1/05/20131ACS VICTORIAN SIG – INFORMATION SECUIRYTHE FUTURE OF SECURITYProfessor Matt Warren,School of Information Systems, DeakinUniversitywww.mjwarren.comA view of the future• Microsoft’s view of the future.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=peSYlJlg14E• What will be the security implications?
1/05/20132CIA Triangle• Initial security concept developed with the introduction of the mainframe.• C.I.A. triangle was standard based on confidentiality, integrity, andavailability.3Comments from History• Computer abuse – where a victim suffered, orcould have suffered, a loss and a perpetratormade, or could have made a gain.• Don Parker 1983 – Fighting Computer Crime
1/05/20133AusCert 2012• Over 90% of respondents deployed firewalls, anti-spam filters and anti-virus software.• Two-thirds of respondents had documentedincident management plans, however only 12%had a forensic plan.• Over 20% of organisations know theyexperienced a cyber incident in the previous 12months, with 20% of these organisationsexperiencing more than 10 incidents.5AusCert 2012• Of the organisations which know theyexperienced cyber incidents:17% suffered from loss of confidential or proprietaryinformation, 16% encountered a denial-of-service attack,and 10% financial fraud.6
1/05/20134AusCert 2012• The most common responses as to why incidentswere successful, were that they used powerfulautomated attack tools, or exploited unpatched orunprotected software vulnerabilities ormisconfigured operating systems, applications ornetwork devices.Security Link to the Past• Authentication – we are still using securityfeatures from the 80’s.• User name and password.
1/05/20135We are dealing with the consequencesAssociated Press – Twitter hackingWe are dealing with the consequences• One tweet.• For a moment in time - $US136.5 billion lost ofthe S&P 500 indexs value. A quick recovery oncethe hoax was identified.
1/05/20136We are dealing with the consequences• Syrian Electronic army blamed for the incident.• Phishing attack on journalists (from a number ofmedia organisations).• One username and password for the AP twitter –shared with many users.The response• Twitters response.• Considering two test verification:• 1) User name & Password• 2) SMS code or secret code.Issue – usability.
1/05/20137Next Generation• What does the future offer from a securityperspective.• Lets look into the future.CIA Triangle – still relevant14
1/05/20138The following trends• The following themes and trends are based on aproposed CRC looking at Cyber Security in anAustralian context.Ultra Speed Networks and DefenceFaster networks allows for faster access and datatransfer rates. But faster networks allow fasterDDOS attacks, spread of malware, real timeimpacts.New approaches to intrusion detection andresponse are needed to address highly increasedtransmission speeds and diversity of devicesprevalent in cyberspace today and in the future.
1/05/20139Ultra Speed Networks and DefenceCyber protection systems will need innovativetechniques and technologies to detect intrusionsas perpetrators operate across an increasinglycomplex milieu of threat vectors.Resilient SystemsWith a society increasingly reliant on internetconnectivity recovery from any form of attack.To protect society, organisational and individualinterests more robust and resilient primarysystems in the cyber infrastructure are needed.
1/05/201310Resilient SystemsSolutions will require systems to be self-awareand self-repairing, and a composite approachwhere systems combine to produce an overallarchitecture stronger than its component parts.Current focus of the Australian government.Wireless, Mobile, CloudWireless and mobile networks, and cloudcomputing all impact how and where we store andaccess our data.Individuals using an array of personal devices forworkplace activity create an incredibly complexenvironment for managing and usingcommercially sensitive data to meet organisationaloutcomes.
1/05/201311Trends – Australian 28th March, 2013• SALES of tablet computers will surpass sales of bothdesktop and portable PC sales by 2014.• A report by the research firm IDC said worldwideshipments of these devices -- personal computers,tablets and smartphones -- grew 29.1 per cent in2012 to 1.2 billion units with a value of $US576.9billion.• The expansion was largely driven by 78.4 per centgrowth in tablet shipments, which hit 128 million in2012.Trends - Australian 11th April, 2013• Decline in PC sales – Windows 8 - First-quartershipments of PCs fell 14 per cent from the sametime last year, according to International DataCorp.• Thats the deepest quarterly drop since the firmstarted tracking the industry in 1994.
1/05/201312Trends• Decline in traditional technologies – alternativetechnologies – e.g. Chromebook, Ubuntu, Apple.Unknown security issues?• Decline in traditional computers and replacementof alternative devices, e.g. security issues ofAndroid - two to nine million total downloads ofaffected malware apps (bad news) from GooglePlay.IPV6 and the Internet of ThingsIPv6 presents significant opportunities for the expansionof the Internet and services, truly allowing “things” to beconnected. IPv4 has approximately 4.2 billion uniqueaddresses, but once IPv6 is fully adopted there will beapproximately 1000 IP addresses for every squaremetre of the Earth’s surface.Forensics issues – since in theory every transactioncould have a allocated IP address.Many new types of IP connected devices.
1/05/201313Other Considerations• Complexity – the complexity of technologies,complexity of systems, complexity of securityrisks.• Cyber espionage / Cyber warfare.• Harder to implement effective informationSecurity management.Other Considerations• Tools needed – as the complexity of securitydevelops, so does the need to develop newsoftware tools to manage the complexity.• Who has responsibility for security – is itgovernments, corporations or individuals?
1/05/201314Increased Attack Vectors• Malware – increased in sophistication ofmalware, e.g. Stuxnet;• Linked to other attack vectors – socialengineering;• Malware for all devices.Massive impacts of attacks• The impacts of attacks will impact millions andbillions of users. Attacks could cause globalimpacts.• We are already seeing this with the impacts ofsocial networking attacks. Security failures willhave big impacts.
1/05/201315Online Identity• The importance of our online identity / onlinebrand.• Identity theft will become a greater issues.• Google is preparing for all aspects of the lifecycleincluding the afterlife.Google Afterlife• Google - ‘Inactive Account’ settings page, whichallows a Google user to clarify what they wantdone with their YouTube, Gmail, and Google+accounts after they die or are otherwise unable touse their account.• Google Users can choose to have their datadeleted after three, six, or twelve months ofinactivity or can share their data with friends orrelatives.
1/05/201316Google AfterlifeComplexity of attacks• How to deal with complex security attacks?• Social aspects of attacks – extension of phishingattacks.• How to plan for complex attacks – will securityrisk analysis have a future?• The role of government in protecting againstattacks?
1/05/201317Hacktivsm• In the broadest term it is the use of technology asa means of protest to promote political ends. Theaims of the protest would depend upon the group;• Small groups have the power to cause majorimpacts (real and media reported) based upontheir activities.Anonymous
1/05/201318Ethical issues - Data Ownership• Data Owner: responsible for the security anduse of a particular set of information.• Data Custodian: responsible for storage,maintenance, and protection of information .• Data Users: end users who work withinformation to perform their daily jobssupporting the mission of the organisation.35Auscert Survey (2012)• Responses indicated that 65% of participatingorganisations had IT security staff with tertiarylevel IT qualifications.• More than 50% of participating organisations hadIT security staff with some type of vendor basedIT certifications.• Almost 35% of participating organisations had ITsecurity staff with no formal training, althoughmost of these staff had more than five yearsworking in the IT security industry.36
1/05/201319Auscert Survey (2012)• These findings indicate that some organisationsmay need to improve the skill set of their ITsecurity staff.• This was supported by the additional finding that55% of respondents thought their organisationneeds to do more to ensure their IT security staffhave an appropriate level of qualification, training,experience and awareness.37Professional Aspects• Greater focus on quality security qualifications /academic and professional.• International aspects of Security Professionaldevelopment, accreditation.• Security qualifications in all aspects of security.
1/05/201320Professional Aspects• The professional nature / needs an developmentof security professionals.• A greater global demand for securityprofessionals and a greater demand for all rolesto have a security component.Human Elements• Cyber Safety – becomes important for entirepopulations.• The professional nature of security needs thedevelopment of IT and business professionals.
1/05/201321Current Views of Cyber Security• Official Government Viewpoint.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UIIY9AQSqbY• Governments are taken Cyber Security seriouslynow, what will happen in the future?Conclusion• What have we learned from the past?• What will the future bring from a securityperspective?• The world will become smaller as technologytransform society. Security will become an evengreater issue.