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Sirris_am in aviation and aerospace_state of the art

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Sirris Workshop - Additive manufacturing in aviation and aerospace 13/05/2014

Sirris Workshop - Additive manufacturing in aviation and aerospace 13/05/2014

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  • 1. Metal Additive Manufacturing A game changer for the manufacturing industry?
  • 2. 09/04/2014 2 Overview of Metal AM technologies Definition  Additive Manufacturing AM  3D Printing  Layer by layer process  No necessary tools required  26-year history in plastics  Nearly 20-year in metals [Courtesy of Materialise] © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 3. 09/04/2014 3  Direct, single-step processes for tool-less manufacturing  Complete local melting of metal  Wide variety of standard metal alloys possible  More than 99.5% dense parts  Almost unlimited freedom of shape  Structures: complex, inner, delicate, bionic, topology- optimized, lattice, graded  Limits: size, inner geometries, support structures Overview of Metal AM technologies © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 4. 09/04/2014 4 Overview of Metal AM technologies © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 5. 09/04/2014 5 Overview of Metal AM technologies “… A once-shuttered warehouse is now a state-of-the art lab where new workers are mastering the 3-D printing that has the potential to revolutionize the way we make almost everything …“ “… We can’t wait” initiative …” Barack Obama, President of the USA, February 2013 © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 6. 09/04/2014 6 Overview of Metal AM technologies « … in our lifetime, at least 50% of the engine will be made with additive technologies… » Robert McEwan, General Manager, GE Aviation (2011) © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 7. 09/04/2014 7 Overview of Metal AM technologies Manufacturing readiness (metals)  Origin: meant to create prototypes  First commercial metal printer in 1995  Current AM systems are not designed for series production  « Decentralization state of mind »  Process speed, material costs and process control have not been an issue for prototyping.  AM needs to show that it can manufacture parts economically, in volume and with constant quality for several applications 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Full rate production Low rate production Pilot line capability demonstrated Production in production env. demonstrated Systems produced (near production env.) Basic capabilities shown (near prod. env.) Technology validated in laboratory env. Manufacturing proof of concept developed Manufacturing concept identified Basic manufacturing implications identified TRL © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 8. 09/04/2014 8 Overview of Metal AM technologies 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Full rate production Low rate production Pilot line capability demonstrated Production in production env. demonstrated Systems produced (near production env.) Basic capabilities shown (near prod. env.) Technology validated in laboratory env. Manufacturing proof of concept developed Manufacturing concept identified Basic manufacturing implications identified TRL Dental, medical instrumentation, implants, artistic, … tooling, space, drones, defense, … aviation, automobile, … © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 9. 09/04/2014 9 Overview of Metal AM technologies © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 10. 09/04/2014 10 Overview of Metal AM technologies © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 11. 09/04/2014 11 Overview of Metal AM technologies x2 growth © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 12. 09/04/2014 12 Overview of Metal AM technologies AM in the aircraft engine industry:  Aero engines suppliers have been exploring metal AM technology since 2003  For performance testing of AM products, engine suppliers require high quantities of AM samples and therefore invest heavily in AM  Key players have expanded manufacturing capacity recently by procuring new equipment and acquiring suppliers  For series production, manufacturing capacity needs to be further extended © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 13. 09/04/2014 13 Overview of Metal AM technologies AM in the aircraft engine industry - Potential:  Potential volume for new turbine series could be up to several thousand per year  Key AM components are found multiple times in each engine (injection nozzles – thousands of componants per year)  New generation of turbines is expected to be launched within the next 3 years, so the manufacturing infrastructure needs to be established in time  AM fuel nozzles offer great potential as they are lighter an enable a reduction in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 14. 09/04/2014 14 Overview of Metal AM technologies AM benefits: Design optimization –new functions © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 15. 09/04/2014 15 Powder bed technologies  Laser Beam Melting (LBM)  Selective Laser Melting (SLM)  LaserCusing  Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS)  Electron Beam Melting (EBM)  Material jetting process Overview of Metal AM technologies Powder deposition technologies  Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS)  Direct Metal Depositioning (DMD)  Laser Cladding Metal AM Others:  Sheet lamination © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 16. Generalities: Metal Additive Manufacturing 09/04/2014 16© Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Direct Fabrication system Laser E-Beam Print head Nozzle Post- processing Indirect Binder Debinding + sintering Post- processing
  • 17. Generalities: Metal Additive Manufacturing 09/04/2014 17© Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | Hybrid Fabrication system Laser + Milling Milling + micro forging Post- processing Liquid metal jet
  • 18. 09/04/2014 18 Overview of Metal AM technologies Current metal AM costs under series production conditions: Parameters (LBM technology):  Machine cost: 500k EUR  Operating time: 8 years  Machine utilization: 85%  Build rate: LBM 10cm3/h  Material: Stainless steel  Powder price: 89€/kg 2% 26% 21% 44% 7% metal AM costs Energy Direct costs (material) Labor Manufacturing Overhead © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 19. Technology comparison LBM EBM Powder deposition Max size (mm) 630 x 400 x 500 dia. 350 x 380 900 x 1500 x 900 Layer thickness (µm) 30 – 60 50 130-600 Min wall thickness (mm) 0.2 0.6 0.6 Accuracy (mm) +/- 0.1 +/- 0.3 N.A. Build rate (cm³/h) 5 - 20 80-100 2-30 Surface roughness (µm) 5 - 15 15 - 20 15-20 Geometry limitations Supports needed everywhere (thermal, anchorage) Less supports but powder is sintered No powder bed. Same limitations as 5 axes milling Materials Stainless steel, tool steel, titanium, aluminum, ceramics, … Only conductive materials (Ti6Al4V, CrCo, TiAl, Tool steel, Cu alloy, ) Steel, Ti, Ni-base alloys, composites, ceramics CENG 09/04/2014© Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 19
  • 20. Technology comparison LBM EBM Powder deposition Energy Source Laser Electron Beam Laser Multi-material processing (Yes) No Yes Productivity vs costs Poor Medium Good Residual stresses High Low Medium Part complexity High Medium Low Typical applications Tooling (mould & die inserts), Implants, all types of meta components incl. prototypes Implants, Near-net- shape manufacturing, turbine blades, prototypes Near-net-shape repair of blisks/blades, vanes, shafts, ducts, coatings, … Internal cavities Printable Printable but complex to remove powder Possible but limitations Build job change Fast Medium Fast Necessity of support structures High Low None CENG 09/04/2014© Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 20
  • 21. 09/04/2014 21 Manufacturers (LBM)  Concept Laser (Germany)  EOS (Germany)  Phenix Systems (USA)  Realizer (Germany)  Renishaw (UK)  SLM Solutions (Germany)  Trumpf (Germany) Overview of Metal AM technologies Manufacturers (EBM)  Arcam (Sweden) Others  Ex ONE (USA)  Matsuura Lumex (Japan)  Hermle (Germany)  Vader Systems (USA) © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 22. 09/04/2014 22 Overview of Metal AM technologies 9% 12% 3% 5% 8% 18% 1% 10% 34% Market shares MTT Technologies Arcam SLM Solutions ReaLizer Trumpf Concept Laser Renishaw Phenix Systems EOS © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 23. 09/04/2014 23 Today  Prototypes  Pre-series parts  Small batch Production for a few very selected parts • First tooling applications (particularly for plastics injection moulding) Overview of Metal AM technologies Tomorrow  Series production of:  Small batches  Spare parts  Assembling aids  Fixtures and tools Future  Wide use for the production  Individual parts  Assembly groups  Tooling © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 24. 09/04/2014 24 Future trends for key parameters  Build rates  Machine prices  Powder prices  Labor costs  Chamber volume  Price per part  Available materials  Quality control integration Overview of Metal AM technologies © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 25. 09/04/2014 25© Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 26. 09/04/2014 26 Overview of Metal AM technologies Necessary adoption steps for wide use in production  Challenges:  Missing technical standards  Reproducibility  Costs  Education with regard to AM design  Material variety (carbon steel, copper, ceramics, ...)  Necessary steps:  Standardisation  Quality control systems/ in-situ feedback control systems  Gained productivity  Widely spread teaching of AM principles  Material and process development © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 27. 09/04/2014 27 Overview of Metal AM technologies Conclusions  The market for systems, service and materials for AM currently totals 1.7 billion EUR (2012) and is expected to quadruple over the next 10 years  The ability to manufacture metal objects without virtually no limitations on geometry and without tools offers the opportunity to create new products that help boost product performance or manufacture batch sizes consisting of just one item using special highly resistant alloys.  With about 1% of the machine tool market, the share of AM is relatively small. The supplier base for metal AM machines is dominated by German suppliers. In addition, an infrastructure of engineering and AM service providers has developed close to technological leaders in aerospace, turbine development and motorsport production. © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 28. 09/04/2014 28 Overview of Metal AM technologies Conclusions  In certain areas, the technology has already achieved manufacturing readiness (dental, design, hip implants), whereas in the aerospace and turbine industry, process development and complex field testing are ongoing. The potential of AM in these industries is extremely high, which means that AM is on the agenda of every CTO.  The costs of this technology are significantly higher than for conventional production, so it can be only justified by special benefits in the lifecycle or tooling costs. A detailed analysis of the current manufacturing cost and evaluation of expected improvements reveals a cost reduction potential of about 60% in the next 5 years and another 30% within the next 10 years. These reductions will significantly boost the market for metal AM. © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
  • 29. 09/04/2014© Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |

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