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Usii.8 ppt


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Covers the information in VA SOL USII.8

Covers the information in VA SOL USII.8

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  • 1. Transformations of the United States and the World
    SOL USII.8
    Lisa Pennington
    Social Studies Instructional Specialist
    Portsmouth Public Schools
  • 2. Vocabulary
    Yalta Conference: Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met in 1945 to plan the occupation and division of Germany into four zones administered by the U.S., France, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union.
    Superpower: the U.S. and Soviet Union emerged as the world’s two great powers, with no other country equal in power.
    Satellite nations: countries dominated by the Soviet Union.
    Iron Curtain: expression coined by Churchill to describe political division between democratic countries in Western Europe and Communist countries in Eastern Europe.
    Containment: to hold back the spread of Communism.
  • 3. After World War II…
    Much of Europe was in ruins. Soviet forces occupied most of Eastern and Central Europe and the eastern portion of Germany. The United States felt it was in its best interest to rebuild Europe and prevent political and economic instability.
  • 4. After World War II…
    Learning from the mistakes of the past, the United States accepted its role as a world superpower, helping to rebuild Europe and Japan and taking the leading role in establishing the United Nations.
  • 5. Rebuilding Efforts in Europe
    The U.S. instituted George Marshall’s plan to rebuild Europe (the Marshall Plan), which provided massive financial aid to rebuild European economies and stop the spread of communism.
    Democratic countries received money from the U.S., established democratic governments, and became allies of the U.S.
    Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East
    showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid.
    The red columns show the relative amount
    of total aid per nation.
  • 6. Rebuilding Efforts in Europe
    Germany was partitioned into East and West Germany.
    West Germany was democratic and resumed self-government after a few years of British and French occupation.
    East Germany remained under the domination of the Soviet Union and did not adopt democratic institutions.
  • 7. Rebuilding Efforts in Japan
    General MacArthur headed the occupation government which received aid from the U.S., established a democratic government, and resumed self-government as a U.S. ally.
  • 8. The establishment of the United Nations
    The United Nations was formed near the end of World War II to create a body for the nations of the world to try to prevent future global wars.
    The United Nations building in New York City.
    There is a display of flags representing each
    member country in front of the U.N. The flags
    are in alphabetical order beginning with
    Afghanistan and ending with Zimbabwe.
  • 9. Rapid Growth of the U.S.
    Following World War II, Americans prospered due to an expanding economy by America’s involvement in the war.
  • 10. Reasons for rapid growth of the U.S. economy after WWII
    With rationing of consumer goods over, businesses converted from production of war materials to consumer goods.
    Americans purchased goods on credit.
    What are consumer goods?
    Goods such as cars, television, radios, clothes, and food that people use and re-purchase.
  • 11. Reasons for rapid growth of the U.S. economy after WWII
    The workforce shifted back to men and most women returned to family responsibilities.
    Labor unions merged and became more powerful; workers gained new benefits and higher salaries.
    1946 Strike outside of the Moline Company
    in Minneapolis.
  • 12. Reasons for rapid growth of the U.S. economy after WWII
    As economic prosperity continued and technology boomed, the next generation of women re-entered the labor force in large numbers.
  • 13. Vocabulary
    Cold War: state of tension between the U.S. and Soviet Union without actual fighting that divided the world into two camps.
    Domino Theory: stated by President Eisenhower that the fall to Communism of one country would cause a chain reaction of Communist takeovers.
    McCarthyism: suspicions of Communists in the 1950’s by Senator McCarthy who said people were Communists without any evidence.
  • 14. Vocabulary
    Capitalism: economic system in which individuals own and control factors of production with little government intervention.
    Communism: economic system in which the government owns or controls almost all means of production.
    NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization formed in 1949 by democratic nations against Soviet Union attacks.
    Warsaw Pact: organization formed in 1949 by the Soviet Union and Communist eastern European countries.
  • 15. The Cold War
    The U.S. and Soviet Union emerged from WWII as world powers, triggering a rivalry over ideology and national security. The tension between the free world and the communist world caused divisiveness at home and abroad.
  • 16. Origins of the Cold War
    Differences in goals and ideologies between the U.S. and the Soviet Union (two superpowers.) The U.S. was democratic and capitalist and the Soviet Union was dictatorial and communist.
  • 17. The Cold War Nations
  • 18. Origins of the Cold War
    Soviet Union’s domination over Eastern European countries; the U.S. policy of containment.
  • 19. Origins of the Cold War
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) versus the Warsaw Pact
    Borders of NATO (blue) and
    the Warsaw Pact (red)
    during the Cold War Era.
  • 20. Major conflicts in the post-WWII era
    Since WWII, the U.S. has been directly involved in conflicts that reflected the divisions caused by Cold War tensions and hostilities.
    The Cold War was the central organizing principle in foreign affairs for 40 years.
  • 21. Major conflicts in the post-WWII era
    South Korea and the U.S. resisted Chinese and North Korea aggression. The conflict ended in a stalemate (no winner.)
  • 22. Major conflicts in the post-WWII era
    The Cuban Missile Crisis happened when the Soviet Union put missiles in Cuba.
    The Soviets removed the missiles in response to a U.S. blockade.
    • What do you think this cartoon means?
    • 23. Why was the U.S. concerned about Soviet missiles in Cuba?
  • Major conflicts in the post-WWII era
    The U.S. intervened to stop the spread of communism in South Vietnam.
    Americans were divided over our involvement and the conflict ended in a cease-fire and U.S. troops withdrew.
  • 24.
  • 25. Germany
    The Cold War
    Around the World
  • 26. Reasons for the collapse of communism in Europe
    The breakup of the Soviet Union into independent countries.
  • 27. Reasons for the collapse of communism in Europe
    The destruction of the Berlin Wall in 1989.
    East and West German border guards join in
    on the destruction of the Berlin Wall.
  • 28. New Challenges
    The role of U.S. military intervention: Do we need to interfere in the affairs of other countries?
    What do you think? Is this question still applicable today?
  • 29. New Challenges
    Environmental challenges: deforestation, clearing of forests for logging or farming, pollution of oceans and freshwater by chemicals, sewage, fertilizers, and pesticides.
    What issue concerning the environment is popular today?
    Global warming
  • 30. New Challenges
    Global issues such as the loss of jobs, trade problems such as protective tariffs, disease, and energy.
  • 31. Vocabulary
    Serviceman’s Readjustment Act of 1944: known as the G.I. Bill of Rights made low interest loans and money for tuition and books available to military veterans.
    Federal Highway Act: 1956; authorized a system of interstate highways across the U.S.
    Changing demographics: the “baby boom” after 1946 caused the birth rate to increase for 20 years.
  • 32. Vocabulary
    International Declaration of Human Rights: Eleanor Roosevelt was the delegate to the United Nations and was chairperson of the U.N. commission that drafted this document.
    Immigration Act of 1965: abolished the process of favoring immigrants from northern and western Europe.
    Affirmative action: to give an equal opportunity for employment to all races and cultures.
  • 33. Vocabulary
    Civil Rights Act of 1964: prohibited employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, gender, or national origin.
    Economic Opportunity Act of 1964: helped Americans with job training and employment, established Head Start to help pre-school children, the Job Corps to train school drop outs and adults, and VISTA, the domestic peace corps.
  • 34. Changing patterns in U.S. Society
    Changing patterns in American society at the end of World War II changed the way most Americans lived and worked.
  • 35. Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society
    U.S. had a strong economy (a healthy job market, increased productivity, and an increased demand for American products.)
  • 36. Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society
    Great investment in education.
    How did the Serviceman’s Readjustment Act of 1944, or the G.I. Bill, help veterans invest in their education?
  • 37. Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society
    “Baby boom” led to changing demographics.
    How will the “baby boomer” generation affect subsequent generations, especially as the “baby boomers” begin to retire?
  • 38. Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society
    Interstate highway system.
  • 39. Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society
    Evolving role of women (expected to play a supporting role in the family, but increasingly working outside the home.)
  • 40. Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society
    Role of Eleanor Roosevelt in expanding women’s rights.
  • 41. Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society
    African American aspirations for equal opportunities.
    Martin Luther King, Jr (center) and other
    Civil Rights supporters march on Washington,
    D.C. in August of 1963.
  • 42. Policies and programs expanding educational and employment opportunities
    The G.I. Bill of Rights gave educational, housing, and employment benefits to WWII veterans.
  • 43. Policies and programs expanding educational and employment opportunities
    President Truman desegregated the armed forces.
  • 44. Policies and programs expanding educational and employment opportunities
    Civil Rights legislation led to increased educational, economic, and political opportunities for women and minorities.
    President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act
    Of 1964. Behind him is Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • 45. Globalization
    Between the end of WWII and the present, the world has been marked by an increase in globalization and interdependence.
    Globalization is the linking of nations through trade, information, technologies, and communication.
    Globalization involves increased integration of different societies.
  • 46. Impact of globalization on American life
    Improvement of all communications (i.e., travel, telecommunications, internet)
  • 47. Impact of globalization on American life
    Availability of a wide variety of international goods and services.
    Outsourcing of jobs.