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Usii.4b notes



Covers the information in VA SOL USII.4b.

Covers the information in VA SOL USII.4b.



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Usii.4b notes Usii.4b notes Presentation Transcript

  • SOL USII.4b: Immigration and the Growth of Cities
    Lisa Pennington
    Social Studies Instructional SpecialistPortsmouth Public Schools
  • Vocabulary
    Immigrant: a person who comes to another country to live and work.
    Oppressive: limiting the rights and freedoms of individuals.
    Specialization: concentration on the manufacture of a particular product.
    Division of labor: each person does one specific part of the whole process.
  • Essential Understandings
    Population changes, growth of cities, and new inventions produced interaction and often conflict between different cultural groups.
  • Reasons for Increased Immigration
    • Hope for better opportunity
    • Religious freedom
    • Escape from oppressive governments
    • Adventure
  • Essential Understandings: Why cities developed
    Population changes, growth of cities, and new inventions produced problems in urban areas.
  • Reasons why Cities Developed
    Specialized industries including steel (Pittsburgh) and meat packing (Chicago).
    Immigration from other countries.
    Movement of Americans from rural to urban areas for job opportunities.
    Pittsburgh steel mill.
  • Cities with Specialized Industries
    Pittsburgh: steel
    Chicago: meat packing
    Boston: textiles
    New York City: clothing
    Cleveland: steel
    Gary: steel
    Philadelphia: ship building
    Western Pennsylvania: oil
  • Vocabulary
    Political machine: a party organization headed by a single boss or group that commands enough votes to maintain political control of a city, county, or state.
    Urbanization: growth in cities.
    Tenement: a building made up of many apartments.
    Ghetto: a specific area in a city where an ethnic group of similar culture, religion, and language lives.
  • Vocabulary
    Industrial Revolution: change in production methods from human to machine power.
    Entrepreneur: a person who takes a risk to establish a business.
    Factors of production: labor, capital, natural resources, and a transportation system to move the finished product to markets.
  • Essential Knowledge
    Rapid industrialization and urbanization led to overcrowded immigrant neighborhoods and tenements.
    Challenges faced by cities include tenements and ghettos and political corruption (political machines).
  • Essential Knowledge
    Inventions had both positive and negative effects on society.
    Inventions contributed to great change and industrial growth.
  • Inventions
    The development of the telegraph by Samuel Morse.
    Lighting and mechanical uses of electricity by Thomas Edison (light bulb and phonograph).
  • Inventions
    Telephone service developed by Alexander Graham Bell.
    Typewriter invented by Christopher Sholes.
  • Inventions
    Atlantic cable developed by Cyrus Field.
    George Eastman creates an affordable camera (Kodak).
  • Inventions
    Cable cars invented by Andrew Hallidie.
    Electric street railroad invented by Frank Sprague.
    Invention of the gas powered automobile by the Duryea brothers.
  • Inventions
    George Pullman invented the sleeping car.
    George Westinghouse invents the air brake.
    Elijah McCoy invents a device that oils engines.
  • Essential Understandings
    Population changes, growth of cities and new inventions produced reform situations that sought to provide services to crowded immigrant neighborhoods and remedy poverty.
  • Vocabulary
    Settlement houses: community centers in urban areas established by social and religious workers to meet the needs of people in poor neighborhoods.
    Hull House: a settlement house in Chicago established in 1889 by Jane Addams.
    Tammany Hall: a political machine run by New York Democrats; Boss Tweed was the leader.
  • Efforts to solve immigration problems
    Settlement houses, such as Hull House, founded by Jane Addams
    Political machines that gained power by attending to the needs of new immigrants (e.g., jobs, housing)
  • Discrimination against immigrants
    Chinese and Irish immigrants, as well as other groups such as American Indians were discriminated against in several ways:
    Dawes Act of 1887: Native Americans were ordered to become educated, to become citizens, and not to sell their land for 25 years.
    Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882: banned immigration from China for 10 years.
    Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1908: limited the number of Japanese immigrants to the United States.
    Irish immigrants: suffered discrimination because of their Catholic religion.
  • Think About It…
    Why did immigration increase?
    Why did cities develop?
    What inventions created great change and industrial growth in the United States?
    What challenges faced Americans as a result of social and technological changes?