0
Goals During the Initial Encounter With the
Patient.
Dr. Mohit Mathur
Reader (Dept. of Medicine)
Determine Whether the
musculoskeletal Complaint Is Articular or peri-articular in origin?
 Inflammatory or non-inflammat...
ARTICULAR STRUCTURES
• synovium
• Synovial fluid
• Articular cartilage
• Intra-articular ligaments
• Joint capsule
• Juxta...
NONARTICULAR (PERI-ARTICULAR)
STRUCTURES
• Supportive extraarticular ligaments ex- collateral
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

ligaments in ...
Characteristics of Articular
Disorders.
 Deep or diffuse jt. pain.
 Limited range of motion on active as well as

passiv...
Characteristics of Nonarticular
Disorders
 Pain on active but not on passive movement of

joint.
 Point or focal tendern...
Inflammatory Vs. Non-inflammatory
Disorders.
Factors Leading to
Inflammation in Joint.
 Infections( gonorrhea, tuberculosis).
 Crystal arthopathy( gout, pseudogout)....
Features of Inflammatory Joint
Disorders.
 Local features – pain (also during rest),

tenderness, swelling, warmth & eryt...
Inflammatory Vs Mechanical
 Inflammatory

 Mechanical

1.

Prolonged Immobility stiffness

1.

Minimal inactivity stiffn...
Acute Vs Chronic Disorders
 Musculoskeletal disorders are called acute if they

last less than 6 weeks and chronic if they last longer.

 Acute dis...
Extent of Joint Involvement
 Monoarticular disorders- one joint involved
 Oligoarticular or pauciarticular disorders - two or

three joints involved...
Mono/oligoarthritis
Infective arthritis
osteoarthritis
Reiter’s syndrome
Gout

Polyarthritis
Rheumatoid
arthritis
SLE
Scle...
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Rheumatoid Arthritis
 Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic multisystem

disease of unknown cause.

 It’s

characteristic fe...
Clinical Presentation
 RA begin insidiously with fatigue, anorexia,

generalized
weakness
and
vague
musculoskeletal sympt...
Clinical Presentation
 Generalized stiffness is frequent.
 Constitutional symptoms- weakness, easy

fatigability, anemia...
American Rheumatology Association Revised
Criteria (1988)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Morning stiffness in & around joints lasti...
Problems in Diagnosis.
Diagnosis is difficult in the initial course of illness
when only constitutional symptoms or
interm...
Disorders resembling rheumatoid
arthritis
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)

Systemic lupus erythematosis.
Systemic sclerosis...
11) Anti-phospholipid syndrome.
12) Mixed connective tissue disease.
13) Viral arthritis ( eg parvovirus, rubella, hepatit...
Systemic Lupus erythematoses
 Almost all patients of SLE experience arthralgias & myalgias.

Most develop intermittent ar...
Systemic Sclerosis
 More than half the patients of SS complain of pain, swelling

& stiffness of the fingers and knees. A...
Reiter’s Syndrome
 It is a reactive polyarthritis which develop several weeks

after non-gonococcal urethritis and enteri...
Psoriatic Arthritis
 It can present as asymmetric inflammatory arthritis,

symmetric arthritis or psoriatic spondylitis
...
Monosodium Urate Arthopathy
(Gout)
 It commonly present as acute oligoarticular arthritis

affecting middle aged to elder...
 Most of the crystal arthopathies such as CPPD deposition

disease, HA deposition disease & CaOx deposition disease
affec...
crystal arthopathies e.g. gout

Tophi
Vasculitis
 Vasculitis is a heterogeneous group of disorders

characterized by inflammation & damage to blood vessels.
Th...
Vasculitis syndromes
classification
VASCULITIS
Localized

Cutaneous vasculitis

Generalized

Classical PAN

Wegener’s gran...
Classic polyarteritis nodosa
 Systemic- fever, weight loss & malaise.
 Renal(60%)- hypertension, renal insufficiency or
...
Polymyalgia rheumatica and
GCA
 Exclusively occur in persons over







55 yrs. Of age
GCA – large vessel arteritis...
Antinuclear cytoplasmic
antibodies (ANCA)
 Antinuclear cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are

antibodies directed against cer...
Farber Disease
 Autosomal recessive disorder
 Results from deficiency of lyzozomal enzyme ceramidase

& the accumulation...
Amyloidosis
 Articular structures are involved in primary idiopathic

amyloidosis (light chain amyloidosis) which is asso...
Osteoarthritis
 Mechanical symptoms
 Bony swelling, crepitus
 DIP (Heberden), PIP

(Bouchard), 1st CMCJ,
neck, lower ba...
Fibromyalgia
 “All over pain”
 Fatigue
 Sleep disturbance
 Depression
 Anxiety
 Irritable bowel
 Tender spots
 Dia...
Investigations
 Blood Examination- Hb estimation, FBC, ESR, CRP,







RF,
synovial fluid analysis
X-Ray- Hands an...
Synovial fluid analysis
Normal

Noninflamm RA, Gout
atory
(OA,trauma)

Septic
arthritis

Appearance

clear

Clear/amber Tu...
Other conditions where Rheumatoid
factor is found in serum.
Infection: Acute infection eg infectious mononucleosis; Chroni...
Auto-antibodies and corresponding
disorders
 ANA – SLE; not significant in titers of 1/40 unless associated






wi...
Radiological features - OA
 Four cardinal features:
 Joint space narrowing
 Sclerosis
 Subchondral cysts
 Osteophytes
Radiological features - RA
 soft tissue swelling
 juxta-articular osteoporosis
 juxta-articular and subchondral

erosio...
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Transcript of "Approach towards a case of musculoskeletal disorder.#"

  1. 1. Goals During the Initial Encounter With the Patient. Dr. Mohit Mathur Reader (Dept. of Medicine)
  2. 2. Determine Whether the musculoskeletal Complaint Is Articular or peri-articular in origin?  Inflammatory or non-inflammatory?  Acute or chronic in duration?  Localized or widespread(systemic) in distribution?
  3. 3. ARTICULAR STRUCTURES • synovium • Synovial fluid • Articular cartilage • Intra-articular ligaments • Joint capsule • Juxta-articular bone
  4. 4. NONARTICULAR (PERI-ARTICULAR) STRUCTURES • Supportive extraarticular ligaments ex- collateral • • • • • • • ligaments in knee. Tendons Bursae Muscle Fascia Bone Nerve And overlying skin.
  5. 5. Characteristics of Articular Disorders.  Deep or diffuse jt. pain.  Limited range of motion on active as well as passive movement.  Swelling (effusion or synovial proliferation).  Crepitation.  Instability.  Locking.  Deformity.
  6. 6. Characteristics of Nonarticular Disorders  Pain on active but not on passive movement of joint.  Point or focal tenderness.  Presence of physical findings distant from the joint capsule.
  7. 7. Inflammatory Vs. Non-inflammatory Disorders.
  8. 8. Factors Leading to Inflammation in Joint.  Infections( gonorrhea, tuberculosis).  Crystal arthopathy( gout, pseudogout).  Immune related( RA, SLE).  Reactive( rheumatic fever, Reiter's syn.).  Idiopathic.
  9. 9. Features of Inflammatory Joint Disorders.  Local features – pain (also during rest), tenderness, swelling, warmth & erythema.  Systemic features – prolonged morning stiffness, fatigue, weight loss, fever.  Laboratory evidences – elevated ESR & CRP, thrombocytosis, anemia of chronic disease or hypoalbuminemia.
  10. 10. Inflammatory Vs Mechanical  Inflammatory  Mechanical 1. Prolonged Immobility stiffness 1. Minimal inactivity stiffness 2. Rest pain usually get better with activity 2. Pain on activity usually improving on rest 3. Joint swelling,erythema,heat 3. Joint crepitus, Instability and locking 4. Systemic symptoms & Multiorgan involvement 4. History of trauma, strain or overuse
  11. 11. Acute Vs Chronic Disorders
  12. 12.  Musculoskeletal disorders are called acute if they last less than 6 weeks and chronic if they last longer.  Acute disorders tend to be infectious, crystal induced, reactive or they can be the initial presentation of chronic arthritis.  Chronic disorders are often immune related, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Rheumatoid Arthritis.
  13. 13. Extent of Joint Involvement
  14. 14.  Monoarticular disorders- one joint involved  Oligoarticular or pauciarticular disorders - two or three joints involved  Polyarticular disorders - more than three joints involved
  15. 15. Mono/oligoarthritis Infective arthritis osteoarthritis Reiter’s syndrome Gout Polyarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis SLE Scleroderma
  16. 16. Rheumatoid Arthritis
  17. 17. Rheumatoid Arthritis  Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic multisystem disease of unknown cause.  It’s characteristic feature is persistent inflammatory synovitis usually involving peripheral joints in a symmetrical distribution.
  18. 18. Clinical Presentation  RA begin insidiously with fatigue, anorexia, generalized weakness and vague musculoskeletal symptoms.  Specific symptoms appear gradually as several joints(hands, wrists, knees and feet) become affected in symmetric fashion.  The joint with synovial inflammation become painful. There is tenderness, swelling and limitation in mobility.
  19. 19. Clinical Presentation  Generalized stiffness is frequent.  Constitutional symptoms- weakness, easy fatigability, anemia, anorexia & weight loss.
  20. 20. American Rheumatology Association Revised Criteria (1988) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Morning stiffness in & around joints lasting 1 hr. or more before maximum improvement. Arthritis of three or more joint areas (duration of 6 weeks or more). Arthritis of hand joints (duration of 6 weeks or more). Symmetric arthritis. Rheumatoid nodules. Elevated serum rheumatoid factor. Radiographic changes : juxta-articular osteopenia. Diagnosis of RA is made with 4 or more criteria
  21. 21. Problems in Diagnosis. Diagnosis is difficult in the initial course of illness when only constitutional symptoms or intermittent arthralgias or arthritis in asymmetric distribution may be present. A period of observation is necessary before diagnosis can be established.
  22. 22. Disorders resembling rheumatoid arthritis 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Systemic lupus erythematosis. Systemic sclerosis. Reiter’s syndrome. Psoriatic arthritis. Crystal deposition arthropathies. Nodal osteoarthritis. Gonococcal arthritis. Farber’s disease. Vascuilitis. Amyloidosis.
  23. 23. 11) Anti-phospholipid syndrome. 12) Mixed connective tissue disease. 13) Viral arthritis ( eg parvovirus, rubella, hepatitis) 14) Polymyalgia rheumatica.
  24. 24. Systemic Lupus erythematoses  Almost all patients of SLE experience arthralgias & myalgias. Most develop intermittent arthritis involving hand joints.  Unlike RA the arthritis in SLE is non-erosive and joint deformities are unusual. Skin involvement with photosensitive rash is much more common in SLE than in RA.
  25. 25. Systemic Sclerosis  More than half the patients of SS complain of pain, swelling & stiffness of the fingers and knees. A symmetrical polyarthritis resembling RA may be seen.  The onset of SS is frequently in the form of Raynaud’s phenomena & puffiness in fingers.  Raynaud’s phenomena affect a greater no. of patients of SS (80-90% patients) than of RA and may be the only symptom of scleroderma for years.
  26. 26. Reiter’s Syndrome  It is a reactive polyarthritis which develop several weeks after non-gonococcal urethritis and enteric infections.  Only a minority of patients have other findings of classical Reiter’s syndrome including urethritis, conjunctivitis, uveitis, oral ulcers and rash. The joint involvement is usually in the form of asymmetric oligoarthritis affecting mainly the knees, ankles & feet.  The history of preceding infection will help in the diagnosis.
  27. 27. Psoriatic Arthritis  It can present as asymmetric inflammatory arthritis, symmetric arthritis or psoriatic spondylitis  It is a sero-negative arthritis which mainly involve DIP, PIP, MCP, MTP, sternoclavicular and large peripheral joints.  Practically all patients have onychodystrophy ( onycholysis, ridging and pitting of nails).  Psoriasis and inflammatory arthritis usually develop simultaneously.
  28. 28. Monosodium Urate Arthopathy (Gout)  It commonly present as acute oligoarticular arthritis affecting middle aged to elderly men. The MTP jt. of 1 st toe is often involved but tarsal joints, ankles & knees are also commonly affected. The first episode usually begin at night with pain in joint together with tenderness, heat & redness over affected joint.  Women represent only 5 to 17% of all patients with gout & most of them are post-menopausal & elderly females. Most have an underlying degenerative jt. disease.  Diagnosis – confirmed by needle aspiration of jt. or tophaceous deposits.
  29. 29.  Most of the crystal arthopathies such as CPPD deposition disease, HA deposition disease & CaOx deposition disease affect elderly who usually have a preexisting degenerative joint disease.  In some cases they produce synovitis which may mimic RA. Diagnosis is confirmed by analysis of synovial fluid or articular tissue.
  30. 30. crystal arthopathies e.g. gout Tophi
  31. 31. Vasculitis  Vasculitis is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by inflammation & damage to blood vessels. The vessel lumen is compromised and is associated with ischaemia of the tissues supplied by the involved vessel.  Vasculitis are considered as immune-complex mediated diseases.
  32. 32. Vasculitis syndromes classification VASCULITIS Localized Cutaneous vasculitis Generalized Classical PAN Wegener’s granulomatosis Temporal arteritis
  33. 33. Classic polyarteritis nodosa  Systemic- fever, weight loss & malaise.  Renal(60%)- hypertension, renal insufficiency or      hemorrhage. Musculoskeletal(64%)- arthritis, arthralgia & myalgia. Peripheral nervous system(51%)- peripheral neuropathy. GIT(41%)- abdominal pain, nausea & vomiting. Skin(43%)- rash, purpura, livedo reticularis, raynaud’s phenomena. Cardiac- cardiac failure, AMI.
  34. 34. Polymyalgia rheumatica and GCA  Exclusively occur in persons over      55 yrs. Of age GCA – large vessel arteritis C/F- fever, anemia, raised ESR & headache in elderly person with or without symptoms of polymyalgia rheumatica (stiffness & pain in muscles of neck, shoulders, lower back, hips & thighs). Temporal artery- tender, thickened & nodular. jaw claudication visual disturbance, systemic upset. TA biopsy
  35. 35. Antinuclear cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)  Antinuclear cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are antibodies directed against certain proteins in the cytoplasm of neutrophils. They are present in a high percentage of patients with systemic vasculitis e.g.Wagener's granulomatosis but are rare in other inflammatory disorders.  Two major categories of ANCA- cytoplasmic © ANCA and perinuclear (p) ANCA
  36. 36. Farber Disease  Autosomal recessive disorder  Results from deficiency of lyzozomal enzyme ceramidase & the accumulation of ceramide in various tissues especially joints.  Symptoms begin as early as 1st year of life with painful jt. swelling & nodule formation.  It’s diagnosis should be suspected in patients who have nodule formation over jt’s. but no other finding of RA.
  37. 37. Amyloidosis  Articular structures are involved in primary idiopathic amyloidosis (light chain amyloidosis) which is associated with multiple myeloma.  Amyloid arthritis can present as symmetrical arthritis of small jt’s. with nodules, morning stiffness & fatigue.  Synovial fluid analysis- low WBC count, good to fair mucin clot, predominance of mononuclear cells & no crystals.
  38. 38. Osteoarthritis  Mechanical symptoms  Bony swelling, crepitus  DIP (Heberden), PIP (Bouchard), 1st CMCJ, neck, lower back, hips, knees, 1st MTP
  39. 39. Fibromyalgia  “All over pain”  Fatigue  Sleep disturbance  Depression  Anxiety  Irritable bowel  Tender spots  Diagnosis by exclusion
  40. 40. Investigations  Blood Examination- Hb estimation, FBC, ESR, CRP,       RF, synovial fluid analysis X-Ray- Hands and feet Serological Test (ANA, RF, anti-DNAase, ANCA, complement) Urine Examination Liver Function tests Organ based investigations- biopsy, angiogram
  41. 41. Synovial fluid analysis Normal Noninflamm RA, Gout atory (OA,trauma) Septic arthritis Appearance clear Clear/amber Turbid/yellow colored Turbid/opaque Viscosity viscous viscous Reduced viscosity Reduced viscosity Cell count <180 cells/mcl <2000/mcl 2000-50,000 >100,000 Mononuclea Polymorphon uclear Mononuclea r cells leukocytes r cells Polymorphon uclear leukocytes (>75%)
  42. 42. Other conditions where Rheumatoid factor is found in serum. Infection: Acute infection eg infectious mononucleosis; Chronic infection eg SBE, TB; Parasitic eg malaria; vaccination Inflammatory disease: RA, CTD, Fibrosing alveolitis, Chronic active hepatitis, cryoglobulinaemia Malignancy: Lymphoma, leukaemia, myeloma, solid tumours 5% healthy population RF <15 not significant unless associated with appropriate clinical scenario
  43. 43. Auto-antibodies and corresponding disorders  ANA – SLE; not significant in titers of 1/40 unless associated      with appropriate clinical scenario Anti-Ro and anti-La – Sjogrens syndrome Antitopoisomerase 1(Scl 70) and anti-centromere – Scleroderma Anti-RNP – mixed CTD Anti-Jo-1 - myositis ANCA – vascuilitis
  44. 44. Radiological features - OA  Four cardinal features:  Joint space narrowing  Sclerosis  Subchondral cysts  Osteophytes
  45. 45. Radiological features - RA  soft tissue swelling  juxta-articular osteoporosis  juxta-articular and subchondral erosions  joint space narrowing & subluxation  secondary OA & bony ankylosis
  46. 46. Thank you
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