Russian revolution


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Russian revolution

  1. 1. Russian Revolution & Beyond Photo Source:
  2. 2. Civil Unrest <ul><li>Prior to the revolution, Russia had been dominated by czars for hundreds of years </li></ul><ul><li>The social structure was largely unbalanced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A small percentage of elites enjoyed most privileges. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most people suffered in dire poverty with few rights. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is similar to the circumstances that led to revolution in France. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. New Ways of Thinking <ul><li>The Communist Manifesto </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ideas of Karl Marx & Freidrich Engels circulate throughout Russia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People begin to question the structure of Russian society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This would lead to the end of the last Russian Czar. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. WWI <ul><li>Russia suffered tremendous losses during the early years of World War I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 2,000,000 Russians were killed in 1915 alone. (Prentice Hall, 1997) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Russia hadn’t began to industrialize and this weakened their war effort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Troops lacked needed supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The weapons they had were inferior to their enemies. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. WWI Problems Continued <ul><li>In an attempt to bolster morale, Czar Nicholas II went to the front lines to assume control of the military </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This did little due to the fact the Nicholas II had little military experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Russia was left under the control of Nicholas’ wife Alexandra. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexandra lacked the trust of the Russian people. (Prentice Hall, 1997) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. March (February) Revolution <ul><li>In March of 1917, tensions had grown to a fever pitch in Russia. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic problems at home led to widespread discontent amongst the citizens. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia continued to suffer heavy losses in the war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo Source: </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. March Revolution Continued <ul><li>Revolutionaries forced the Czar to abdicate and a provisional government was established. </li></ul><ul><li>This government makes a critical mistake and decides to continue Russian involvement in World War I. </li></ul><ul><li>Russian citizens are angered by this decision and it leaves the door open to further revolution. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Photo Source: Vladimir Lenin <ul><li>Lenin believed the Marxist ideas could be applied to Russia’s social structure. </li></ul><ul><li>He returns from exile in Switzerland in April 1917 and is greeted warmly by the Russian people. (Prentice Hall, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin vowed to end Russian participation in WWI. </li></ul>
  9. 9. November (October) Revolution <ul><li>In November of 1917, Lenin and the Marxist revolutionaries (Bolsheviks) overthrow the provisional government. </li></ul><ul><li>This lasts only a few days as the Russian people quickly join in support of the revolution. (Prentice Hall, 1997) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bolsheviks In Charge <ul><li>Bolsheviks ended private ownership of land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers were given control of factories & mines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lenin saw this as a means of putting power in the hands of the people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lenin signs the treaty of Brest-Litovsk officially ending Russian participation in WWI. (Prentice Hall, 1997) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Death of Lenin <ul><li>In 1924 Vladimir Lenin dies. (Prentice Hall, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>This marks a dramatic turning point for the direction and leadership of Russia. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lenin’s successors have very different visions for the path that the Russian people should follow. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Photo Source: Joseph Stalin <ul><li>Stalin assumes power in Russia </li></ul><ul><li>following Lenin’s death. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin’s ideas regarding government power and control are much more aggressive that Lenin’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Command Economy: government controls all aspects of production. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People are controlled with secret police and propaganda </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Stalin’s Totalitarian State <ul><li>A single party dominated politics and made all decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Communist ideology replaced religion and nothing was allowed to come before the state. </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin’s Tomb becomes a holy shrine for Russians. </li></ul><ul><li>Image Source: </li></ul>
  14. 14. Totalitarianism Continued <ul><li>People were bombarded with pro-Communist propaganda and constantly reminded of the “evils” of the West. </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory education was enacted where children would learn about the benefits of atheism, collective farming, and the glorification of their leaders. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Collectivization <ul><li>Stalin places all private farms in collectives and forces them to share all of their crops. </li></ul><ul><li>The government distributes crops out to the masses. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People are furious over this action and many burn crops and kill their livestock. (Prentice Hall, 1997) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Great Purge <ul><li>Stalin used brute force and capital punishment to ensure his position of power. </li></ul><ul><li>He became increasingly paranoid about an overthrow and began to execute people that he believed posed a threat to him. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 4 million people were imprisoned, exiled, or executed during Stalin’s reign as a result. (Prentice Hall, 1997) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of these were his top military leaders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This would prove to be disastrous for Russia as they entered World War II. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. References <ul><li>Prentice Hall, Inc. World History: Connections To Today . Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin Photo: : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slide 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>March Revolution Photo: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slide 6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lenin Image: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slide 8 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin Photo: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slide 12 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lenin’s Tomb: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slide 13 </li></ul></ul>