05 crm group-metamorphose_liege_nutal_txt
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05 crm group-metamorphose_liege_nutal_txt 05 crm group-metamorphose_liege_nutal_txt Presentation Transcript

  • Phase Change Materials used for thermalcontrol of systems - Applications, technology, developments Nicolas Nutal TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 30th January 2013
  • Slideshow organisation ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. What’s a Phase Change Material (PCM)? Applications of PCM Conclusions TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 2 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • Slideshow organisation ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. What’s a Phase Change Material (PCM)? Applications of PCM Conclusions TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 3 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • Definition (1/3) ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. Thermal energy storage?What’s a Phase Change Material (PCM)? Liquid state Specific Solid state heat Gazeous state Solid/liquid Latent heat Solid/solid Liquid/gazeous Solid/gazeous TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 4 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • Definition (2/3) ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. Storage mechanismWhat’s a Phase Change Material (PCM)? Solid state Phase change Liquid state (constant temperature) Temperature Melting (heat storage) Solidification (heat release) Energy content Specific heat Latent heat Specific heat TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 5 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • Definition (3/3) ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. PCM are compounds that store/release large amounts of heatWhat’s a Phase Change Material (PCM)? while undergoing a phase change at a constant temperature Water Melting temperature : ~0˚C => latent heat : 333kJ/kg Heating water from 1 to 80˚C => specific heat : 332kJ/kg TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 6 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • What’s a Phase Change Material (PCM)? Latent heat density [kJ/L] Paraffin Paraffin : CH3(CH2)nCH3 Ex : n-hexadecane, n-eicosane… Organic PCM compounds (1/3) TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart ProductsPhase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments 7 ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information.
  • What’s a Phase Change Material (PCM)? Latent heat density [kJ/L] Fatty acids Fatty acids : CH3(CH2)nCOOH Ex : Caprylic acid, Capric acid… Organic PCM compounds (2/3) TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart ProductsPhase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments 8 ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information.
  • What’s a Phase Change Material (PCM)? Latent heat density [kJ/L] Paraffines Sugar alcohols Ex : Xylitol, Galactitol… Organic PCM compounds (3/3) Sugar alcohol : HOCH2(CH(OH))nCH2OH TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart ProductsPhase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments 9 ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information.
  • Inorganic PCM compounds (1/2) ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. Hydrated salt (dehydration) :What’s a Phase Change Material (PCM)? Ex : CaCl2.6H2O, LiNO3.2H2O Salt hydrates AB·nH2O AB·mH2O +(n-m)H2O AB·nH2O AB + nH2O Latent heat density [kJ/L] TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 10 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • What’s a Phase Change Material (PCM)? Latent heat density [kJ/L] Pure salts Nitrates Ex : KNO3, KOH, NaCl… Hydroxides Chlorides Inorganic PCM compounds (2/2) Carbonates TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products FluoridesPhase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments 11 ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information.
  • Eutectic PCM compounds ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. Eutectics : mixtures of two or more constituents, which solidifyWhat’s a Phase Change Material (PCM)? simultaneously out of the liquid at a minimum freezing point Ex : Salt and water : NaCl + H2O (22.4/77.6) (-21°C) Salt and hydrated salt : CaCl2 + MgCl2.6H2O (50/50) (25°C) Salts : KNO3 + NaNO3 (54/46) (222°C) Organics : Miristic acid + Capric acid (34/66) (24°C) Metals : CuZnSi (74/19/7) (765°C) Huge number of mixtures => wide temperature and energy storage ranges TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 12 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • Typical PCM problems (1/4) ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. But…What’s a Phase Change Material (PCM)? Phase separation (hydrated salts (ex: CaCl2.6H2O)) Expected behaviour (quick transformation) Real behaviour (slow transformation) CaCl2 CaCl2.6H2O + 6 H2O (solid) (solution) CaCl2 poor (solution) CaCl2.4H2O (solid) ⇒ Macroscopic separation => no reversibility => limited effectiveness Solutions : Gelling additive (prevent separation), increase PCM viscosity, mixing, other composition (more water)… TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 13 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • Typical PCM problems (2/4) ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. But…What’s a Phase Change Material (PCM)? Sub-cooling Ideal behaviour Real ⇒ Temperature not constant, lower temperature required to regenerate PCM Solutions : Nucleators (compounds which have the similar melting temperatures and crystal structures) or cold-finger TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 14 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • Typical PCM problems (3/4) ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. But…What’s a Phase Change Material (PCM)? Poor thermal conductivity ⇒ Heat transfer problems + low transformation rate Solution : Adding metallic fins or foams Compatibility with other materials ⇒ Corrosion of metals (inorganic PCM), loss of stability of plastics (organic PCM)... Solutions : Adequate containment after compatibility tests TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 15 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • Typical PCM problems (4/4) ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. But…What’s a Phase Change Material (PCM)? Leakage and volume change ⇒ Containment destruction Solutions : Macro-encapsulation Micro-encapsulation TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 16 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • Slideshow organisation ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. What’s a Phase Change Material (PCM)? Applications of PCM (at CRM) Thermal comfort in buildings Satellite Satellites launcher Wood stove Others... Conclusions TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 17 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • Thermal comfort - Low inertia buildings (1/3) ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. Frame : Context : In low thermal inertia buildings, daily walls temperatureApplications of PCMs fluctuations are high ⇒ Thermal comfort is poor ⇒ Heating/cooling devices are used to compensate (€€€) TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 18 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • Thermal comfort - Low inertia buildings (2/3) ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. Objective : develop metallic structures with PCM to increase thermal inertia (thermal comfort) in low thermal inertia buildings Test configuration :Applications of PCMs TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 19 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • Thermal comfort - Low inertia buildings (3/3) ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. Detailed analysis of a specific configuration (~200kg of PCM) :Applications of PCMs PCM allows to increase thermal comfort ☺ More comfortable temperatures reached in PCM building Temperature fluctuations inside the PCM building (~6˚C) are lower than in the ref building (~13˚C) Estimated return : 5 to 9 years TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 20 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • Satellite (1/3) ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. Frame : Context : Small satellites (<100kg) need constant temperatureApplications of PCMs (electronic parts) but have low thermal inertia (low weight) ⇒ When electronic is on/off, satellite’s temperature fluctuate ⇒ Radiators and resistances are used to compensate : Heavy systems (€€€) ⇒ Objective : develop a PCM heat storage device to increase thermal inertia but with limited weight increase TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 21 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • Applications of PCMs Satellite (2/3) Heat storage device TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products PCM selected : n-octadecane (~28˚C), volume : 210mlPhase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments 22 ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information.
  • Satellite (3/3) ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. Heating/cooling cycles With PCM Without PCMApplications of PCMs PCM allows to increase thermal inertia ☺ TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 23 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • Launcher ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. Frame : Context : VEB is the brain of the launcher, has low thermalApplications of PCMs inertia and needs almost constant temperature (electronic parts) ⇒ Thermal control is passive => extra mass (+€€€) (1) ⇒ Due to the temperature increase, it is not feasible to place satellites in different orbits (2) ⇒ Objective : develop a PCM heat storage device to solve both problems by increasing thermal inertia with limited weight increase TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 24 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • Wood stove ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. Frame : Objective : develop modules with PCM to store heat in high temperature range and to improve efficiency of wood stovesApplications of PCMs Tf: 579.5oC heating Tf: 569.7oC cooling Hf: 711.4 kJ/kg Metallic alloy (Al75-Si25). TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 25 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • Other applications at CRM ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. Heat losses in steel industry : Steel making converter (1600˚C), High temperature slags (1200- 1600˚C), Coke (1050˚C)…Applications of PCMs Only 17% of heat losses is recovered => much work to do! TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 26 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • A lot more applications... ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. Solar thermal power plants Clothing TrucksApplications of PCMs Blood transfer PCM cup Pocket heaters Medical pouches .... TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 27 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • Slideshow organisation ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. What’s a Phase Change Material (PCM)? Applications of PCM Conclusions TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 28 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • What’s to be remembered? ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information. PCM are a cheap, dense and easy way to store energy/heat PCM compounds are divided in a few families, each of them has its particular applications Almost all the problems met with PCM (low thermal conductivity,Conclusions high volume change...) can be solved with simple solutions With a few developments, PCM can find a lot of applications, from the buildings, through industries and even to space! TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 29 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments
  • Special thanks to : ©CRM Group - All rights reserved for all countries. Cannot be disclosed, used, or reproduced without prior written specific authorization of CRM Group - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - CRM Group proprietary information.- Jean-Paul Collette (Walopt)- Romain Peyrou-Lauga (ESA)- Boris Defays (ARCADIS)- Mary-Hélène Delvaux (CORI)- Jean Lagneau (CRIBC)- Anthony Massin (Bodart et Gonay)- Jean Crahay, Maïwenn Larnicol and Yves Hardy (CRM Group) Thank you for your attention! TTC conference: Smart Materials for Smart Products 30 Phase Change Materials used for thermal control of systems - Applications, technology, developments