Inks and their application in Printed Electronics
Results of a European Research project for SME Associations
(CLIP)
Printed Electronics

A wide range of (possible) applications

Solar Cells

Automotive sensors

Food Sensors
EL Packaging

...
Printed Electronics

A wide range of (possible) applications

Lightning (OLED)

Batteries
Displays

Medical Sensors

© sir...
Printed Electronics Manufacturing
Requirements










Materials &
Technology

Conversion of printed ink to a c...
Technology for Printed Electronics
Conventional printing

Digital Printing

Offset
Gravure

Aerosol Jet

Screen

Thermal t...
Technology for Printed Electronics
Conventional printing

Digital Printing

Offset
Gravure

Aerosol Jet

Screen

Thermal t...
Which technology will dominate?
Inkjet (piëzo)

Flexo

Screen

~30 µm

Resolution

Aerosol Jet
~10 µm

~80µm

40 - 100 µm
...
Conductive ink materials
Conductive
Material

Ink Type / Printing
process

Advantage

Disadvantage

Silver Flake

Predomin...
Market

2012 market size*: $2.86 billion, dominated by silver flake inks
2018 forecast*: $3.36 billion, of which $735 mill...
CLIP:Conductive Low Cost Ink Project
Objectives


Development, formulation, and feasibility of low cost inks



Developm...
Ink formulation
Specific guidelines for the inks

Viscosity

Complex composition of
nanoparticles and chemicals

Nanoparti...
Multimodal Ag inks



40 nm/6 nm/ <1nm



Improve particle packing  improved sintering and conductivity



Less materi...
Filtering
 Filtering of the inks

 necessary if small nozzle cartridges are
used

 Nano-particles tend to agglomerate

...
Printing

Digital printing - print at wish
High quality
Low cost
Small waste
Non contact/sensitive substrates
No masking

...
Inkjet technology
Drop on
Demand

Continuous
High speed
No clogging
Low resolution

Piezoelectric

Limited fluids

Materia...
Non contact AJP technology
AJP Technology description

1

3
2
1 – Nitrogen input
2 – Mist created (1-5µm droplet)

4

3 – ...
Substrates


Type of substrate depends on application
 Papers: good printability, good adhesion, solvents are absorbed q...
Curing: Drying and Sintering
Depending on substrates and used materials


Thermal heating









Standard practi...
Drying and Sintering

Depending on substrates and used materials


Broadband flash







High power densities / wid...
Printing results

Trimodal CLIP-ink

Commercial Reference

Reference

Sheet Resistance
Multimodal  better conductivity

S...
Inkjet demonstrator
Chipless RFID tag


4-bit chipless RFID tags successfully demonstrated using the final trimodal ink o...
AJP and inkjet demonstrator
Humidity sensor

Hybrid Integration of printed electronics and silicon electronics by AJP-prin...
AJP printed demonstrator

LED application

3D printing by AJP of conductive tracks for LED application.

Materials &
Techn...
Conclusions
 Inkjet technology is mature and available for conductive
printing
 Upscaling is possible to R2R with increa...
Conclusions
 Aerosol technology is dedicated for the future.
 Direct printing on 3D substrate is easily done with AJP
 ...
© sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |

5.12.13
Patrick Cosemans – Senior Project Engineer Smart Coating Application Lab
Patrick.cosemans@sirris.be
+32 498 91 94 63

© si...
http://www.sirris.be
http://techniline.sirris.be
#sirris
http://www.linkedin.com/company/sirris
© sirris | www.sirris.be |...
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2013 12-05-sirris-materials-workshop-printed-electronics-cosemans-seronveaux

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Sirris Materials Workshop 5 december 2013 - Inks and their application in printed electronics
Patrick Cosemans and Laurent Seronveaux, Sirris

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2013 12-05-sirris-materials-workshop-printed-electronics-cosemans-seronveaux

  1. 1. Inks and their application in Printed Electronics Results of a European Research project for SME Associations (CLIP)
  2. 2. Printed Electronics A wide range of (possible) applications Solar Cells Automotive sensors Food Sensors EL Packaging RFID tags © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13 2
  3. 3. Printed Electronics A wide range of (possible) applications Lightning (OLED) Batteries Displays Medical Sensors © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13 3
  4. 4. Printed Electronics Manufacturing Requirements          Materials & Technology Conversion of printed ink to a conductive track High Performance Cost efficient Flexible Large area / thin tracks / large area + thin tracks Various substrate (glass, paper, ceramic, plastics) Thermal compatibility with substrate and materials Defined interface formation between stacked materials Compatible with industry standard practices Ink formulation Printing Drying Sintering © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Device 5.12.13 4
  5. 5. Technology for Printed Electronics Conventional printing Digital Printing Offset Gravure Aerosol Jet Screen Thermal transfer Flexo Materials & Technology Inkjet magnetography Ink formulation Printing Drying Sintering © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Device 5.12.13 5
  6. 6. Technology for Printed Electronics Conventional printing Digital Printing Offset Gravure Aerosol Jet Screen Thermal transfer Flexo Materials & Technology Inkjet magnetography Ink formulation Printing Drying Sintering © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Device 5.12.13 6
  7. 7. Which technology will dominate? Inkjet (piëzo) Flexo Screen ~30 µm Resolution Aerosol Jet ~10 µm ~80µm 40 - 100 µm 10 m2/s 2-3 m2/s Throughput 0,01-0,5 m2/s Single pass layer thickness Particle size  < 500 nm 25 nm -10 µm 3 - 10 µm 50 - 100 µm Nano Nano (micro) Nano & micro Nano & Micro Depends on market and applications Materials & Technology Ink formulation Printing Drying Sintering © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Device 5.12.13 7
  8. 8. Conductive ink materials Conductive Material Ink Type / Printing process Advantage Disadvantage Silver Flake Predominantly Screen printing Cost effective for many applications thick films, surface roughness, difficult to photocure Silver Nanoparticles Predominantly Inkjet, Aerosol jet printing Thin films, flexibility, high conductivity, low T sintering High cost Copper Nanoparticles Predominantly Inkjet, Aerosol jet printing Same as Ag NP, but slightly lower cost Can oxidise and lose conductivity All Transparent, flexible, water resistant Lower conductivity then metal based inks Polymers (PEDOT, PANI) Research focus on graphene based inks Materials & Technology Ink formulation Printing Drying Sintering © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Device 5.12.13 8
  9. 9. Market 2012 market size*: $2.86 billion, dominated by silver flake inks 2018 forecast*: $3.36 billion, of which $735 million is based on nano Ag and Cu Drivers   Silver flake inks for screen printing will continue to dominate with largest market share (low cost)  Cost   Increasing share for inkjet, AJP and nanoparticle inks.    Barriers Delicate or irregular shaped objects Low temperature sintering required to print onto cheap flexible substrates (polymer film, paper)   Technical    Alternative needed for sputtered transparent ITO due to cost, supply and performance issues Materials & Technology Ink formulation Printing Nanoparticles significantly more expensive Ink development is time consuming and expensive Total in-use cost needs to be considered rather than a price comparison of inks Drying * Adapted from IDTECHEX report: Conductive Ink Markets, 2012 Long term stability High resolution printing Curing Sintering © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Device 5.12.13 9
  10. 10. CLIP:Conductive Low Cost Ink Project Objectives  Development, formulation, and feasibility of low cost inks  Development of optimized inks for screen, flexo, inkjet and aerosol jet printing  Optimization of inks for large area printing with high resolution, <50 microns  Prepare demonstrators © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13 10
  11. 11. Ink formulation Specific guidelines for the inks Viscosity Complex composition of nanoparticles and chemicals Nanoparticles Solvents Surface Tension Binders Particle size Materials & Technology Ink formulation Additives Printing Drying Sintering © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Device 5.12.13 11
  12. 12. Multimodal Ag inks  40 nm/6 nm/ <1nm  Improve particle packing  improved sintering and conductivity  Less material  Lower cost Materials & Technology Ink formulation Printing Drying Sintering © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Device 5.12.13 12
  13. 13. Filtering  Filtering of the inks  necessary if small nozzle cartridges are used  Nano-particles tend to agglomerate  Wide variety of filters available  Materials: PP,PES,PTFE,Nylon6,…  Different µ-structures  Ink dependent Cellulose Materials & Technology PVDF Ink formulation Printing PC Drying PES Sintering © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Device 5.12.13 13
  14. 14. Printing Digital printing - print at wish High quality Low cost Small waste Non contact/sensitive substrates No masking Inkjet AJP Flexible & Scalable  High resolution  Different printheads   Fujifilm, Xaar, Konica, Ricoh,...   1 pL to 80 pL  Planar substrates  Wide ink viscosity range   Very high resolution Local laser sintering Non-planar substrates possible Line and area printing Materials & Technology Ink formulation  Printing Drying Sintering © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Line printing Device 5.12.13 14
  15. 15. Inkjet technology Drop on Demand Continuous High speed No clogging Low resolution Piezoelectric Limited fluids Materials & Technology Thermal All fluids Ink formulation Printing Acoustic Drying Electrostatic Sintering © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Device 5.12.13 15
  16. 16. Non contact AJP technology AJP Technology description 1 3 2 1 – Nitrogen input 2 – Mist created (1-5µm droplet) 4 3 – Sheath gas input 4 - Printing and Deposition Materials & Technology Ink formulation Printing Drying Sintering © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Device 5.12.13 16
  17. 17. Substrates  Type of substrate depends on application  Papers: good printability, good adhesion, solvents are absorbed quickly by the paper, fast drying but porosity of paper can have a negative effect on conductivity.  Plastics: good printability, longer drying and curing time, adhesion can be a problem. No interference from substrate (no porosity). If curing and sintering are good optimal conductivity  Pretreatment can enhance adhesion Untreated substrate Materials & Technology Ink formulation Printing Treated substrate Drying Sintering © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Device 5.12.13 17
  18. 18. Curing: Drying and Sintering Depending on substrates and used materials  Thermal heating        Standard practice / conventional approach - Silver Uniformity Wide area of practice Substrate limiting the maximum temperature Long residence time -> inert atmosphere Not usable for Cu (oxidation) UV Curing  Wide area of processing  Standard practice  Lower intensity, continuous output Materials & Technology Ink formulation Printing Drying Sintering © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Device 5.12.13 18
  19. 19. Drying and Sintering Depending on substrates and used materials  Broadband flash      High power densities / wide area of processing Less substrate limited and curing times short Adjustable spectrum / tunable pulse lengths High capital cost for some systems Laser  High Power densities  Exposure area smaller /  Fixed wavelength but targeted wavelength to match ink requirements / uniform across the beam / Spatial selectivity - targeted  Cost / rastering Materials & Technology Ink formulation Printing Drying Sintering © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Device 5.12.13 19
  20. 20. Printing results Trimodal CLIP-ink Commercial Reference Reference Sheet Resistance Multimodal  better conductivity Sheet Resistance after sintering 150°C Low temperature  better conductivity © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13 20
  21. 21. Inkjet demonstrator Chipless RFID tag  4-bit chipless RFID tags successfully demonstrated using the final trimodal ink on PEL paper and Kapton polyimide respectively.  Higher performance than reference ink thanks to its higher conductivity at lower sintering temperature Sintering Temperature CLIP trimodal ink Reference 200 °C 7.85E+6 S/m 5.66E+6 S/m 39% higher Materials & Technology Ink formulation Printing Drying Sintering © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Device 5.12.13 21
  22. 22. AJP and inkjet demonstrator Humidity sensor Hybrid Integration of printed electronics and silicon electronics by AJP-printed interconnections. Printing of primary circuitry MCU Gluing by KTH Overprinting Rest of component programming and placing Materials & Technology Ink formulation Printing Drying Sintering © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Device 5.12.13 22
  23. 23. AJP printed demonstrator LED application 3D printing by AJP of conductive tracks for LED application. Materials & Technology Ink formulation Printing Drying Sintering © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Device 5.12.13 23
  24. 24. Conclusions  Inkjet technology is mature and available for conductive printing  Upscaling is possible to R2R with increasing printing speed  Bottleneck is the ink-development to fit the requirements  Cost reduction related to Cu-inks was limited because nanoparticle production was driving factor but improving  Sintering of Cu-based inks needs alternative for thermal sintering  At low sintering temperatures  Multimodal Ag-based inks show lower resistance  Less ink necessary for comparable conductivity as monomodal inks © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13 24
  25. 25. Conclusions  Aerosol technology is dedicated for the future.  Direct printing on 3D substrate is easily done with AJP  Due the “Aerosol” dynamic deposition, inks are easily printable  AJP is very suitable for ink development.  Large range of viscosity  Size particle from nano to micro  AJP is equipped with Laser sintering. Curing by laser allow us to print and cure the deposition on low melting temperature substrates.  The printing is dedicated for line printing (10µm to 100µm) not for large area printing (even in case of scaling up according to industrial requirement). © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13 25
  26. 26. © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13
  27. 27. Patrick Cosemans – Senior Project Engineer Smart Coating Application Lab Patrick.cosemans@sirris.be +32 498 91 94 63 © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13
  28. 28. http://www.sirris.be http://techniline.sirris.be #sirris http://www.linkedin.com/company/sirris © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13
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