Produceer met minder energie   energy and ressource efficiency in production- ralf schlosser
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Produceer met minder energie energy and ressource efficiency in production- ralf schlosser

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  • 1. Energy and Ressource Efficiency in Production Seminar “Produceer met minder energie” Dipl.-Ing. Ralf Schlosser, Sirris Zwijnaarde, 08.11.11© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
  • 2. Agenda 1 Presentation WZL 2 Motivation 3 Assessment of energy- and resource consumption within the BEAT Project 4 Industrial Case Studies and Application of Sustainable Manufacturing 5 Summary© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 2
  • 3. RWTH Aachen and Fraunhofer-GesellschaftFraunhofer-Gesellschaft More than 80 institutes und facilities at 40 locations in Germany 18,000 employees approx. € 1.65 billion research funds per year, € 1.4 billion through research contracts 3 institutes in Aachen RWTH Aachen University  Founded in 1870  33,000 students Faculty of Mechanical Engineering  8,700 students (incl. 1,800 first year students)  54 professors  2,600 employees  140 graduates per year© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 3
  • 4. Production Technology in Aachen Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering (WZL)  RWTH Aachen University institute  Founded in 1906  720 employees  16,000 m² offices and laboratories Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT  Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft institute  Founded in 1980  365 employees  3,000 m² offices and laboratories  Certified to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000  Partner in Boston/USA: Fraunhofer Center for Manufacturing Innovation CMI© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 4
  • 5. Process and Manufacturing TechnologyProf. Dr.-Ing. Dr.-Ing. E.h. Dr. h.c. mult. Fritz Klocke Cutting Grinding and forming Laser machining CAx Process and technology technologies product monitoring Turning, Grinding, Solid forming, Joining, Laser surface Rapid CAD/CAM Process moni- Material milling, lapping, sheet metal cutting, treatment Manufacturing technologies toring systems removal drilling, polishing, forming, hard forming and strategies processes broaching honing smooth rolling, tribology Tool and die making Precision and micro technology Optics and optical systems Plant engineering and construction Automotive, aerospace, turbine construction© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 5
  • 6. Chair of Manufacturing Technology −Cutting Technology Department Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr.-Ing. E.h. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Fritz Klocke Fritz Klocke Dipl.-Ing. Dieter Lung Chiefengineer Dr.-Ing. Dipl.-Ing. Klaus Ralf Schlosser Gerschwiler Modeling and Evaluation Basics of Cutting of Cutting Processes Process and Process strategy  Cutting durability tests  Process model development  Energy-/Ressourceefficiency development  Cutting Simulation  Energetical Evaluation of  Metallographic Machinability investigations Investigations  Calculation of the influence on cutting processes the work piece  Ecological Lubricoolant Supply  Micro cutting Lifecycle Management Strategies  Technology-Research Circle  6 Phd Students  7 Technicians  4 Phd Students  2 Programmer  1 Post Doc  1 Post Doc  1 Apprentice Tribology Processanalysis Tooldevelopment Microtechnology© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 6
  • 7. Agenda 1 Presentation WZL 2 Motivation 3 Assessment of energy- and resource consumption within the BEAT Project 4 Industrial Case Studies and Application of Sustainable Manufacturing 5 Summary© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 7
  • 8. Motivation: Social and ecological boundary conditions Population growth Resource availability 8 2025 Coal 7 World population /bil. 4 bilions in 50 years Natural gas 6 5 Crude oil 4 1975 Uranium 3 2 bilions in 45 years Iron 2 1930 1 bilion in 80 year Copper 1 1850 500 Mio. in 200 years 1650 Zinc 0 1 500 1000 1500 2000 Years 50 100 150 200 YearSource: J.Jeswiet, Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe 2000 For the future demand of the growing world population more products have to be manufactured with less energy and resources.© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 8
  • 9. Press hardening of car bodies shown on the example of an Audi A4 Press hardened steels  Press hardened steel provides higher strength Conventional, high- in comparison to cold-formable steels and strength and multilayer applications ultrahigh- strength  Improved crash characteristics steels  Car body weight reduction of 9 kg 20 15 Change on the CO2 -equivalent / kg/car 0 Positive carbon footprint already during product manufacturing – environment-friendly before roll- -20 out -19 -40 Higher body strength -60 -53 -57 leads to weight reduction and to Production Total a positive carbon footprint Material- Usage productionSource: AUDI AG© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 9
  • 10. Life Cycle Assessment along the product life cycle  Determination of material and energyEnergy Waste flows for all life cycle phases (according to Raw material DIN EN ISO 14040)Resource extraction EmissionsEnergy Waste  Calculation of environmental impacts (scientifically based characterisationResource Production Emission factors)Energy Waste  Potential reduction of energy and material consumption in 2 ways:Resource Use Emissions – Identification of „hot spots“ → saving options can be deducedEnergy Waste – Better understanding and comparability of material and energy consumption forResource Recycling/ Emissions different machining processes Disposal© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 10
  • 11. Energy and tool costs in a cylinder head production Costs Energy 250 200 24,2%Costs / % 150 57,3% 18,5% 100 50 0 Cooling lubricant 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Cleaning Costs for electrical energy Tool costs MachiningSource: Volkswagen © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 11
  • 12. Agenda 1 Presentation WZL 2 Motivation 3 Assessment of energy- and resource consumption within the BEAT Project 4 Industrial Case Studies and Application of Sustainable Manufacturing 5 Summary© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 12
  • 13. BMBF-Project BEAT:Assessment of energy efficiency of alternative processes and technology chains Aims  Classification of manufacturing processes  Identification of inefficient processes  Holistic life cycle assessment of alternative processes and process chains Our proceeding  Identification of the relevant balance shell  Detection of material and energy flows in manufacturing processes  Definition of criteria to evaluate the energy and resource efficiency of manufacturing processes Pictures: FhG, WZL, Daimler, Bosch© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 13
  • 14. Chart of the energy and resource flows within gear manufacturing  Machine tools as the relevant balance shell for the evaluation  Detection of all input and output quantities along the whole process chain  Multiple energy and material flows  Detection of central installations for process media supply© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 14
  • 15. Section of the energy and material flow chart Indirect layer Direct layer© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 15
  • 16. Evaluation of the direct electrical energy flows in valve injectors Average power consumption Energy per part Turning Washing Heat treatment Eroding Rounding Flow rate check Laser marking Grinding Deburring Optimisation of the highest power consumers doesn’t necessarily bring the best benefit.© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 16
  • 17. Intermediate Summary The energy per functional unit (per part) is not only dependent from the average power consumption of a process Main influencing factors are also the manufacturing time and amount of parallel processed workpieces Further investigation in the Projects BEAT will also discuss the topics: – Energy efficiency map of cutting processes – The effect of indirect energy by peripheral units as air conditioning, central lubricoolant supply, central compressed air units – Holistic Life Cycle Assessment of all material and energy flows in the single processes and the complete process chains within the GABI Software www.beat-bmbf.de© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 17
  • 18. Agenda 1 Presentation WZL 2 Motivation 3 Assessment of energy- and resource consumption within the BEAT Project 4 Industrial Case Studies and Application of Sustainable Manufacturing 5 Summary© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 18
  • 19. Energy efficiency by process substitution Coil Gap part Integrated Die forging Die forging Die forging Blank production shearing heating I II III shearing Gap part Local Coil Route Blade heating and Die forging production shearing shearing compressing Punch Route Forged scrap bolster Finished part Short process chains reduce work in progress inventory, the processing time, energy consumption per part and increase the process safetySource: Zwilling J.A Henckels AG© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 19
  • 20. Optimized machining strategy for the manufacturing of lubricatingbores in cylinder heads Lubricating bore: Machining time t/min 10 8.71  borehole depth: l = 520mm -80% 5  bore diameter: d = 7mm 1.74 1,74  aspect ratio: l/d = 74 0 Old New Tool concept Essential approach: Old tool concept: New tool concept: Spiral  expanding the application of HSS - Single-lip drill solid carbide drill solid carbide drills! Conclusion:  process time reduction leads to essential energy cutting parameters cutting parameters saving f = 0.035 mm f = 0.23 mmSource: MAN Diesel & Turbo© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 20
  • 21. Increase in productivity by dry machining status 2006 yesterday today tomorrow Cutting material HSS-PM HSS-PM HM coating cutting speed. vc / m/min feed fa / mm AlCrN 90 4 AlCrN 150 4 AlCrN 240 3 ? max. chip thickness / mm 0.24 0.24 0.18 7 Wet machining Dry machining Time per part /min 6 5 Continuous improvement Leap in technology 4 3 2 1 0 1999 2002 2005 2006 yesterday today tomorrowSource: Daimler AG© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 21
  • 22. Exhaust gas heat recovery Ring hearth furnace Ring hearth furnace with heat recovery Technical heat network heat reflow consumer i consumer … heat input 960° C process temperature  Heat exchanger installation on burner exhaust gas line, furnace cooling not yet 60m³ natural gas/ h → 120 kg CO2/ h used Technical heat generation only by gas  Approx. 60 KW can be continuously fed back into the energy network Transparency creates simple optimization potentialsSource: Daimler AG© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 22
  • 23. Energy saving potentials in machines and plants Inflexible machine und plant Machine ventilation Adaptable ventilation machine- und plant ventilation  Necessary ventilation  50% energy reduction for power is predefined by machine and plant machine manufacturer 1800 m³/h 720 m³/h ventilation through flexible installations  Oversized and not adaptable plant ventilation Plant ventilation  Integration of flexible >30 Nm³/(m².h) machine and plant  Regulation of machine ventilation into the and plant ventilation is not requirements considered in the design 17 Nm³/(m².h) Status before Status after Adaptable and flexible central installationsSource: Daimler Trucks© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 23
  • 24. Use of water in the automobile productionWater consumption within the BMW Group 2009: 3.2 Mio m³ Sanitary waste water Drinking water Evaporation Process waste water Ground WaterSource: BMW Group 2011© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 24
  • 25. Use of water in the automobile productionReduction of consumption of sanitary waterPicture: bau-web.de Water consumption of a conventional tap: 4 l water, 24 s runtime 10 Flow rate /(l/min) 8 6 4 2 0 Time /s 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Water consumption of a sensoral tap: 2.2 l water, 15 s runtime 10 Flow rate /(l/min) 8 Sensors within taps reduce the average 6 water consumption during hand washing 4 about 45% 2 0 Time /s 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24Source: BMW Group 2011© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 25
  • 26. Resource saving by reconditioning instead of recycling  Serial reconditioning of starters and generators  Annual savings compared to production of new components: – 85.000 MWh energy = Starter and generators Fuel injection/ignition 88% savings compared to Disassembling Assembly new production Replacement Exchange “Back in Box” + + of wear parts product 200.000 kg Copper Cleaning Final check 350.000 kg Aluminium Distributor pump Fuel-injector-mount combination 1.600.000 kg Steel 58.000 kg CO 800.000 kg CO2 4.300 kg SO2Source: Bosch© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 26
  • 27. Agenda 1 Presentation WZL 2 Motivation 3 Assessment of energy- and resource consumption within the BEAT Project 4 Industrial Case Studies and Application of Sustainable Manufacturing 5 Summary© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 27
  • 28. Acknowledgements We kindly acknowledge the support of the Project BEAT by© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 28