2013 12-05-sirris-materials-workshop-smart-composites-luyckx-kinet

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Sirris Materials Workshop - 5 december 2013 -
Monitoring composite structures with fibre optic sensors -
Geert Luyckx, UGent and Damien Kinet, Multitel

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2013 12-05-sirris-materials-workshop-smart-composites-luyckx-kinet

  1. 1. Smart Composites Monitoring composite structures with optical fibers Geert Luyckx Damien Kinet © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13 1
  2. 2. Overview Life1. Objective cycle of a composite structure Production and assembly monitoring 2. Rationale A. Production and Application monitoring assembly monitoring B. Operation/Health monitoring Opportunities 3. Sensor technologies Novel Envisaged applications 4. technologies 5. Research consortium 6. Research Applications approach 7. Industrial user consortium Health monitoring in marine environment
  3. 3. MANUFACTURING Life cycle of a composite structure Use Phase Assembly Assembly Assembly Assembly “Life cycle monitoring of large-scale CFRP VARTM structure by fiber-optic-based distributed sensing,” S. Minakuchi, et. al., Composites Part A, 42(6),669-676 (2011)
  4. 4. Life cycle monitoring: Wind turbine
  5. 5. Life cycle monitoring: Wind turbine Production Assembly Design Exploitation
  6. 6. Production monitoring & opportunities Production Today Thermocouples Pressure sensors Ultrasonic inspection No sensor able to predict initial strain state! Opportunities Initial strain state (residual strains) e.g. with embedded sensors (Fiber optics, Polymer waveguides,…) In-situ Cure monitoring e.g. with ultrasonic transducers, Fresnel reflection, capacitive sensing,… NECESSITY FOR MULTI-INSTRUMENTATION
  7. 7. Technology: Fiber Bragg Gratings
  8. 8. Combination of Optical fibers and Ultrasound Optical fiber
  9. 9. Combination of Optical fibers and Ultrasound 1 Gelation 2 Temperature FBG strain Residual strain magnitude Ultrasound 2 regions: 1. Composite does not exist! Resin in a fluid state 2. Composite exist strain transfer
  10. 10. Assembly monitoring & opportunities Assembly + Finishing Today Visual inspection Opportunities Embed sensors in adhesive zone Use finishing layer as sensor (coating)? Ageing sensors? Impact damage, tool drop Speed of monitoring event measurement or offline monitoring
  11. 11. Follow-up of bonded structures Initiated cracks reach sensor Safety level
  12. 12. Application monitoring & opportunities Design Today Visual inspection Load monitoring (edge, flap, combined) External strain gauges No information from the inside Exploitation Opportunities Pitch control (blade deformation) predict life time blades Use material as sensor (CNT, CB,…), Digital Image Correlation? Design support tool Reduce costly inspection
  13. 13. Pitch control monitoring MOOG inc: System to Adjust Windmill Wing Pitch Angle Provide edgewise and flap wise bending moment data to the individual pitch control system. 10-20% of load reduction in the blades 20-30% in the main shaft Life time ↑↑ www.moog.com/markets/ energy/wind-turbines/
  14. 14. Composite life cycle monitoring: Opportunities Difficulties Read-out and integration Cost and size of interrogator system Go for less performing system? More dedicated? Cheaper? Number of sensors needed to monitor structure? The least possible (design or exploitation) Reparability: Sensor should survive the structure with 100% certainty or possibility for repair Prediction of Eigenfrequencies via online strain date Relation of the sensor signal with the real situation
  15. 15. Novel sensor technologies Micro-structured optical fibers Polymer waveguides Deformable electronics
  16. 16. Dr. ir. Geert Luyckx Geert.Luyckx@UGent.be +32 486 95 32 04 12/5/2013 16
  17. 17. Structural Health Monitoring applied to Marine Applications
  18. 18. Structural Health Monitoring applied to Marine Applications Development of FBG sensors based on silica & plastic optical fibres Investigating sensor embedding processes and positioning the optical fibres at different layers according to the strains to monitor Developing a complete catamaran in carbon fibre reinforced polymer which will be used for further investigation and embedding of smart components
  19. 19. Structural Health Monitoring applied to Marine Applications Developing low cost optical interrogator Physical validation for finite element simulation • Real-time strain monitoring • Composite material properties investigation • Broken down and failure detection
  20. 20. Structural Health Monitoring applied to Marine Applications Sensor Evolution Simulation Sensor Interrogation Sensor Embedding Sensor Fabrication
  21. 21. Preliminary tests • More then 60 FBGs were glued on the catamaran mast • FBGs realized by the phase mask technique. • Chirped phase mask: 15nm/cm, length of each FBG: 1mm Shrouds Fibre Bragg gratings Location of the future housing connectors Spreader 1.10m 0.70m 0.70m 8.90m 9.25m 15.25m 17.75m Front view: Schematic representation
  22. 22. Preliminary tests Fibre n°1 Fibre n°3 Fibre n°2 Fibre n°4 Fibres n°2, 5 and 8 Fibre n°6 Fibre n°5 Fibres n°1, 4 and 7 Fibres n°3, 6 and 9 350 mm 190 mm Shape of the mast base Fibre n°7 Fibre n°9 Fibre n°8 Location of the future housing connectors Base of the mast
  23. 23. Preliminary tests Naked mast
  24. 24. Preliminary tests Fibre maintained on the mast with tape
  25. 25. Preliminary tests FBGs are glued on the mast with epoxy resin
  26. 26. Preliminary tests Mast with FBGs
  27. 27. Preliminary tests Mast is let free and is only maintained at both extremities
  28. 28. Preliminary tests Schematic representation of the mast during this test We follow the evolution of the Bragg wavelength of the FBGs. As expected: The Bragg wavelength shifts of the FBGs of the fibres n°1, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 9 are very small The FBGs of the fibres n° 2, 5 and 8 are under compression
  29. 29. Bragg wavelength shift (pm) Preliminary tests 0 y = -3E-10x4 + 1E-06x3 - 0.0012x2 - 0.078x - 19.343 R² = 0.92681 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500 0 500 1000 Position (cm) 1500 This figure presents the shift of the Bragg wavelength of the FBGs of the fibres n° 2, 5, 8 with an attempt to adjust a curve of the 4th order
  30. 30. Preliminary tests Mast is let free and is only maintained at both extremities but turned on its side
  31. 31. Preliminary tests We follow the evolution of the Bragg wavelength of the FBGs. As expected: The Bragg wavelength shifts of the FBGs of the fibres n°1, 4 and 7 are under traction. The Bragg wavelength shifts of the FBGs of the fibres n°3, 6 and 9 are under compression. Bragg wavelength shift (pm) Fibre n°4 Fibre n°6 600 400 200 0 -200 -400 -600 1 3 5 N° of the FBG 7
  32. 32. 2nd phase: Embedding - Realisation of small grooves - Optical fibers embedding - Filling of the grooves and protection of the sensors with epoxy glue
  33. 33. 2nd phase: Embedding Splicing of the optical fibers Ingress/egress of the optical fibers
  34. 34. 2nd phase: Embedding MPO (Multi-fiber Push-On) connector between the mast and the interrogator Rapid prototyping of a waterproof housing for the connection. This one will be attached to the mast
  35. 35. Interrogator set-up FBG 1 FBG x FBG 1 FBG x FBG 1 FBG x Optical circulator … e-LED Photodiode & Data processing Tunable filter Light, small size, low power consuming
  36. 36. Interrogator set-up Light, small size, low power consuming
  37. 37. Damien KINET Damien.KINET@umons.ac.be +32 (0) 65 37 41 96 © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13
  38. 38. SBO Self sensing composites Production monitoring Structural health monitoring
  39. 39. Case: control arm 2 optical fibers, 10 sensors Designed and manufactured by and 12/5/2013 39
  40. 40. http://www.sirris.be http://techniline.sirris.be #sirris http://www.linkedin.com/company/sirris © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13

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