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2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris
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2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-sirris

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Masterclass conductive printing

Masterclass conductive printing

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  • 1. Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 - Belgium Non- contact conductive printing with inkjet & AJP technology Sirris
  • 2. Sirris the collective center of the belgian technology industry Technology domains •Materials Engineering • Nonprofit organisation •Production Technology • Industry owned • Member organisation •Mechatronics •Rapid Manufacturing Mission •Software Engineering & ICT“Increase the competitiveness ofbelgian technological companies through •Technology Coachingtechnological innovations” Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 2
  • 3. Agenda• Inkjet printing • Technology • Printing requirements • Clip results• Aerosol Jet Printing • Technology • Comparison with other techniques • AJP and Conductive inks • Applications Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 3
  • 4. Inkjet printing Powerful technique  With specific guidelines for the inks • Digital printing - print at wish • Fluid Evaporation The jetting fluid system must not dry at the nozzle / air interface. • High quality • Viscosity • Low cost Viscosity should be between 10-20 cP (1.0x10-2 - 2x10-2 Pa*s) at operating temperature. The printhead can be heated up to 70ºC to • Small waste lower the working viscosity if the fluid is viscous. Surface Tension • Non contact/sensitive substrates • Surface tension should be between 28 and 48 dynes/cm (2.8-4.8 • Working in ambient conditions N/m. High surface tension fluids (up to 60 dynes/cm) may be jetted with limited performance. • No masking • Filtering Flexible In general, a filter is used to remove any large aggregates or • particles. In general, the particles in the fluid should be 1/100 the size of the nozzle. • Scalable page wide to R2R • Degassing Removal of dissolved gas improves jetting and priming characteristics of most fluids. Degas the fluid before loading into the fluid module. Degassing is especially helpful for aqueous- based fluids. Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 4
  • 5. Technology Low cost High resolution Limited fluids All fluids Long reliable life time High costHigh speedNo cloggingLow resolution Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 5
  • 6. Types of inkjet printers for functionalmaterials Labscale to semi-industrial Speed up to 30m/min Printheads Fujifilm Xaar Konica Ricoh … 1pL to 80pL Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 6
  • 7. Ink specifications Inkjet Aerosol Jet Flexo ScreenResolution ~ 30µm ~ 10 µm ~ 100 µm ~ 100 µm <20 mPa.s (10 -20Viscosity 0,7 – 2500 mPa.s 300-1000 mPa.s 3000-50.000 mPa.s preferably)Surface Tension 28-48 mN/m 25-30 mN/m (<45*) 25-30 mN/m (<45*)Particle Size <0,2 µm Nano (micro) nano & micro nano & microDifficult ink development: narrow range for viscosity and nano-particlesnecessary Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 7
  • 8. InksSilver inks• Low curing temperature• Close packing• High resolution• Plasma or wet-chemical nano-production• Limited volume• High PriceCopper inks• Lower price than Silver• Oxidation sensitive  higher sintering cost• Small volumes Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 8
  • 9. Commercial inks available for conductive printingCompany name ink type ink particle diam. wt conc. printer substrate drying/sinter technology dry thickness c nm %Novacentrix metalon ICI-001 water based nano copper 143 8% ink-jet photo paper, coated PET Pulseforge UV flash 0.3-0.4Novacentrix Metalon ICI-003 nano copper oxide 143 10 Ink-jet polymer films Pulseforge UV flashIntrinsic Intrinsic CI Cu nano 45 12 Ink-jet paper,PET photonic curing 0,3-0,4Novacentrix Metalon JS-B15P Ag-nano 70 15 Ink-jet PET,Paper Pulseforge UV flashNovacentrix Metalon JS-B25P Ag-nano 75 25 Ink-jet PET,Paper Pulseforge UV flashNovacentrix Metalon JS-B35P Ag-nano 55 35 Ink-jet PET,Paper Pulseforge UV flashNanomas Technologies NTS 05IJ Ag nano 2-10 10-30 Ink-jet plastic film,Paper hot airAdvanced Nano products DGP 40LT-15C Ag nano 30-40 Ink-jet plastic films hot airNano-Gap NGAP FI Ag-4101 Ag-nano 40-60 30-60 Ink-jet paper hot airCabot CCI-300 Ag nano <200 20 Ink-jet PET,paper hot air 0,4 • Today limited to Ag and Cu for metal based inks • Others: PEDOT:PSS • Future: graphene-based. Difficult development Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 9
  • 10. Filtering• Filtering of the inks • necessary if small nozzle cartridges are used • Nano-particles tend to agglomerate• Wide variety of filters available • Materials: PP,PES,PTFE,Nylon6,… • Different µ-structures • Ink dependent Cellulose PVDF PC PES Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 10
  • 11. Substrates• Type of substrate to be used depends on application, curing and sintering conditions and the required conductivity of the printed circuit. • Papers: good printability, good adhesion, solvents are absorbed quickly by the paper, fast drying but porosity of paper can have a negative effect on conductivity. • Plastics: good printability, longer drying and curing time, adhesion can be a problem. No interference from substrate (no porosity). If curing and sintering are good optimal conductivity Paper Sheet Resistance@ Sheet Resistance@ Printed image # 150ºC/30min. 150ºC /30min+180ºC/15 min. quality 6 3.2 kΩ/□ 151Ω/□ Bad 7 9.4 kΩ/□ 100Ω/□ Good 8 82 kΩ/□ 228Ω/□ Good 9 14.5Ω/□ 3.2Ω/□ Good 10 1.05Ω/□ 0.428Ω/□ Good Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 11
  • 12. Inkjet in CLIP- projectSystem properties • Dimatix DMP-2831 • Replacable cartridges • 16 nozzles • Single row • 10pL (21 µm) en 1pL (9 µm)Ink printing tests • Nano-Silver based (monomodal, bimodal and trimodal) • Nano-Cu based Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 12
  • 13. CLIP results• Comparison mono, bi and trimodal samples  Bi and trimodal samples: combination of different nano-particle sizes  Close Packing of particles  better conductivity at low sintering temperatures. Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 13
  • 14. CLIP results• Influence of drop spacing Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 14
  • 15. CLIP results• Influence of multiple layers Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 15
  • 16. Conclusions• Inkjet technology is mature and available for conductive printing • Upscaling is possible to R2R with increasing printing speed • Bottleneck is the ink-development to fit the requirements • Cost reduction related to Cu-inks is not that high because nano- particle production is driving factor • Sintering of Cu-based inks needs alternative for thermal sintering • At low sintering temperatures • Multimodal Ag-based inks show lower resistance • Less ink necessary for comparable conductivity as monomodal inks Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 16
  • 17. Agenda• Inkjet printing • Technology • Printing requirements • Clip results• Aerosol Jet Printing • Technology • Comparison with other techniques • AJP and Conductive inks • Applications Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 17
  • 18. Non contact AJP technology Aerosol Jet Printing (AJP) 300 CE Printing of nano composed ink ©OPTOMEC2 heads of Laser sinteringdeposition technology by IR laser Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 18
  • 19. Non contact AJP technology AJP Technology description Pneumatic atomisation 1 – Nitrogen input 5 2 – Ventury depression created1 6 3 – Aspiration 2 4 4 – Mist created (1-5µm droplet) 5 – Mist is transported 3 6 – Sheath gaz input 7 - Printing and Deposition 7 Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012
  • 20. Non contact AJP technology Available commercial inkConductors Nano Ag - UT Dots, Nanomas, Cabot, Nanosize, Harima, ANP... Nano Au - UT Dots, Nanomas, Harima Nano Pd - Nanomas Resistor PTF Carbon - Asahi, Dupont Nano Cu Metal Oxide - Dupont Thick Film Au - Dupont DielectricsConductive Polymer UV Epoxy - Norland, Locktite, Summers... PEDOT:PSS from H.C. Stark PMMA- Alpha Aesar, PVP - BASF SW CNT - Brewer Science Polyimide- Huntsman PTF Barium Titanate- AsahiOE Semiconductor Teflon- 3M, Dupont P3HT, PQT, SW CNT... Novel Materials MicroCat – MacDermid, Nano Composite Polymers, Biomaterials... Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 20
  • 21. Non contact AJP technology AJP Technology capabilities - Minimum feature size (~ 10 µm) High resolution, high density of printed features. - A very large range of printable inks (viscosity from 1 up to 2500 cP) (Conductive/ dieletric/ polymer conductor/ biomaterial / UV curable /…) Large range of inks  large range of applications, from electronics to biological material printing.- Direct printing technology - maskless No need for a mask or any photolithography-based preparation of the substrate  time and material saving.- Local curing of inks by laser sintering Instead of putting the complete substrate in an oven, local sintering of inks is made on-the-fly by a focused laser beam.- 3D or flexible substrates are welcome Controlled position in z-direction of the writing head wrt. substrate. Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 21
  • 22. Non contact AJP technologyComparison (AJP/Inkjet/Screen Printing) Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012
  • 23. Non contact AJP technology What about ink resistivity (CLIP Frame Work)(1) Ink mist is compounded (2) Deposition with (3) After evaporation (4) After sinteringwith nano conductive solvent envelop (drying)particle and solvent. Thick Thick Thick~0,1 Thick=1 Interface grains porousThen, while holes or porosity are present inthe final conductive track, the resistivity stillless than the pure resistivity value.The real question is “how fare is it from plainbulk material resistivityFor all tested ink the best ratio is a factor ~“5”(which still the “state of the art” by printingtechnology) Typical commercial reference DS29 NANOGAP developed ink in the CLIP project Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012
  • 24. Non contact AJP technologyAJP application (CLIP frame work) 50 Specification of this application : Resolution~= 150 µm  easy for AJP Sheet resistance = 0.8 Ω/□. 125 300 µm Each finger Could be easily done to 20-30 µm 10 µm is reachable in very specific conditions .. Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012
  • 25. Non contact AJP technologyAJP application (CLIP frame work) R=9,93 Mean Thickness measurement = 1.5 µm Width = 1 mm Length = 50 mm Sheet resistance calculation = 0.19 Ω/□ Specification is respected but could be improved again Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012
  • 26. Non contact AJP technology Non contact 3D Application overview @ Sirris with AJPVideo Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012
  • 27. Non contact AJP technology Application overview @ Sirris with AJP © Sirris © Sirris © Sirris © Sirris Substrate : Textile Substrate : Paper Substrate : Glass Substrate : Dielectric Ink : Silver Ink : CNT Ink : CNT Ink : Silver © Sirris © Sirris © Sirris © SirrisSubstrate : PET flexible foil Substrate : Paper Substrate : COC Substrate : PMMA Ink : Silver Ink : Copper Ink : PEDOT Ink : Silver Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012
  • 28. Conclusions• Aerosol technology is dedicated for the future. • (+) Direct printing on 3D substrate is easily done with AJP • (+) Due the “Aerosol” dynamic deposition, inks are easily printable • (+) AJP is very suitable for ink development. • Large range of viscosity • Size particle from nano to µmicro • Pneumatic or ultrasonic atomization • (+) AJP is equipped with Laser sintering. Curing by laser allow us to print and cure the deposition on low melting temperature substrates. • (+) Fine line (10µm* width) deposition is one of the application of the AJP • (-) The printing is dedicated for line printing (10µm to 100µm) not for large area printing (even in case of scaling up according to industrial requirement). Masterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 28
  • 29. Thanks for your attentionMasterclass Future of Conductive Printing November 27, 2012 29

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