Transformations of the United States and the World SOL USII.8 Lisa Pennington Social Studies Instructional Specialist Portsmouth Public Schools
Vocabulary Yalta Conference: Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met in 1945 to plan the occupation and division of Germany into four zones administered by the U.S., France, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. Superpower: the U.S. and Soviet Union emerged as the world’s two great powers, with no other country equal in power. Satellite nations: countries dominated by the Soviet Union. Iron Curtain: expression coined by Churchill to describe political division between democratic countries in Western Europe and Communist countries in Eastern Europe. Containment: to hold back the spread of Communism.
After World War II… Much of Europe was in ruins. Soviet forces occupied most of Eastern and Central Europe and the eastern portion of Germany. The United States felt it was in its best interest to rebuild Europe and prevent political and economic instability.
After World War II… Learning from the mistakes of the past, the United States accepted its role as a world superpower, helping to rebuild Europe and Japan and taking the leading role in establishing the United Nations.
Rebuilding Efforts in Europe http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/2/24/300px-Marshall_Plan.png The U.S. instituted George Marshall’s plan to rebuild Europe (the Marshall Plan), which provided massive financial aid to rebuild European economies and stop the spread of communism. Democratic countries received money from the U.S., established democratic governments, and became allies of the U.S. Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. The red columns show the relative amount of total aid per nation.
Rebuilding Efforts in Europe Germany was partitioned into East and West Germany. West Germany was democratic and resumed self-government after a few years of British and French occupation. East Germany remained under the domination of the Soviet Union and did not adopt democratic institutions. http://www.maps-of-germany.co.uk/images/map-of-east-west-Germany.gif
Rebuilding Efforts in Japan General MacArthur headed the occupation government which received aid from the U.S., established a democratic government, and resumed self-government as a U.S. ally. http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h62000/h62439.jpg
The establishment of the United Nations The United Nations was formed near the end of World War II to create a body for the nations of the world to try to prevent future global wars. http://www.inetours.com/New_York/Images/UN/UN-Flags_8870.jpg The United Nations building in New York City. There is a display of flags representing each member country in front of the U.N. The flags are in alphabetical order beginning with Afghanistan and ending with Zimbabwe.
Rapid Growth of the U.S. Following World War II, Americans prospered due to an expanding economy by America’s involvement in the war.
Reasons for rapid growth of the U.S. economy after WWII With rationing of consumer goods over, businesses converted from production of war materials to consumer goods. Americans purchased goods on credit. What are consumer goods? Goods such as cars, television, radios, clothes, and food that people use and re-purchase. http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/thumb_0/1085439585nw34jW.jpg
Reasons for rapid growth of the U.S. economy after WWII The workforce shifted back to men and most women returned to family responsibilities. Labor unions merged and became more powerful; workers gained new benefits and higher salaries. http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://history.sandiego.edu/gen 1946 Strike outside of the Moline Company in Minneapolis.
Reasons for rapid growth of the U.S. economy after WWII As economic prosperity continued and technology boomed, the next generation of women re-entered the labor force in large numbers. http://www.clomedia.com/images/CO0605_humancapfig3.gif
Vocabulary Cold War: state of tension between the U.S. and Soviet Union without actual fighting that divided the world into two camps. Domino Theory: stated by President Eisenhower that the fall to Communism of one country would cause a chain reaction of Communist takeovers. McCarthyism: suspicions of Communists in the 1950’s by Senator McCarthy who said people were Communists without any evidence.
Vocabulary Capitalism: economic system in which individuals own and control factors of production with little government intervention. Communism: economic system in which the government owns or controls almost all means of production. NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization formed in 1949 by democratic nations against Soviet Union attacks. Warsaw Pact: organization formed in 1949 by the Soviet Union and Communist eastern European countries.
The Cold War The U.S. and Soviet Union emerged from WWII as world powers, triggering a rivalry over ideology and national security. The tension between the free world and the communist world caused divisiveness at home and abroad.
Origins of the Cold War Differences in goals and ideologies between the U.S. and the Soviet Union (two superpowers.) The U.S. was democratic and capitalist and the Soviet Union was dictatorial and communist.
The Cold War Nations http://astro.temple.edu/~barbday/Europe66/resources/coldwardivisionmap1.htm
Origins of the Cold War Soviet Union’s domination over Eastern European countries; the U.S. policy of containment. http://jimriverreport.com/tdaxp_upload/stalins_new_map_md.jpg
Origins of the Cold War North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) versus the Warsaw Pact http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/thumb/a/a4/450px-NATO_vs_Warsaw_(1949-1990).png Borders of NATO (blue) and the Warsaw Pact (red) during the Cold War Era.
Major conflicts in the post-WWII era Since WWII, the U.S. has been directly involved in conflicts that reflected the divisions caused by Cold War tensions and hostilities. The Cold War was the central organizing principle in foreign affairs for 40 years.
Major conflicts in the post-WWII era South Korea and the U.S. resisted Chinese and North Korea aggression. The conflict ended in a stalemate (no winner.) http://www.learnkoreanlanguage.com/images/KoreanWarMap.jpg
Major conflicts in the post-WWII era The Cuban Missile Crisis happened when the Soviet Union put missiles in Cuba. The Soviets removed the missiles in response to a U.S. blockade. http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw3584.gif
What do you think this cartoon means?
Why was the U.S. concerned about Soviet missiles in Cuba?
Major conflicts in the post-WWII era The U.S. intervened to stop the spread of communism in South Vietnam. Americans were divided over our involvement and the conflict ended in a cease-fire and U.S. troops withdrew. http://www.teara.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/69D2AEF4-9B4E-4BC9-A227-B278C0
Germany Korea Cuba Vietnam The Cold War Around the World http://www.pupilvision.com/schoolmap/outlinemaps/world1.jpg
Reasons for the collapse of communism in Europe The breakup of the Soviet Union into independent countries. http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780198781646/01student/maps/break_up_USSR.jpg
Reasons for the collapse of communism in Europe The destruction of the Berlin Wall in 1989. http://www.bdonline.co.uk/Pictures/web/s/u/h/Berlin-wallready.jpg East and West German border guards join in on the destruction of the Berlin Wall.
New Challenges The role of U.S. military intervention: Do we need to interfere in the affairs of other countries? What do you think? Is this question still applicable today? http://savecivilization.org/wp-content/uploads/2007/01/2007_01_09t054713_450x2
New Challenges Environmental challenges: deforestation, clearing of forests for logging or farming, pollution of oceans and freshwater by chemicals, sewage, fertilizers, and pesticides. What issue concerning the environment is popular today? Global warming http://www.radford.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG140/envst.gif http://enews.toxicslink.org/im-info/Air.pollution_1.jpg
New Challenges Global issues such as the loss of jobs, trade problems such as protective tariffs, disease, and energy.
Vocabulary Serviceman’s Readjustment Act of 1944: known as the G.I. Bill of Rights made low interest loans and money for tuition and books available to military veterans. Federal Highway Act: 1956; authorized a system of interstate highways across the U.S. Changing demographics: the “baby boom” after 1946 caused the birth rate to increase for 20 years.
Vocabulary International Declaration of Human Rights: Eleanor Roosevelt was the delegate to the United Nations and was chairperson of the U.N. commission that drafted this document. Immigration Act of 1965: abolished the process of favoring immigrants from northern and western Europe. Affirmative action: to give an equal opportunity for employment to all races and cultures.
Vocabulary Civil Rights Act of 1964: prohibited employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, gender, or national origin. Economic Opportunity Act of 1964: helped Americans with job training and employment, established Head Start to help pre-school children, the Job Corps to train school drop outs and adults, and VISTA, the domestic peace corps.
Changing patterns in U.S. Society Changing patterns in American society at the end of World War II changed the way most Americans lived and worked.
Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society U.S. had a strong economy (a healthy job market, increased productivity, and an increased demand for American products.)
Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society Great investment in education. How did the Serviceman’s Readjustment Act of 1944, or the G.I. Bill, help veterans invest in their education? http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/92.3/images/loss_fig06a.jpg
Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society “Baby boom” led to changing demographics. How will the “baby boomer” generation affect subsequent generations, especially as the “baby boomers” begin to retire? http://www.ed.gov/pubs/bbecho/images/page3.gif
Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society Interstate highway system.
Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society Evolving role of women (expected to play a supporting role in the family, but increasingly working outside the home.)
Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society Role of Eleanor Roosevelt in expanding women’s rights. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/22
Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society African American aspirations for equal opportunities. http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=7546&rendTypeId=4 Martin Luther King, Jr (center) and other Civil Rights supporters march on Washington, D.C. in August of 1963.
Policies and programs expanding educational and employment opportunities The G.I. Bill of Rights gave educational, housing, and employment benefits to WWII veterans. http://www.gallagher.com/ww2/images/GI_Bill_of_Rights_29_176.jpg
Policies and programs expanding educational and employment opportunities President Truman desegregated the armed forces. http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.trumanlibrary.org/photos/71-2530
Policies and programs expanding educational and employment opportunities Civil Rights legislation led to increased educational, economic, and political opportunities for women and minorities. http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/thumb/6/61/250px-Lyndon_Johnson_signing_ President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act Of 1964. Behind him is Martin Luther King, Jr.
Globalization Between the end of WWII and the present, the world has been marked by an increase in globalization and interdependence. Globalization is the linking of nations through trade, information, technologies, and communication. Globalization involves increased integration of different societies.
Impact of globalization on American life Improvement of all communications (i.e., travel, telecommunications, internet)
Impact of globalization on American life Availability of a wide variety of international goods and services. Outsourcing of jobs. http://www.ejobdescription.com/images/JobsOutsourced.gif