidents resulting in the death of only one individual: 2,884 Incidents resulting in the death of at least 10 individuals: 226 Incidents resulting in the injury of at least one individual: 3,827 Incidents resulting in the kidnapping of at least one individual: 1,145 http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/65489.pdf
Foreign Policy Conflicts in the Middle East. Changing relationships with nations. http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2007/11/07/world/07kurds.xlarge1.jpg
Immigration Changing immigration patterns (i.e., Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans.) More people want to immigrate to the United States than are allowed by law. http://www.urban.org/publications/PublicationImages/305184/setfig1.jpg
Global Environment Policies to protect the environment. Global climate change. Conservation of water and other natural resources. http://nsidc.org/quickfacts/images/iceberg_03.jpg
Other Issues World health issues (global pandemics) http://media.economist.com/images/na/2009w18/Swine-01-05-09.gif