Loose weight - win money      Materials Day 2011      Markus Kaufmann
Loose weight - win moneyIntroduction
The iceberg problem            ACQUISITION COST                              Poor Design          (Research, Design, Test,...
What happened?                 Cost benefit of lightweighting                 is 100 to 1,000 per kg                      ...
What happened?                 Source: Eurocopter
What happens?                In space sector cost benefits of                lightweighting are > 10,000/kg               ...
• Procurement is currently                                        dominated by initial costs.                             ...
• Procurement is currently                                      2,4                               dominated by initial cos...
Towards Lightweight MaterialsOpportunities and Threats
Towards Lightweight MaterialsOpportunities                       Threats•   higher performance              • unknown mate...
Material Evolution for bicyclesPeriod   Material system70ies:   Columbus SL or Reynolds 53180ies:   Titanium bike frame198...
Material Evolution for bicycles                 Figure: Ashby M. Materials selection in mechanical design
Material Evolution for bicyclesComparison of Materials Used in BicyclesSTEEL                                           TIT...
Steel and metallic alloys
Steel and alloys for bicycle frames    Material              specific                specific                     Weight  ...
ABM Beryllium Frame•   Beryllium alloy•   aluminum lugs•   adhesive bonded•   1.1 kg frame weight•• 2 ex were built       ...
Alloys at turbine inlets                                                                             T1 T2                ...
Alloys at turbine inlets                                                                         T1 T2                    ...
Trends in cast alloys (i)• Hybrid structures   – MnE21 (Magnesium/Manganese/Cerim)   – casted on aluminum or steel sheet• ...
Trends in cast alloys (ii)• Solution strengthened nodular cast iron   – higher silicon content   – higher yield strength a...
Plastics
Plastics           Source: lassecollin.se
Plastics            Ultra Polymers                                     HDT > 150 High-Performance         Polymers  Engine...
Trends in plastics (i)• Towards the top of the pyramid   – Self-reinforced plastics     e.g. PrimoSpire from Solvay Advanc...
Trends in plastics (ii)Increased Toughness:Dyneema and Spectra• UHMwPE fibers with high tensile strength• better light/UV ...
Example: Innegra reinforced concrete                           Source: Wikinnegra.com
Trends in plastics: Self-reinforced• Curv is self-reinforced polypropylene                                                ...
Composites
Example: Composite Bike Frame                         Images: www.lotustalk.com
Case study: Optimization of C-Spar• milled aluminum AA7010-T73651• resin transfer molded carbon/epoxy    – RTM6    – non-c...
Case study: Optimization of C-Spar                                                                                        ...
Trends in Composites (i)• shorter cycle time   – through automation   – fast curing thermosets   – thermoplastics    enab...
Trends in Composites (ii)    Images: Roltex, FiberShell, GreenCore, Museeuwbikes, Innobat, Huntsman Advanced Materials
Message                                                                   Design with                                     ...
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Sirris materials day 2011 loose weight - win money - markus kaufmann

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State of the art in lightweight materials

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Sirris materials day 2011 loose weight - win money - markus kaufmann

  1. 1. Loose weight - win money Materials Day 2011 Markus Kaufmann
  2. 2. Loose weight - win moneyIntroduction
  3. 3. The iceberg problem ACQUISITION COST Poor Design (Research, Design, Test, Production, Construction) OPERATION COST PRODUCT DISTRIBUTION COST SOFTWARE COST TEST AND SUPPORT MAINTENANCE COST EQUIPMENT COST TECHNICAL DATA TRAINING COST COST SUPPLY SUPPORT COST RETIREMENT AND DISPOSAL COST
  4. 4. What happened? Cost benefit of lightweighting is 100 to 1,000 per kg Figure: DLR Braunschweig
  5. 5. What happened? Source: Eurocopter
  6. 6. What happens? In space sector cost benefits of lightweighting are > 10,000/kg Image: Nasa
  7. 7. • Procurement is currently dominated by initial costs. • Cost benefits of lightweighting are ca 10/kg• Suggested cost benefit for lightweighting is ca 2 /kg composiTn: a thematic network on the future use of composites in transport
  8. 8. • Procurement is currently 2,4 dominated by initial costs. • Cost benefits of lightweighting average weight [tons] 2,2 are ca 10/kg 2,0 1,8 1,6 1,4 Trucks 1,2 Suggested cost benefit • Cars for lightweighting is ca 1,0 2 /kg 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2006, Appendix D, July 2006.
  9. 9. Towards Lightweight MaterialsOpportunities and Threats
  10. 10. Towards Lightweight MaterialsOpportunities Threats• higher performance • unknown materials,• lower energy consumption unknown processes• lower transport cost • higher development cost• optimized use of raw material • higher material cost• legislation • other issues are – repair – design and structural simulations – crashworthiness – recycling – fire safety
  11. 11. Material Evolution for bicyclesPeriod Material system70ies: Columbus SL or Reynolds 53180ies: Titanium bike frame1982: Unreinforced plastics bike90ies: Aluminum90ies: Carbon fibers1993: Beryllium frame2010: Flax/carbon frame
  12. 12. Material Evolution for bicycles Figure: Ashby M. Materials selection in mechanical design
  13. 13. Material Evolution for bicyclesComparison of Materials Used in BicyclesSTEEL TITANIUMPros Cons Pros Cons• Inexpensive • Heavy • Light • Expensive• Strong • Corrosive • Strong • Designs limited by• Stiff • Designs limited by • Resilient and available tubes• Resilient and available tubes and • Not easily repaired lugs • Shock absorbing • Bad welds are easily• Easy to work with • Brazing/welding  • Non-corrosive hidden and repair weaker, heat- • Stiffness vs. affected zones lightweightALUMINUM CARBON FIBERPros Cons Pros Cons• Inexpensive • Fatigue risk reqs • Lightest • Expensive• Light overbuilding • Strongest • Technology still• Adequately strong • Lacks resilience • Best shock evolving• Very stiff for the absorption • Strength and stiffness weight • Not easily repaired • Unlimited design are design dependent• Non-corrosive in • Bonded joints applications • Fully molded styles non-salty prone to failure • Non-corrosive have very limited sizes environments • Heat treatment can • Material has high be inconsistent fatigue resistance http://www.calfeedesign.com/tech-papers/technical-white-paper/
  14. 14. Steel and metallic alloys
  15. 15. Steel and alloys for bicycle frames Material specific specific Weight E-modulus strength Carbon steel 25.6 30 140% Cr-Mo steel 25.6 85 100% AA-6061-T6 25.9 95 55% Ti-3Al-2.5V 24.4 156 46%• carbon steel is corrosive, heavy, strength loss by brazing• Cr-Mo steel is lighter and more fatigue resistant, weldable• Aluminum is welded or bonded, very stiff, risks for fatigue• Titanium is light, strong, but expensive tube sources are aircraft hydraulic lines http://www.calfeedesign.com/tech-papers/technical-white-paper/
  16. 16. ABM Beryllium Frame• Beryllium alloy• aluminum lugs• adhesive bonded• 1.1 kg frame weight•• 2 ex were built Source: http://mombat.org/1992AmericanBe1.jpg
  17. 17. Alloys at turbine inlets T1 T2 Efficiency T1 Turbine inlet temperature for a selection of Rolls-Royce turbines thanks to major material developments Source: Aviation and the Environment 03/09
  18. 18. Alloys at turbine inlets T1 T2 Efficiency T1 Turbine inlet temperature for a selection of Rolls-Royce turbines thanks to major material developments Image: Nikon Metrology Blog
  19. 19. Trends in cast alloys (i)• Hybrid structures – MnE21 (Magnesium/Manganese/Cerim) – casted on aluminum or steel sheet• Thin-walled ductile cast iron – carbide-free production – 2-3 mm wall thicknesses• Aluminium Lithium alloys – higher specific strength – better corrosion resistance Images: Lightweight-Design.de / Alcan Airware
  20. 20. Trends in cast alloys (ii)• Solution strengthened nodular cast iron – higher silicon content – higher yield strength and higher elongations• Compacted graphite iron – narrow process window – combination of strength and thermal conductivity – engine blocks• Thixomolding – high-speed, net-shape injection molding – semisolid magnesium slurry – low porosity, complex parts – reduces risk of burning magnesium Sources: Thixomat / GoCycle
  21. 21. Plastics
  22. 22. Plastics Source: lassecollin.se
  23. 23. Plastics Ultra Polymers HDT > 150 High-Performance Polymers Engineering Polymers 100 HDT < 150Commodity Polymers HDT < 100 Source: SpecialChem (12/08)
  24. 24. Trends in plastics (i)• Towards the top of the pyramid – Self-reinforced plastics e.g. PrimoSpire from Solvay Advanced Polymers – PEEK and PPS in order to increase the heat deflection temperature (HDT)   (PP  PPS  PEEK)• Fillers and reinforcements – add 30% glass fibers to PA66 (230260 – increase both static properties and HDT• Hybrid designs – overmoulding of inserts and metal components• Increased toughness Sources: SolvayPlastics, SpecialChem (12/08) and Lightweight-Design
  25. 25. Trends in plastics (ii)Increased Toughness:Dyneema and Spectra• UHMwPE fibers with high tensile strength• better light/UV stability than Aramid/Kevlar• similar applications as Kevlar, including personal protective equipment, speaker cones, high-performance ropes and cablesInnegra• high modulus PP fiber• low-cost• similar applications as above Source: Xtreme Degreez Sports Magazine
  26. 26. Example: Innegra reinforced concrete Source: Wikinnegra.com
  27. 27. Trends in plastics: Self-reinforced• Curv is self-reinforced polypropylene PP Curv Density kg/m3 900 920 Notched Izod impact kJ/m2 4 400 Tensile strength MPa 27 120 Tensile modulus GPa 1.12 4.2 Sources: Materials World, Vol. 6 No. 10 pp. 608-09 ,1998 / Samsonite / curvonline / matweb
  28. 28. Composites
  29. 29. Example: Composite Bike Frame Images: www.lotustalk.com
  30. 30. Case study: Optimization of C-Spar• milled aluminum AA7010-T73651• resin transfer molded carbon/epoxy – RTM6 – non-crimp fabric• autoclave carbon/epoxy prepreg – M21/T800 – Plain Weave Kaufmann, Zenkert, Åkermo. Journal of Aircraft (0021-8669) 2011 vol. 48 no. 3
  31. 31. Case study: Optimization of C-Spar weight [kg] cost [€] RTM i RTM ii RTM iii Prepreg i Prepreg ii Alu RTM iv Kaufmann, Zenkert, Åkermo. Journal of Aircraft (0021-8669) 2011 vol. 48 no. 3
  32. 32. Trends in Composites (i)• shorter cycle time – through automation – fast curing thermosets – thermoplastics  enables cost reduction for automotive and aerospace• cost-effective processes – hybrid processes – out-of-autoclave• new material systems – tougher – cheaper – greener Images: Coriolis Composites, BMW
  33. 33. Trends in Composites (ii) Images: Roltex, FiberShell, GreenCore, Museeuwbikes, Innobat, Huntsman Advanced Materials
  34. 34. Message Design with Opportunities ACQUISITION COST (Research, Design, Test, Production, Construction) OPERATION COST PRODUCT DISTRIBUTION COST SOFTWARE COST TEST AND SUPPORT MAINTENANCE COST EQUIPMENT COST TECHNICAL DATA TRAINING COST COST SUPPLY SUPPORT COST RETIREMENT AND DISPOSAL COST
  35. 35. Questions?

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