Woodrow Wilson's Trip to Europe:Post WW1
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  • 1. Fourteen Points Prior to the end of WW1, and his trip to Europe, President Woodrow Wilson delivered his “Fourteen Points” Speech before Congress on January 18th, 1918. Among the points, the first five were established to help prevent another war. 1 No secret treaties among nations were to be made 2 Everyone (all nations) should be entitled to free seas 3 To create free trade, all tariffs and other economic blocks should be lowered or ended. 4 During diplomatic crises, arms should be brought down “to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety, thus lessening the possibility of military responses” 5 Colonial peoples as well as the imperial powers should be considered when establishing colonial policies
  • 2. The FOURTEENTH point THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS Wilson established this idea of an international organization used to address diplomatic crises similar to the ones that had caused World War 1. This point became Wilson’s main demand at the Paris Peace Conference.
  • 3. PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE World War One would end the “eleventh day of the eleventh month at the eleventh hour.” Soon after, a series of peace talks would begin, starting on January 18, 1919 and lasting a little over a year. President Woodrow Wilson revealed his Fourteen Points to the representatives present.
  • 4. WHO WENT? In all, over thirty nations were present at the Peace Conference, NOT including Germany ( and the other Central Powers.) The “Big Four” consisted of: Great Britain (Prime Minister David Lloyd George), France (Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau), Italy (Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando), and the United States (President Woodrow Wilson)
  • 5. Wilson’s role Once at the Conference, Wilson was eager to get support for his Fourteen Points, specifically the establishment of the League of Nations. His hopes were dashed as many nations, such as France and Great Britain, were more concerned with punishing Germany. As a result, Wilson became frustrated but returned to the United States with a Treaty for Congress to ratify.
  • 6. What Happened? The Treaty of Versailles was created at the Peace Conference. It pitted all the blame for World War 1 on Germany and they had to accept full responsibility. Also within the Treaty was the mention of the League of Nations, which caused the opposition. The American public was for the Treaty; however, Congress thought otherwise.
  • 7. Congress’ Decision The Congress was split on the decision to ratify the Treaty. It all came down to the part mentioning the League of Nations. One side refused to join the League under any circumstances. The other, led by Senate Foreign Relations Committee Chairman, Henry Cabot Lodge, would accept the Treaty if certain amendments could be added. In the end, even though fourteen amendments were added, the ratification would fall short by seven votes.
  • 8. In the end even though the Congress failed to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, they did agree to comply with the terms of the Treaty of Berlin, which was between Germany and the United States. This Treaty had all the components of the Treaty of Versailles except the joining of the League of Nations.