• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content

Loading…

Flash Player 9 (or above) is needed to view presentations.
We have detected that you do not have it on your computer. To install it, go here.

Like this presentation? Why not share!

Elc 318 prelims handout

on

  • 969 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
969
Views on SlideShare
969
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
69
Comments
1

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel

11 of 1 previous next

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • good notes....
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Elc 318 prelims   handout Elc 318 prelims handout Presentation Transcript

    • What is a Computer?
    • Computer
      • An electronic device which manipulates and stores data
      • It performs mathematical and logical operations
    • Parts of a Computer
    • System
      • Any collection of component elements that work together to perform a task.
    • E-Data Processing Hardware Software Peopleware
    • Computer System
      • A complete, working computer
      • The computer system includes not only the computer itself (hardware), but also any software and data that are necessary to make the computer function.
      • Likewise, human intervention is also needed
    • Components of Computer System
    • Hardware
      • Tangible parts of the computer system
      • It includes all the physical parts such as CPU, Monitor, keyboard and etc.
    • Computer Hardware
    • Input Devices - These are devices used to enter information into a computer
    • Keyboard
      • One of the most used input devices, consisting of keys which are pressed to enter data and instructions into the computer
      • IBM first introduced the 83-key keyboard followed by the 84 keys and finally 101-key keyboard which was the de facto standard, until further modifications were introduced by Microsoft.
    • QWERTY Keyboard Layout
      • Originally designed by Christopher Sholes in 1867
      • Its name was derived from the first six characters on the top row of normal keyboard arrangement.
    • Keyboard
    • Mouse
      • It is used to move on and control a pointer on the computer screen, specifically in a graphical user interface (GUI) system
      • This is connected to the computer by wire/ wireless and is held by hand
    • Mouse
    • Trackball
      • It is similar to the mouse
      • It also has a rotating ball, but the ball is on top. Instead of moving the device itself, the user moves the ball
    • Joystick
      • This gives the computer information on the direction and extent of displacement of a hand-held lever, enabling a corresponding movement in an object on the screen that is part of particular program
      • Usually used for games.
    • Light Pen
      • It is shaped like a pen with the telltale cable connecting it to the computer
      • This is used to indicate a particular location on a a computer screen and is usually utilized for programs on computer-aided design (CAD)
    • Scanner
      • This device inputs a digital image of a document or picture into a computer.
      • This is usually consists of a flat bed, on which an image is placed and scanned
    • Graphics Tablet
      • This is an input device in which a stylus is moved, by hand, over a flat surface
      • The position of the stylus is tracked so that the user can input shapes and drawings
    • Touch-Sensitive Screen
      • This is a computer monitor, which consists of a specialized screen
      • Users can touch particular areas or touch-points on the screen to input certain preferences or commands
    • Recognition Devices
      • These devices are mostly used by banks and commercial establishments to recognize and input large volumes of data
      • These include Optical Character Recognition (OCR), Optical Mark Recognition (OMR)
    • Voice Recognition Device
      • Allow you to communicate to the computer through speech and the like
      • The simplest example is a condenser microphone which can be used to capture sound
    • Processing Device - Device used to process data into information
    • C entral P rocessing U nit
      • The main part of a computer which executes instructions and controls various other functions of the computer
      • It consists of Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU), Control Unit and the Memory
    • Microprocessor / CPU
    • System Unit
      • It contains the central processing unit and primary memory (the electronic circuitry that enables the computer to process and store data)
    • System Unit
    • Power Input
      • Where your plug in the PC’s electrical power cord
    • Keyboard Port
      • Dedicated port for the keyboard
    • Mouse Port
      • Dedicated port for the mouse
    • USB Ports
      • Universal Serial Bus ports are general-purpose connectors found on newer PCs.
    • Serial Ports
      • This-9 pin connector is one of the oldest and most universal ports found in the back of the PC.
    • Parallel Port
      • Virtually as old as the serial port, the 25-pin parallel port has been updated a number of times, popular means for connecting printers
    • Video Port
      • This unique three-row, 15-pin connector is where the monitor connects to the system unit
    • Audio Ports
      • Used to connect speakers, microphones, and other audio devices
    • Game Port
      • Also known as a joystick port, this 15-pin connector can be used for both joystick and for MIDI musical devices
    • Modem Port
      • This looks like a telephone jack.
      • It enables your computer to communicate with other computer via telephone line.
    • Network Interface
      • It sometimes referred to as an Ethernet connector.
      • It connects your PC to other PCs in a Local Area Network
    • Proper Opening and Shutting Down of a Computer
    • Opening of a Computer
      • Check all the cables if properly connected
      • Plug and switch on the AVR
      • Switch on the Monitor
      • Press the Power Button of the System Unit
      • Wait until the desktop appears and the cursor will look like this  before opening any program
    • Shutting Down of a Computer
      • Close all the programs
      • Click the Start button and click Turn Off or Shut Down
      • A dialog box will appear, click again the Turn Off or Shut Down button
      • Wait until the monitor turns off or totally black screen.
      • Switch Off the monitor
      • Switch off and unplug the AVR
    • Internal Components of a System Unit
    • CPU
      • Central Processing Unit
      • The brain of the computer
      • AMD (Advanced Microdevices) and Intel Corporation
    • Random Access Memory (RAM)
      • The CPU’s short-term memory.
      • Volatile storage
      • Can be accessed quickly but it disappears when the power is turned off.
    • Memory Devices
      • These are devices that are used for the temporary and short-term storage of data, which the compute can use during processing
      • These include ROM (Read Only Memory) and (RAM) Random Access Memory
    • Random Access Memory
    • Northbridge
      • A special helper chip that connects CPU and RAM
      • BUS – multiple wires used to connect two or more devices in the motherboard.
      • Frontside Bus – connects the CPU, Northbridge and RAM
    • CPU Speeds
      • Clock Chip – a crystal that oscillates at a certain frequency when electricity us applied to it, providing the system speed.
      • Each click of the clock is measured in millions or billions of cycles per second
    • Note:
      • One cycle per second is Hertz (Hz)
      • One million cycles per second is a megahertz (MHz)
      • One billion cycles per second is a gigahertz (GHz)
    • Processor Packages
      • The form factor of the chip : its shape, size and external features
    • Types of Processor Package
    • Single-Edge Cartridge (SEC)
      • Introduced in mid-1990s
      • Pentium II is an example of this package.
    • Pin-Grid Array (PGA)
      • Most commonly used package for the processor
      • It has tiny golden wires sticking out the underside of the CPU
    • Motherboard
      • The big printed circuit board that covers most of the bottom of the system unit.
      • Provide an area where all of the internal components of the PC can connect.
    • Expansion slots
      • Enable you to expand the capabilities of your system by adding extra components.
      • Any device that snaps into an expansion slot is an expansion card.
    • Three Types of Expansion Slots
    • 1. PCI
      • Peripheral Component Interconnect
      • Expansion slot used for high-speed input/output device which uses PCI bus
    • 2. AGP
      • Accelerated Graphics Port
      • Expansion slot used for a video card
    • 3. ISA
      • Industry Standard Architecture
      • Used by older and/or slower devices
    • Hard Drive
      • The PC’s long-term memory; data stored there remains available for later use.
    • IDE
      • Integrated Drive Electronics
      • A standard that defines how the motherboard communicates with secondary storage devices.
    • CD-ROM Drives
      • Compact Disc – Read Only Memory
      • Design to read CDs.
    • CD-R
      • Compact Disc Recordable
      • Allow you to write data to them but only one time
    • CD-RW
      • Compact Disc ReWritable
      • Enables you to read and write repeatedly.
    • Floppy Drives
      • Read floppy discs
      • The first kind of storage used by PCs
    • Data Hierarchy
      • Bit = 1 or 0
      • 1 Byte = 8 bits = 1 character
      • 1024 Bytes = 1 Kilobyte
      • 1024 KB = 1 Megabyte
      • 1024 MB = 1 Gigabyte
      • 1024 G = 1 Terabyte
    • Video Card
      • Also known as graphic adapter
      • Act as the interface between computer and monitor
    • Power Supply
      • Converts standard household A/C current into the D/C current needed by the PC
    • Sound Card
      • Provides the sound input and output for your PC.
      • Used for speakers and microphones
    • Network Interface Card (NIC)
      • To access a Local Area Network
    • Output Devices -Display or transfer information to the user after processing
    • Monitor
      • One of the most common output devices. It is the screen which shows the results of processing or the inputs of the user
      • Desktop or Personal Computers come with Cathode-Ray Tube(CRT) similar to those of televisions while Laptop computers come with a Liquid Crystal Display(LCD).
    • Monitor
    • Printer
      • This device provides hardcopy or a printout to the user
      • It takes text as inputted and then prints them on paper
    • Types of Printer
      • Dot Matrix – use small wires to press on ribbons and quite noisy
      • Inkjet Printer – similar to matrix printers but instead of using needles it sprays droplets of ink onto the paper to form images
      • Laser Printer – noise-free, as these employ light to draw text and images; uses electrostatic process
    • Plotter
      • It is a special output device which also causes printed output to be produced in a manner not too different from that used by regular printers
    • Speakers
      • Provide output for voice, sound or music and are a necessary of a multimedia system
    • Storage Media & Devices - Provide a permanent storage for data, information and programs for later use or retrieval
    • Hard Disk
      • Most common storage media which usually permanent part of the computer
      • This is where most programs and data are stored, especially the operating system for fast retrieval and execution by the user
    • Floppy Disk
      • This is removable storage device which has a smaller capacity compared to a hard disk
      • The standard 3.5-inch floppy disk has 1.44 MB capacity
    • Compact Disc (CD)
      • Also a removable device with a larger capacity than a floppy
      • It usually come in the form of CD-ROM (Compact Disc-Read Only Memory)
      • The common capacity of a CD-ROM is 650MB
      • There are also recordable and erasable CDs
    • Digital Video Disc (DVD)
      • CDs which contain a very large amount of data and are used for storing films and other data-intensive files such as computer games and applications
      • Usually store up to 8 GB of data
    • Hardware Connection - These are the connectors that physically connect and link the components and devices so that they can interact and exchange data
    • BUS
      • This is a group of wires composing a system interconnections that allow communication between the different devices
      • It is the electrical pathway through which the computer processor communicates
    • Circuit Boards
      • These are arrangements of electrical components through which signals or current can pass through
    • Serial Connection
      • This type of connection which involves a slow transfer of information from the computer to an external component such as mouse or printer
    • Parallel Connection
      • Uses multiple sets of wires but is limited in terms of distance covered
      • It also connects components such as printers or scanners to the computer
    • Types of Software
    • System Software
      • The kind of software that controls and takes care of the working computer and overall functioning of the system.
      • The best example of system software is the operating system
      • Ex. Windows XP, Windows ME, Windows XP, Linux, Unix, Apple’s OS
    • Application Software
      • Software that generally suited to perform a particular task or function
      • Ex. Word Processor, Spreadsheet, Computer Games, Desktop Publishing Software and Graphics Program
    • Types of Production of Software
    • Commercial Software
      • These are created and marketed by big software companies
      • Usually made by a team of experts and computer professionals and are sold for quite a big price
      • Ex. Microsoft Windows OS, MS Office
    • Shareware
      • Because of the high cost of software, many individual programmers made shareware
      • Shareware, however is not really shared but is lent or allowed to be tested for a time before a fee is requested
    • Freeware
      • Given for free or allowed to be downloaded from the Internet.
      • Programmers who create freeware do it as a service to users who cannot afford programs
    • Output Device
      • It displays data once it has been processed.
      • The most common output devices are the computer display screen and printer
    • Secondary Storage Device
      • It allows data to be permanently stored so that it can be used at a later time.
      • Common secondary storage devices include floppy disk drives, hard disk drives, and CD-ROM drives
    • Note:
      • Input, output and secondary storage devices are also sometimes referred to as peripheral devices
    • Software
      • It is a set of instructions that tells the computer hardware what to do.
      • It is also known as program
      • Examples: MS Word, Excel, & PowerPoint
    • Peopleware
      • They are mainly responsible for the development and use of the system
      • No computer would run without the help of people
    • How the Computer Works?
    • Electronic vs. Electric
    • Computer
      • It is an electronic device
      • An electronic device uses very small electric current at very low voltage levels to represent and store state information
    • Electronic Device
      • Generally, at 0 volt the state is off and at 5 volts the state is on.
      • Power dissipation for computers, particularly portable such as laptops and palmtops is kept low.
    • Electric Appliance
      • It uses raw power to operate and function and not to store or represent data
      • Air-conditioning units, refrigerators, electric fans, and the like all use powerline voltage levels of 110 or 220 volts.
    • Does it mean that computers do not require powerline electricity?
      • The answer is NO.
      • Computers use the 110- or 220-volt electricity for their power supply and internally convert this to the appropriate voltage levels.
    • Let us see how an on or an off is used to represent data.
    • Data Hierarchy
    • Bit
      • Smallest unit of data
      • Represented by 0 or 1
    • Nibble
      • It consists of four bits
    • Byte
      • It consists of 8 bits or 1 character
      • Character – smallest meaningful unit of data
    • Kilobyte (KB)
      • It consists of 1024 bytes
    • Megabyte (MB)
      • It consists of 1024 KB
    • Gigabyte (GB)
      • It consists of 1024 MB
    • Terabyte (TB)
      • It consists of 1024 GB
    • Petabyte (PB)
      • It consists of 1024 TB
    • Exabyte (EB)
      • It consists of 1024 PB
    • Proper Care of Computers
    • Here are some ways:
      • Place your computer in a dry, clean and cool place
      • Do not eat or drink while working on your computer
    • Here are some ways:
      • Clean your computer regularly. Use dry cloth and a wax specially made for computers.
      • Cover your computer when not in use so that dust will not gather on it.
    • continuation…
      • When you are using a computer, handle its parts with care.
      • Do not hit your computer when there is something wrong with it. Call somebody who is technically knowledgeable in fixing the problem.
    • continuation…
      • Run the shutdown program before turning off ,your computer. Failure to do so many results in data loss.
      • Clean your mouse regularly so that you will not have difficult rolling it over a mouse pad.
    • continuation…
      • Protect the data stored in your storage media. Place your disks and CD-ROM in a protective case. Don’t bend your disks or put them near magnets. Magnets will damage the data stored in your disks.
    • Computer Problems and Issues
    • Software Breakdown
    • Things to do when Software Breakdown occurs
      • Turn the computer off and then on again (cold booting), then run the program again
    • Things to do when Software Breakdown occurs
      • If the program continues to encounter difficulties, try reinstalling it.
      • If the problem continues, contact your software vendor or dealer and try replacing the software.
    • Note:
      • This problem may occurs due to other problems such as a hard disk loaded with too many programs, viruses or just simple incompatibility with the hardware.
    • Hard Disk Crash
    • Hard Disk Crash
      • One of the worst experiences for a new user
      • When you turn on the computer and nothing happens
      • You find out that all the contents of your hard disk are totally erased without recovering any file
    • Things to do when Hard Disk Crash occurs
      • Have your hard disk checked if there is hope for recovering any important data or file
    • Things to do when Hard Disk Crash occurs
      • Have your hard disk reformatted and programs you want to reinstalled
      • The next time you use your computer, have a BACKUP of all your important files in another storage media.
    • Virus Attacks
    • Virus Attacks
      • Hard disk may crash caused by viruses
      • Computer may behave in an unpredictable manner
      • The software or programs may breakdown
    • Let us understand what a virus IS NOT
      • A virus is not a germ, bacteria or organic virus
      • A virus is not a malfunction of any devices or computer part.
    • What, then is a VIRUS?
      • It is a program that copy itself, and then transfer from one computer to another without users knowing it.
    • What, then is a VIRUS?
      • The program cannot be seen like an ordinary file. It is hidden within executable files or data
      • It is made to either express something through screen, or to infect and erase data
    • Things to do to in Virus Attacks
      • Always BACKUP your important data
      • Install an anti-virus program on your computer.
    • Things to do to in Virus Attacks
      • NEVER share floppy disk and other storage media with other computer users. Also don’t use pirated software.
      • Don’t open or access unknown files or attachment in the Internet as these be affected by a virus
    • Safety Precautions for Working on a Computer
    • #1
      • Make notes as you work so that you can go back step-by-step to check your work later if necessary
    • #2
      • When unpacking hardware or software, remove the packing tape and cellophane from the work area as soon as possible
    • #3
      • Keep components away from your hair and clothing
    • #4
      • Keep screws and spacers orderly and in one place, such as a cup or tray
    • #5
      • Do not stack boards on top of each other, you could remove a chip accidentally.
    • #6
      • When handling motherboards and expansion cards do not touch the chips on the boards
    • #7
      • Hold expansion cards by the edges. Do not touch any soldered components on a card, and do not touch chips or edge connectors unless it is absolutely necessary. Do not touch a chip with a magnetized screwdriver.
    • #8
      • Do not use a graphite pencil to change DIP switch settings, because graphite is a conductor of electricity and the graphite can lodge in the switch.
    • #9
      • Always turn off a computer before moving it. A computer’s hard drive always spin while it is on, unless it has a sleep mode.
    • #10
      • Always turn off a computer before moving it. A computer’s hard drive always spin while it is on, unless it has a sleep mode.
    • #11
      • To protect disks, keep them away from magnetic fields, heat and extreme cold. Do not open the shuttle window or touch the disk’s surface.
    • #12
      • The power supply and the monitor can hold a dangerous level of electricity even after you turn them off and disconnect from a power source.
    • Protecting Against Electrostatic Discharge
    • ElectroStatic Discharge (ESD)
      • Commonly known as static electricity
      • An electrical charge that can build up on the surface of insulating materials, such as clothing or plastic.
      • This is why touching a metal doorknob after you cross a carpet in your stocking feet can result in a very noticeable shock.
    • Why worry about ESD?
      • A charge of much less than 3000 volts can damage electronic components .
      • Walking across carpet can generate 1,500 to 30,000 volts of static electricity.
      • Just picking up a common plastic bag can generate over 1,000 volts and often much more.
    • How to prevent ESD?
      • Ground Bracelet or Antistatic Wrist Strap
      • Ground Mat
      • Static Shielding Bag
    • Manual Way to prevent ESD
      • As you work on a computer, make a point of touching the metal frame or power supply box before you touch any other part.
      • Touch it again every time you move around, this will at least equalize the amount of static electricity stored up and waiting to move in you and in the PC.
    • Lab Activities
    • Handling PC Connections
      • Identify the types of ports and connections
      • You need a computer with standard peripherals attached including a mouse, keyboard and monitor.
    • Opening a System Unit
      • You need:
        • PC
        • A Phillips screwdriver
        • Preferably an antistatic wrist strap
      • Identify the internal parts of the System Unit
    • Handling Expansion Cards
      • You need:
        • A PC running Windows
        • A Phillips screwdriver
        • A straight-slot screwdriver
        • An Antistatic wrist strap
        • A three-prong parts retriever
    • Identifying the Type of CPU in Your PC
      • A working PC running Windows
      • Paper and Pencil
      • Screwdrivers
      • An antistatic wrist strap
      • You need to know the manufacturer, model, speed and package.
    • Five ways to identify the type of the CPU
      • System Information
      • My Computer Properties
      • Physical Connection
      • Reboot
      • CPU-Z (Application Program) can be downloaded at www.cpuid.com