What you should know about FGM
Sirris Materials day 2013
Introduction







Principle & description
History
Applications
Manufacturing methods
Pros and cons
Conclusions
Principle & description




A Functionally Graded Material (FGM) is a substance in which properties,
composition and/or ...
Principle & description


FGM is composite 2.0 :

Composite

 Sharp interface
 Risk of delaminating
 Weakness and stre...
History :
 FGM in Nature :

Bamboo fibre reinforced biocomposites: A review - H.P.S. Abdul Khalil, I.U.H. Bhat,
M.Jawaid,...
History :
 First human FGM in 1985. challenge : 1000°C
temperature gradient over a thickness of only 10
mm :
Outside

Ins...
Applications :
 Cutting tool :
Mitsubishi Carbide developed “Miracle
Indexable Inserts” : carbide substrate

Coated

http...
Applications
 Architecture :
Applications
 Ballistic

http://www3.ntu.edu.sg
Applications :
 Articulated mechanical parts :

Biomimesis in Standford
Applications :
 Thermal choc resistant for thermal barrier FGM:
Applications :
 Tailored thermal conductivity property for thermal management :
 Heat removal in engine bloc
 Cooling o...
Applications :
 Graded porosity of bones implants for better bone recolonization :
Applications :
 Graded porosity for adapted mechanical behavior :
Applications :
 Functionally graded implants :

http://research.unt.edu/ises/advanced-metallic-materials
Applications :
 Constant dielectric characteristic over temperature:

5 layers/compositions
=> ~composite

21 layers/comp...
Applications :
 Thermal dilatation in High-Intensity Discharge lamp :

http://www.toto.co.jp/E_Cera/lampparts/fgm_electro...
Applications :
 Reduced electrical field stresses in power supply insulators :
Δ = 100 kV

uniform

FGM

http://ir.nul.na...
Applications
 Buffer section between 2 different materials :

Material distribution
in the FGM layer
Applications :
 Manufacturing of an ablation resistant SiC/C FGM:
Higher
number of
layers is
better for
residual
thermal
...
Processing methods
 Classification :
Constitutive

Homogenizing

Segregating
Processing methods – powder metallurgy
 Formation of graded powder compact (green) :
 Stepwise change :
 Die compaction...
Processing methods – powder metallurgy
 Formation of graded powder compact (green) :
 Stepwise change :
 Sheet laminati...
Processing methods – powder metallurgy
 Formation of graded powder compact (green) :
 Stepwise change :
 Wet powder spr...
Processing methods – powder metallurgy
 Formation of graded powder compact (green) :
 Stepwise change :
 Slurry dipping...
Processing methods – powder metallurgy
 Formation of graded powder compact (green) :
 Stepwise change :
 Solid freeform...
Processing methods – powder metallurgy
 Formation of graded powder compact (green) :
 Continuous change :
 Gravity sedi...
Processing methods – powder metallurgy
 Formation of graded powder compact (green) :
 Continuous change :
 Electrophore...
Processing methods – powder metallurgy
 Formation of graded powder compact (green)
 Continuous change :
 Thermal sprayi...
Processing methods – powder metallurgy
 Melting processes :
 Laser/plasma cladding :
 Gradient coating on existing part...
Processing methods – powder metallurgy
 Melting processes :
 Centrifugal/sedimentation casting :
 Solubility or wetting...
Processing methods – powder metallurgy
 Melting processes :
 Controlled mold filling :
 FGM width controlled by the deg...
Processing methods – powder metallurgy
 Melting processes :
 Infiltration processing :
 Preform (metallic foam, pre-sin...
Processing methods summary

Processing techniques for functionally graded materials - B. Kieback, A. Neubrand, H. Riedel –...
Software developments
 New file format to develop the famous “.stl”, with
its own standard : ASTM F2915-12
 “AMF” stands...
Software developments
 Another FGM software from the MIT : Spec2Fab

http://spec2fab.mit.edu/
Pros and Cons :
Pros

 Solution for incompatible
materials combinations
 Improve materials efficiency
 Increase part li...
Conclusions





FGM = composite 2.0
More efficient use of materials capabilities
Already in the industry
Applicable i...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

2013 12-05-sirris-materials-workshop-fgm-magien

492

Published on

Sirris Materials Workshop - 5 december 2013 - Functional Graded Materials with Additive Manufacturing -
Julien Magnien, Sirris

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
492
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
36
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

2013 12-05-sirris-materials-workshop-fgm-magien

  1. 1. What you should know about FGM Sirris Materials day 2013
  2. 2. Introduction       Principle & description History Applications Manufacturing methods Pros and cons Conclusions
  3. 3. Principle & description   A Functionally Graded Material (FGM) is a substance in which properties, composition and/or structure is not homogenous. There is a controlled spatial distribution of these characteristics to optimize the part made of this FGM. Example with a turbine blade : Erosion & heat => Ceramic on the external surface Pressure & vibration => Metal matrix weight => Light weighted core
  4. 4. Principle & description  FGM is composite 2.0 : Composite  Sharp interface  Risk of delaminating  Weakness and strength everywhere The whole part is a bit ductile and a bit hard, homogenously FGM  Smooth transition  Very good bond  Volume properties distribution  material adaptation for specific application. This region is largely hard This region is largely ductile
  5. 5. History :  FGM in Nature : Bamboo fibre reinforced biocomposites: A review - H.P.S. Abdul Khalil, I.U.H. Bhat, M.Jawaid, A. Zaidon, D. Hermawan, Y.S. Hadi - Materials & Design - Volume 42, December 2012, Pages 353–368 http://www.britannica.com
  6. 6. History :  First human FGM in 1985. challenge : 1000°C temperature gradient over a thickness of only 10 mm : Outside Inside 1700°C 700°C 10 mm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functionally_graded_material
  7. 7. Applications :  Cutting tool : Mitsubishi Carbide developed “Miracle Indexable Inserts” : carbide substrate Coated http://www.mitsubishicarbide.com/mmc/en/product/pdf/b/b031g.pdf
  8. 8. Applications  Architecture :
  9. 9. Applications  Ballistic http://www3.ntu.edu.sg
  10. 10. Applications :  Articulated mechanical parts : Biomimesis in Standford
  11. 11. Applications :  Thermal choc resistant for thermal barrier FGM:
  12. 12. Applications :  Tailored thermal conductivity property for thermal management :  Heat removal in engine bloc  Cooling of electrical components  Definition of a ceramic (alumina foam)/metal (aluminum) gradient. The ceramic is an insulator which protects cold devices from heat and aluminum drives heat away from hot devices
  13. 13. Applications :  Graded porosity of bones implants for better bone recolonization :
  14. 14. Applications :  Graded porosity for adapted mechanical behavior :
  15. 15. Applications :  Functionally graded implants : http://research.unt.edu/ises/advanced-metallic-materials
  16. 16. Applications :  Constant dielectric characteristic over temperature: 5 layers/compositions => ~composite 21 layers/compositions, same thickness => FGM http://144.206.159.178/ft/677/43119/781575.pdf 21 layers/compositions, variable thickness
  17. 17. Applications :  Thermal dilatation in High-Intensity Discharge lamp : http://www.toto.co.jp/E_Cera/lampparts/fgm_electrode.htm
  18. 18. Applications :  Reduced electrical field stresses in power supply insulators : Δ = 100 kV uniform FGM http://ir.nul.nagoya-u.ac.jp/jspui/bitstream/2237/14528/1/1097.pdf
  19. 19. Applications  Buffer section between 2 different materials : Material distribution in the FGM layer
  20. 20. Applications :  Manufacturing of an ablation resistant SiC/C FGM: Higher number of layers is better for residual thermal stresses Linear evolution is better for residual thermal stresses
  21. 21. Processing methods  Classification : Constitutive Homogenizing Segregating
  22. 22. Processing methods – powder metallurgy  Formation of graded powder compact (green) :  Stepwise change :  Die compaction (powder stacking)  Limited N° of layers (< 10, 1mm/layer)  Discontinuous process  Low productivity
  23. 23. Processing methods – powder metallurgy  Formation of graded powder compact (green) :  Stepwise change :  Sheet lamination  Complex shapes achievable  Sheets are expansive (powder rolling or tape casting -> “green” state)  Assembly by hot pressing
  24. 24. Processing methods – powder metallurgy  Formation of graded powder compact (green) :  Stepwise change :  Wet powder spraying :  Coating on complex surface  Layer thickness from 50 µm -> ~1 mm
  25. 25. Processing methods – powder metallurgy  Formation of graded powder compact (green) :  Stepwise change :  Slurry dipping :  Thin coating by dipping in different baths.  Suitable for series production.  Enter porous body by capillarity.
  26. 26. Processing methods – powder metallurgy  Formation of graded powder compact (green) :  Stepwise change :  Solid freeform processes :  Hot powder-binder mixtures extruded in a mixing nozzle.
  27. 27. Processing methods – powder metallurgy  Formation of graded powder compact (green) :  Continuous change :  Gravity sedimentation:  Material choice limited  Inter-particles interaction in highly loaded suspensions  Simple and repeatable
  28. 28. Processing methods – powder metallurgy  Formation of graded powder compact (green) :  Continuous change :  Electrophoretic deposition:  Continuous change of suspensions  Different electrophoretic mobility  Risk of bubble entrapment  Several mm thick
  29. 29. Processing methods – powder metallurgy  Formation of graded powder compact (green)  Continuous change :  Thermal spraying :  Gradient coating on existing parts  “Mechanical” bond
  30. 30. Processing methods – powder metallurgy  Melting processes :  Laser/plasma cladding :  Gradient coating on existing parts. SIRRIS Pure Inconel 718 SS 316L -> Inconel 718 Pure SS 316L Inconel 718 -> SS 316L
  31. 31. Processing methods – powder metallurgy  Melting processes :  Centrifugal/sedimentation casting :  Solubility or wetting problems Review Fabrication of Functionally Graded Materialsunder a Centrifugal Force Yoshimi Watanabe and Hisashi Sato
  32. 32. Processing methods – powder metallurgy  Melting processes :  Controlled mold filling :  FGM width controlled by the degree of solidification of the first melt
  33. 33. Processing methods – powder metallurgy  Melting processes :  Infiltration processing :  Preform (metallic foam, pre-sintered green part,…) with porosity gradient  Infiltration by lower melting component  Open pores/wetting needed
  34. 34. Processing methods summary Processing techniques for functionally graded materials - B. Kieback, A. Neubrand, H. Riedel – materials science & engineering A - 2002
  35. 35. Software developments  New file format to develop the famous “.stl”, with its own standard : ASTM F2915-12  “AMF” stands for “Additive Manufacturing Format”  XML script  Open source  Volume capabilities for FGM or lattices  A lot of characteristics can be selected for each voxel such as color, texture, material, density,… http://www.astm.org/Standards/F2915.htm http://amf.wikispaces.com/
  36. 36. Software developments  Another FGM software from the MIT : Spec2Fab http://spec2fab.mit.edu/
  37. 37. Pros and Cons : Pros  Solution for incompatible materials combinations  Improve materials efficiency  Increase part lifetime Cons  Processes hard to control  Complex phenomenon occur (shrinkage, dilution, distortions,…)  Expansive techniques
  38. 38. Conclusions     FGM = composite 2.0 More efficient use of materials capabilities Already in the industry Applicable in every technological fields. => Thank you for your attention !
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×