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  • 1. 7 nr:6[ouFio16anfinrisr,flilrznfrsilurnrerrufiarfiorfirdnsr'luruurirnE ra-stflso'[uil aJilrim sr frst ooigua r ra nrt,l fl nr:6ntrr zssz riaaouim 04 ivrs'rflrasri t aauiurar{id zo fi'lmrorer il.d. 2551 r?41 og.3o-11.30%. I A UO It A a./ 1,t'.|3.J6[n n .. LnTn1,[.:6[AU q OA a1afru1EI 1. rioaalou-udfitYorur t+o rio r?il 28 nfir u:iroonrilu z qrou ns$uurfiil 300 nvuuil 9/ e'/ A at1,[ aa%fi 1 fi 20 do #.:uuqirio 1-20 i a ev U tv ao%fi 2 fi 120 rio a{LLetlro 1-120 riony 3 nuLLl*u donr 2 nrLLul* 2. r?oaousroufi t ila t -zo uilurioeouuuutvi6odruanruaruqirirEroufinnd'0.: t#mrrfissl aosairurar.ro'lri{losieras trjoorlun:corpdrnaunar,lfi r n%flnfflr#.aou6nprif;nr:q q , v t o Y A -- o v A oouludarqrrodr'rrirnauiafr 25 uunrsolunlqouilulYl 1 3. r?aaauoroufiz ila 1 - 120 rfludoaoruuur6onoou uqin;rioosfirirEroulvirdon + rirqou 6o 1.2.3. uns 4. trflfior:rur16ondrEraufirffu'jr nnoioofiaon3otltansaru{iaorf,soriroautdEnqqq uu#rtd'6uaocir ze uiosirn'ir :surutur.:narudd'0.:nrrtun:vorr*ri'lt.ut"n fi z d'.:er-ros.ir'i e./ I a?og'lil nu. $s.J. TnHvfifrsrmrunt,t'turr.tufi niru/nu. sil. 1. 0.50 2. 1.00 3. 1 .50 4. 2.00 n1:aoil 1o; Inra;oriroadrftrurner: 1o niruunsfi:.Jiruror: zo I riaddrqoudnn6o o.so niarlnu. sil. 6..:t:Ja0uqTr rfr on t tun:venr*rirnou oYtfr o@o@(0) 4. nlryroLafl 1ri'vrotuo''rrioeor runc#rilt#rotaoGoriruenrln "1 Tosrfiosro goYoYfd 5. fi 1s.rll'Ifl o 6{ail uncnrco'lr*9l1a ouo ono1nfi o$dau to Et [oo?t1o 6. riounouriasol tri'firriraorrduu fiauacrazfiriloaau'l#aruu:n[ nrluri'rn:corudroaus{ ffiadturthlod u#e I#ao frarittTa6{aul# jyuXAa/4r6trA{- zl o 6[ o u 6ru u i[ el mTi yr rJ 1 n FJ [d rJ ir [?r N 6hr ? }t dvr d n r N n 0 m il1 EJ sv u?gr uorfiTsr EJ o1o1:elur*n: xrl to n Aaranuflo6[au?51t4il [9rEJ 01 e 9v r$nsila6[0uerrflRnc{Torer o'ro1:siiloaJrnroFi dareronaq t)'/AdAeJrToEJolo.lT8JTrt*na'lrgil0an rilnEJga6tau?fi'1tr??YleJrToEJ o11 da q e'/ uirrTnn o'rr1cfrflsr{Tsrs alo'lreiltrtin# a.rsTr,nnr:e.rranEJga6[a '[n 16 s eJ 6[ a lt'L#in'Lua ?'l E r i(u
  • 2. 7 iuuar{fd zo #r,m'rail y{ .Gr. zss1 131 04 imsrcrran{ t e,/ j fi%'lYl 1 1 1.0 H 1 He 2 2 6.9 Li J 9.0 Be 4 10.8 B 5 12.0 C 6 14.0 N 7 16.0 o 8 19.0 F 9 20.2 Ne 10 J 23.0 Na ll 24.3 4s t2 27.0 AI I3 28.1 Si t4 31.0 B 15 32.1 $ t6 35.5 CI t7 39.9 Ar 18 4 39.1 K t9 40. I Ca 20 45.0 Sc 2t 47.9 Ti 22 s0.9 V 23 52.0 Cr 24 54.9 Mn 25 55.8 Fe 26 58.9 Co 27 58.7 Ni 28 63.s Cu 29 65.4 Zn 30 69.7 Ga 31 72.6 Ge 32 74.9 As JJ 79.0 Se 34 79.9 Br 35 83.8 Kr 36 5 85.5 Rb 37 87.6 Sr 38 88.9 Y 39 91.2 Zr 40 92.9 Nb 4l 95.9 Mo 42 (ee) Tc 43 t0t.l Ru 44 102.9 Rh 45 106.4 Pd 46 r07.9 As 47 112.4 Cd 48 114.8 In 49 118.7 Sn 50 121.8 Sb 51 127.6 Te 52 126.9 I53 131 .3 Xe 54 6 132.9 Cs 55 137.3 Ba 56 138.9 La 57 178.5 Hf 72 181.0 Ta IJ 183.9 w 74 186.2 Re 75 r90.2 Os 76 r92.2 Ir 77 195.1 Pt 78 197.0 Au 79 200.6 Hg 80 204.4 Ti 81 207.2 Pb 82 209.0 Bi 83 (210) Po 84 (210) At 85 (222) Rn 86 7 (223) Fr 87 (226) Ra 88 (227) Ac 89 (261) Rf r04 (262) Db l0s (263) Ss 106 (262) Bh 107 (26s) Hs 108 (266) Mt 109 41T10fi1qt 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A n1iluoa'la0a'l nmruritrfio.:arnrr:rlfirudr.:To.:Tnn (s) = 10 rrun:fiurfi' hrruuri'tornrrrurdauto.tyr:.:nnrusr-u = 12ls; lvn' Trurruuci'rornrrrurdaurarmr{nnernn?,0 = 1zla; un' ei,n,:sr-':'[r,{flrafior (K) = 9.0 X 10e fird'u 1rruor:;'l lnrnor:ri;' ilxoruagru 1e; = 1.6 x 1o-tn srno*ri d'or:rr5ruar 1c; = 3.0 X 108 grqr:sioiu.rfi rirn.rer-rlr#rri'1ny = 6.6 x 10-to on- iurfi t Erfino:auhnd' = L6 x 1o-" on rurnto.:T:J:mou = 1.0073 u rutnto.:firo:ou = 1.0087 u rurnso.:6tfinasau (*") = 0.0005 u = 9.0 x 10-tt fi]nniru -..Y----.A4 ! 9' a€ T d v{n.:.11uYltYtulttyl']nuil?d 1u = 930 tunsardino:oulrno sin 53o= 415 cos 53o= 3/5 sin 30o = cos 600 = 112 J, = 1.41n = 3.14 'lE'= 9.9 ln rfr Er N 6r a %'[#intua?1 N ; cos 3oo=sin 600 = % ,f- ln2= 0.693 d, r'Mfk
  • 3. iurar 4fi zo fiimrnil il .Gr. zss1 132 04 imsrrf'lan{ t tvi l4%'lYt 2 1. d T'ta x il1n1il?n 127q Aaei j aal[n I Itdlrt, (fladauil 20 sa soa& 3 acrr$l[) Aa'l/lA1Ll llflrlt 74 u?aToil fl?l*t000u1a.]mn Y unvfla z n0 Y'- unr z'-qq a 6 o v 0 r ao a 6 A ttfls 36 0[nnn:oil a1iln']oru [l.[flR1?runa01u?u0tnnaTailtou?fl0.] v a& i^ * z :?ilnuilyt.l14ilona[RnqTou favzl u::orrfl'a n. :J3rurru x lrun iinmruo'u 3o.o ur:utnlrr fior*ranfiqq(U r. rrmu:J3rurru x kn rvi'rnlu fr zs.oo c ud":rilrfl"a t. '[:lrfirulu IqutfifinmruoYuluuonnurilu r.o ur:urnlfl onrnnfi 2e8 K asil:ra 3. 2. rnl o nLill sr'La o 0 ufrTnr{ nfr.: r:Tryut*t,tdleitf{ il r.J q fi uu u urnr6ruTnnsilo{rrehi o.oes niil n.:tuar:nrnrrfintrofnlutn:srtdrriu 1.00 mor/dm' :J3rursr: 2 .6t 9a f o - j - 25.00 cm' OsYl'l lntn0 lnnsl.:Ul4ilnnnTil (Cu = 63.5 , Ag = 108) ^ A ' U 'e t A 5' U I a ,l u u''lflnuTu9r141{.11lTsR0UtlJ0?u519tA1.1 1 €r0 n1TU01{ [AIOTIoU Unt0on{tou tltfl9tfl?1t #ouns 64.e, 13.5 rns 21.0Iquflufi'nqrrJdrer-u ,iir*rorhtilnrinuri'eddfr:Jirurq: rz.o fio:fi Qrura4fi 27.ooc unrnmrusiu 760 mmHg lru'jrrarin e.zo nis.l o.:rirurrun+iruruosEtorJTo.J.r 9l dt 6l f * ! 51qA{nlj:3n0u[1+ 1 lilnunflu (c= 12, H= 1, o= 16) 9 il0LnnnT01,[L?1'tnu 22 mnxmaYtLn3r'1a eJn)a 5. n.l |Ln6ru1,['lo 75.0 naT 2s.o o c rfiourrauri'aq uonn1,[11,['to 2,50 fiq;qt vl -A uonn1,[ Lonnn 6l raaa LulJflnTu'l A(g) :J3rurnT a dm 3 1.lo.rilfrfi3ur 4. q(u AV o. ornnr:finurd'sr:rnr:rfiq:Jfifi?urxra'jrrsr: n ri:rnr: a drl?ifll: o rilurufiofirx"ri rfioilfiosr n:rd:;n'ir'rermrurrirriuro.:usinsnr:riur':nr nu'irnmrud'ufinnr roo iurfi ro{a.t: A R-lr B unefl1TorvirrYu -0.012,-0.024 unr 0.018 mor/dm3.s sntliilo-u firr*aloiu:Jfifi3urfrar:n 2.0 mot/dm' ran-t:Jfrfi3urtfiq[d"] s urfi vlu'jrfinr: n rnfioofl 0.56 mot/dm3 o.:nrfrn:rnr:rfietql fl'tr D tunr.lrt mot/dm3.s 7. + B(e) # 2c(g) ti'r n g.o Iiln un; a r.o Iiln rusrufi'ulunrrus rda:Jrioutri':JfiffiurrrirqiflR'r?cflrJcrfl ocfi c o.soIrun o.:nrqirnrfiaruon '[n rfr EJ il 6[ a r,t'[#in'[un ?1 ilr i
  • 4. 7 iurari{r* zo fiurT ail il .Gr. zssl 133 04 ?nsrarasr{ t tvi t4%'lYl 3 8. ri'rsrrrru uriruriur o{nro uruTry6n rflu ruuTr6n = 5.0 x 10 -s ) 0.114'tqi't pH 9. riltd H3so41 .0 mor/dm3 druru 100 aXa,l-.e,/ taT u il 6[-lTnv n1 u u8.J 6[1TLO A u UTO U n y ,TdTArA,e-/ 2 L?l'llj O.: LfltO Uil LUlA LStoA tN oilirutarL?l'tn1,[ ( K ,lJO.'.1nro u o.tcnrnrnt uqin:o ruuTt6nn-uTgud uil ruuTsroet 1 0 cm 3 (u .*t fir:Jfrfi?urri'u NaoH 1.0 mor/dm 3 Lrqi NaoH firi'rur s Tquil?n {u Qer6ryrfiuto.r:Jfrfi3urdoi'o.rtf NaoH ii .r'q 10. tilo{uru.:nrtuEr'laaoutir:JfiffiurrTudn'lr,ld'[oooutunr:nsn1urufl lqi'urru.rnrfia lrvy oonlroi' rrnsdnrr4o{ rfiatfiuuunsqnailnr:ud'r run:':rroril:rob4flryrtrno.:ri'ruro.rnunr:frrirrvilter lll rs A ( tila o{Tru rFtio.r14 tJ1 u)q <Aaet6 orrqnfoxnfi.:iirurnunst#utiruqufnnrrrfJu4 uflr 2 Ln1T0.iil?nunsr#urirusueinnl.:rJo.: a6-ov'.gd'6ri'^d 9l? { 01 m a u nl il n1 o u 9t1? rl n l'ua e il n?'] il 14 u't ullul:J un [n11 0.1 o? { a1 m n u orn:ilnciolrt?fl m,= too fiTnniru qndlbi'todtufiuududu6'rlsrrrr:rd.:rurq ar =6 rrlelr/ iurfit Totu:l itl.tti'nrlu{il?fl mr= zo fiTnniru lnntrluunaia.:rurn r, oi"tunrrilrd{rurcr A aa e a a I X ^ , A + o az=4 $JSIT/?il'l?l' n1ilUT.JtflUOYl'l1t:t14?'l{?{Utl?18.1nn0{Yh1flO{ 0{1411JU'lOlJO{ttT.l F tU -Araf Hr.irufr':qrufrn:srirqioneiolrurn roo fiLnniru lrirnuorir s = 1o rruor:fiutfi'; 13. nciotrurn z fiInnir.r nirr z trinr u1? 2 rilslruns fl{ 4 rilqr odru:nu::nn orHrnrrrurd.: A Aurn i ' Mrv,t d. fl{ qqr o{Tnurrfl n?l fl'l illTn?{ tgt [o um n fl 0{ til n il lilfi 1*? u ril CI:fi uryt'ruqq -QcA e t A u ( lfi nq?1nn0{niln 0u?103 [nn) A Aa- e v q ' d e , d y A q - 14. flnlt*o?n1ctililnn:tiltnntu?.lnotil'tqrlilru illc{ilru'tustudnnrt 200 rrlqt: osgl'o{ilriurffa"tn'o qt i'-------- tfio "antvlTrirurir.:rfitru (artificiat gravity)" Tulo 4.00 rruqr:fiurfi'siofinfiuornrsfiodlSurrxru rauu0nro.:anrfi ornrnrrrufitfirrurutunrrililulro{flnrfiornrsfiosrirtri'rfioanrnTrirurir.:dqq '[ a rfr EJ il 6{ a ?r'[#in'Lr,ua ?1 il i 11. 12. lturar.lru rouoiaurfr;
  • 5. iuua'ri{d zo #lnraEJ r{ .F1. zss1 134 04 inlnrrran{ t ra#T {d 4 ts. rfiorir#arurfiurfi#uoi'runrrrufi soo r3:nd l:Jsiofi:lrnra{nnoquri'rrJnruilqld'q:Jy orElo.:r6ru rHn.rl:JluranoquriroEir'rriou finnurflri'rryufiriln: rdorirt#rfiqufiu{rl-.:rurnn'iriln6oonlr,u e o q e e u ' Y , & a& A v u a1nfin09[tn? n']nilqtnnn0qun'1q{nR1?9t.10u1J1*1tl*T'T.J ulluYt14u'l9to 10 gt'tT't.1tgtruatilaT u'r? 20 rryu6rilq: unrnrrrurirrarrfiu.:'[ur.,n.rtn*rrfurilu sso rruo:fiurfi to. frri'ouonfirfisrururn soo niru orxnnfi 327 o.rs'rrsnrdre siiln{dlfdfiorunnfi zz a{flrrqnu6ua(Uq,uqqll :J3rursr: 1000 flRU'rrlri'rtufiriler: dru::aodtunrtusfiriluilil?r+ qT nliuilqnrru;oirudrilu?ulUqit ett*u.,aula,ct'qTqea'qeau Lrn?iln0uy].11? 0.114't?'t0tt{14Rilflqm1u10.11a'ttJFr''ltlllatYt']t9r t9rutfioo?''lR1Tu3il1.t?1.[[14fi:oTu 99 o?'ttJ:0l{ua uil1n o 6l9t n1r4%o t?t nmruuu'rur.[uto.:rire'rfi = 1 niruqiannurgri'rryufirrun:,u goadaT-afv n?13J0F1?1llT0U0'ltyl']s10{0niltUUll = 0.9 nlnon/nlnnTil : tnn?uc.u.u e63^at-al@a n?1il0o?'rrurolrorryl.rs?o:u'r = 4.2 fiTnon6lnnril : [nn?u tz. uvirloraril?n 2 fiInniru finrrruuurur.iu#ruvlTvrf lraio nmrurirvirnmv) rvirri'u z.s rirl:Jutru l,le- J ,o , 3q ^ dA d at v 3Ur al a A , .:, L?nuo'lT.]fl]lTi unvoilil1tuuntnoTs.rilil?n 1 nlnnril il:T01I1ti 2 nlanTil qitrrtoriuunrg.: 1oi't;:J) o.:ilr'jrqrd'{oYruch.:eirurirki'rvi'r1: lrirnuot# s = 1o rruq:fiurfi 2 uncnrrilnururiu r o.:rir ryirn-u t ooo fiInniru/uilq: 3 ) '[ n rfi EJ il 6[ a lt'[#in'[r,r Fr ? 1 ru i
  • 6. ir,rrarifd zo fiinraal 1r .Gr.2ss1 135 04 imsrr{ran{ t s/j ?11,['111 5 1 8. or n:ilxo: drfi uertf'rndo..r rir rfi qld lXr n:s usn:l fi u:r rer fi o u'[r h1rt, ynu R r , Rz unr R3 fifiprrrruoirumril 3.0 fiInTov{ruryirri'u Q I tl r a a td a?n1uyl1u R 2 [1{14u? urjnn ltoil ttili t g. rir un n uruo fi rq of fi nm ru oirumlu 20.0 fiInIori'ru unsmunry us'loi'nr aoqq gtYvadaer4rl o s n a { q o n ?1 il 4.r un.r l.[n u [rn R tt? u o ru rq a ru lyn I gr [1.[14 i.[? u rilnl o ri'lr f dA dAv I u d6e f d [? a a il ta a:il? oo?1 tl9t'1.: fl n u ta fl.: fl9t 1 .0 t? a 9i E - g.o Irnqi' LLny#roiru ivr , Q.l 14'l1J 1,['l O nTr LLfl?l LH n zu'l 1,[ 20.o te.rTsr:Lrou Lrili A9/ A.l A Y fl'l NlTn 6[T'1.1 zo. rirrauotri'firrndue "'nn frrirerd.:fiiqr + i'u ri'rfi "'Rn rSld'uod ro niru rfior:nrriru'l:J 86 86 qr a'iv 1211 0stilnAAURn:iliu no%fi z lziaaaufi tzo ila froac 2 acurrr+) 1 . riato rij unr :ldn do.r o n n ::s f uu uldu s.: d'l ai n n si'o rqqt rul/ltroqe6uUlev& 1 . n1T:JTU tet 0r ulr.lTilli? Uli',t tfi rl4unrileq n'[9T50 uoufl u 2. nr:r:Jd rurnu#ln #i n n ort" ru ud ufl ufi o rnufln fifsr ntqq -rictoauAtv 3. nlTru n uuutilfl 1 n.lr u.l u 1 0x40 0sc{0.: td outtyiurr.:r q n nt ri ou - q y oq vv o u y, Y - , ar vt 6, 4. n1: trrnufl tnd?qnfl 1 n{1 u't u 1 00x 9{0{n uoilrnun.:uuttilun:vonfl on'Lnd 2. o oirun rr*n dtqril*fi riiori'ru $nvlninutuLnn c{firq 1. t:TuTsel aT 2. t{l.[ilT [On 3 lnTryIsil -ad 4. nonau00 3. nr:fi n :*r amrrlq id fi rtd'ilm u fi .: uur 6 o vr q :*fi ifeu ur nr:s.: uor :r rdlffi fi qoq AAdA 1. U?Ril9t't6rAT 2. o1,[nTil?r''t1,[(Uq AAAa-/dl 3. UTTy{T?1*??1U'l 4. l{%r'fl'tflqiilTytlnTq ln rfr EJ il 6[ o %6[#in'tr,ra ?1 ar i
  • 7. ilurar 4fr zo fir,mraEJ T{ .Fr. zss1 136 04 ivrsrrrlan{ t ra#r{d o tdaou,ll 4. rJfl nfl n1Tilfiofl?oilfi?1ilmnqau1{ [T eu - A,ai 3 q r r o r 1 . lci n n ur*syt'1.] lr,t ilr'nr:il ?t gt u.iu t{ lil]JTsT1 nrru lfi il - q-6r -v'- - - td ri. u'[:Jda ritrarifi nrrrufi tor uanfi nr:Jfi uu'[:J2. Yn [fi]JT3T1n .u 3. ai.t ru n si o nr:rir u rvr rn fi o uflr u du:rra'jr { d:sm n:sir.: n ai rutufi ti',0 1q o6lefe 4. yr''r [14 [el:.] fl:r.: fiurn::ru :J:rm n:r:J d u u'[rj rn:r ;:J:rm n:fi t ur o tfi n n o q e6t y A r Af 6l e ,j aao 5. I a tqnR n a.r rru o n cim6 rIer tlulunr:6'ofi ilr qn rJ fl.r rl5? sr .u ql s e e a irn. 1 . lq rilusir{ornrio ru nnr ui nrnfi 'lqior nmnd o nf n 2.'lruIn:n:loiudruns6lnnhuuoorilorruurdurrTuru 3. :J:snouelrulqrilunffnunrlqriluEiau 6nHn'rulorruu T aa u 'q T ' A e 4 4. t0l,ttvl 0 tTttil nm tTU00 0 u t1{ to tuul 0.1 n fl ilYl fl:1.1 u tYll.[ o. R.r fi 6i qrrfi qlo fi nr o'itir'[v{u :: ur nr et o tTn ntuo d q fi :-l3rur ruo onfi toum ndu 1. 'lryurTuuunfiGu 2. nlqoveror.l tAAAlllrAroA 3. fl't14T',]ufltlju? 4. 1^tX [uil?10n1tnu.1 7 . d.: fi 6i srlulr,,l ffillo nr ilr:n ri o u snr u6 n fi uturyr n fi tld6 1. ermSfiIolulnqn 2. ru?GTo'lruInqrr 3. uoaln'lruInorr 4. 'lryInklnqn 8. riato ril un-n :*rwr o.:il oni1n el-rru 1. rrrlrnq:uuuqirurirr 2. In:.:drrrilur#utrlrj:6u v , a rr y d 3. ql-? Ei o ufi ::Jdr.: rru u rri o6rrm uur r:J u6 a:slt 9t a, o v 6t ' Y y q 4. tJ T 0 { AT{ n n1.: 6i',t 9r? [:J 1.[T 0{ U't t?J']1 l*',] O t14 nJ 9. "...5runlinnnfiil-eniorriauvluErsrl'ruilaufiorfruoritqin:snrrsiulf..." ornrirnairrfrfi#r'ituctql srnrato:ir',: 1. 6urfinnr ururrrrfiu 8TnIilqr 2. fiTnlnor osu:erfior ururururrfir 3. ururrurrdu 'lqlr{nIilqr asu:orfiqr 4. osu:nfiqr 'lolnnllror Eurfiorqr t o. ru uu rin ci iltq id dil rirtr{rfi o nr : aru rf, u n m ru fi a1 n n n1 u nr.: 6r nr t tq q qts "'qidqvf. ilr.l]9uilnn{ 2. ill{ltuuooul{qqq 6fv€Ad 3. r.rl+tgu [o:tttjl*u.] 4. lJu:*ullltaulqaTmldq9 '[ n rfr u il 6[ a %t#in'[r,ra ?'l e,l ;
  • 8. 7 ilrrar{fd zo fir,mrail yr .Fr. zssl 137 04 ivrsrflran{ t jyj t4%11't 7 t t. tunr:rh:roil:vrrn:siunrli:rnrtudufir,uro 100 al:'r.irila: Ioutd'n:ouriu:J:smn:ruro Y t u e y UyvX n?1{ 2 tilaT u']? 2 ttJgtT fltJl*u9tl.{fitu1n'l tdq.tl.l 9'/ | itareriofiq o 9,/ 9,/ o1%'t%a?6uil1a'lq, 1 10 2 6 3 13 4 5 5 3 6 11 tudufd uvi r df i r ur urj :sm n :oiun nir n rTo u rqfi r ryir n-u fi oiu 1. 2oo 2. ooo - 3. 8oo 4. 1,zoo t z.'[uI o ru vr uo:r fi n-n urusfi rsr:*d qir.: or nluTo rud u o rir.:1:.l 1. rrunltuur.:utrrru 2. fi:Jirurrurirduqrnoqyi.{flq ^,i q t yv . I ^ Aa, Y a 3. qnail4rJ9t't [1+T?:141.t1T4il 4. nurura.ldufrrljufru{.:orjt.lnrr:q{ t g. dr 6:Jd'un u rur nluuirr rulor o r:J:s um slm u av 1. R1ntilUo 2. ntnnrrunn e. nrnerfuoon 4. nrorqsiuoonrdrrrHfio t +. ua nto6rnu:Jynrir raxrruSrr ru* d'u.l da f . il00n$t0ltfl{t14il'trtlnnlTo't:{lta9(u Adty 2. tJ ttfl .l tlr,t u it il{ 0 a 0 R't:fl:'hl R"1: 0,1 14,1: o-gA<rrso 3. ru t[il n.J gt 0ufla?m lilu0'tnt:tt o.t:Jsnrf.:drur ururn -4artvfry 4. ru 0 tuilR il 0u autn illcat anlTfl:'l.j tn:.: gfr.:fi utjuq ru t --ct'- ,- Y-Y-. q---?-q Ay u a a6q u u v a! 15. XCI0nrR"tr0'1fi'trtuljatq mn0J0'tflu0numiu[unt::n:*raruonro.:rgon:ilrnfrg9l 5'l,tf.Y 1. ntiuou 2. '[u[gl:rou 3. rnloarlain 4. ri-r 1 a rfr u il 6{ a t,u5lfrin'lr,lrr ?1 r,r i
  • 9. ilrrar{{d zo #lutrnal v{ .Gt.2ss1 138 04 ?msrflran{ t tvi r4%1vl I 1 6 . t,rn n 1 tu'i r el-n o r ? 1 ttd fl o .r d'r r o .:tui.: un n't 1 . R'r?v:J:Rgr 2. n1?v6t o'rd'r: un vi'.: 6[0.] rfio fi qrtr ru #ru vt'uf'rYutu#n:*r*rter Aa,/rrrQr 3. R'l?Yl 1.11{1n1'[ 4. n'lTLtn{ LLU.]LLfl.]lJU 17. riotodo male gametophyte 1. anther 3. microspore fitturioter 1 . frn?r o.l 3. nlTL?n NTOillNN , PGA Vla nro L?u?n , oAA$ 4i r A ull I li o 0n tLqrnro 0n elu n1 ur.: LlJ (ovary) 9) nn? u ljul.t 2. I vr6uu rirran?{ 4.q pollen grain microspore mother cell uo #u:Jvret uriou d'rrjr nrrd't.rr flaro LU oi NTOLTOSAN , PEP nroaonmfin , co z 2. NADP+ ,H,O 4. 'tryIvrTflrilFrorlnnrfind , NADP+ dYi, 2. U1,[?1.]HlJO?1 O UUUTET:TTITryru(u 2. 4. 18. ) a L a i <, e I e I q it ,e a & ct v a 19. .lJrusfr$Jnqnrrflurt5ru.:onuiluc{u [nT{fl5'1.]fl?1{[qm tt{niluou1utll[:Ju0uoU[[Tn 6lX 1. Luunu.t AA 2. L0T,l9l0?1n 3. 'LaIlrsrofin 4. U OetLrrn rfigt 20. oln[r.runrl'rnr:#.:rn:rvri'sirurranrorrirrlngr fl'rr n uns n 6oa1:toqtilritel-u 2. 4. 1. 3. 21. ?JU?un1:riruyroq6rfinn:ouro.:rJfrffiurun.:lufir si'rfiruriu6rfine:outrnvt-.fittiAtfintttu zrVl ou Ft00r LT gt']ilfi']ou 1. HrO , NADPH 3. ATP , plastoquinone 22. :vinr,rrlurnrril 6 o o v'L:q 1. drd'utufl1lo.rfru 3. n 1 T u 6[9t.] 0 o n n1.: vt'unn rril Hi o nl T?i''l .l'l 1,[1J o .: fr uq i v a", -d- 4. n0Yl L!flO.19l'l'l [J flu1 l1.[I'TY14?'1{ n1qU1,A' '[ a rfr er a.r a o r,r'[#intr,r a ? 1 ru i
  • 10. iurarid zo fir+ernsJ v{ .6r.2ss1 139 04 imsrsrasr{ t s'/ j 14%1Yl I zg. htnnn?Jo{ DNAtoraq{ x une #nf y:J:snousiru r,soo flrndlolnri'rvirniu unsfifn:rriru I u v6l a Ta{[u6tA [?t'tRU 28% uns 32% q.truli.tou nolonnqto.:{ T u d do n. lrurnnn DNA llo{fla? x ilo'11{?uto{[ufl c rurnn.ir#q{yit T @ d 46 r. lrurnna orun ro.:d'n'i x f irurilTo.][ufl o rioun,irfr'q{ vq _ T-.. v 6' 4 a5l t v € 9t. lil[nnfl DNA 10.]6[9t? X ilgtul4nillilnlTnnoiltiln?fl{nirsqi yq q E -'-ct .Tu'aaa6l;,u6. .t. tilrnnn DNA Ta.tflqt? x ruotut4Rillt*nlTnnoruuranrdtnirnqi yq q lU ---- 1 . n. lLnr fl. 2. n. LLnr {. 3. 1J. LLny fl. 4. fl. LLny {. z+. ra{rfiaortuu ABo tunuerruqrusi'rufiuuuooTnTrru T:nnruoerfierruerruoirufruoYouuuqqr In:hltrurlnrs ilounsurifira{rdae n unsnriln6yr&rgi frnnmunundrfiHrirfioq o unrqruaqfr,il { il| qt-----' o r fi r o"q:r 6ir ut o r fl Tu'lil fl fi o sld'n n nmr o.: rni o urri ri d fi ra il rfi o q o un y ql il n G.u.u(U 1, 1t4 2. 3t4 3. 1t2 4. 1tB i e.,/ dA a.' d A L?{ 0 6[T'l{ LUn n flU ill l,[!'Ly! FIH.J U (egg)q ffiw ffih Lw r"#i wv $T 6-) 3-+ 2G. riotonnqio.:(U 9,/tC'A 1. ?J'l?LLnnYLilgt 9t0 1 zun (fruit) 9/r6dAc:, 2. 1J'l? ttn nY Lil9t 9t0 1 til nq (seed) 3. $nnu 6o rilfionrl'ruuilfiq (seed coat)q 4. Lrn nu 6 o nir ufr uoSq N'ro'rn zuri.:i..:tri (ovary) 2s . o 1 n LL zu t*n trr dr r si'r .r rioto 6 o d r d'u n r ; LL ri .r L { n d' n#q *,fffi-+jrlW'" 9 -+ 5 -+ 11-) 1-+ e-> 4 + 3+2 6 -> 10 &Ttjt" *C rl ?# 2. 4. 9+10 7+ 2 1. 1-+5-+ 3. 8-)5-+ '[n rfr sJ ar 6[ a lt'[#in'[ua ?1 sr i
  • 11. iluuar 4fr zo #lnrnal v{ .Gr.2ss1 140 04 insrrrran{ t tvi ralt1Yr 10 ' d 61 5'd Vl 5' a 6 dt a A dr e I u 27.:-l7y,A1nTililltu luflilqn1j0{A']:O [?U[U:n tililFrutt{0n6r.][il%nn]*ilvo0u 10/o uonuuqq rilunu:lnG d.:riJufi'n:*r*vreiu o.:ulj, tu:Jretln: 1,000 nu ovtflu heterozysous dnu 1. 90 2. 180 3. 400 4. 810 r,rrte o v LLnril fr dr ur urqTn;hlmrrioto n n oi'0.:q(U tr s 4 s 3=2n 2=n 4=2n 1=2n 2. 4. 2=3n 5=2n 5=n 3=n 1. 3. 14 8-J'l U LnlJ 14il'l U Lnfl 14ll'l u tnl 14il'l U Ln1J HTJ'I U LNl Hu'l u tnl 14lJ'l U tn?J H8.J'I U LN1J rqctasXia6l 29. 1o Lgt[UuoT{nuruoru09.l? tu dt&AaTda o - rorrir'lrifirj'rntu 2. lol^rlrrsflRnilrynuu ililnnolTilnlfla1. r.r?Luo'ruuu10.1u? lilillj']nlu 2. lill c 6 d X i aa d T d 3. tflnnilnr{nn1J0{rl.r0tEJ09.l? [u ilnn0 tTTlnlflqlq A 6l Y A o r q t I t 4. r,t? tu gr't lau 1*1 0.]tu't il 0't 1{? l.t:J't n tu il1 n n?l 91 un1.l go. rfi'atuu::urnrflrfic'tc'iifi6miilnn.:screiod'e:rn1:#rrer:rsvisi'ruue.r nrrtoi'nRr?s?o.rn?ra.rEq uAi tlj u ttfl .t Yt [14 8.J't s fl il Yt fl 9tq 1. '[aTo:Lo% 2. luTsr:Lar,l A 3. 0onsLau 4. eniuoutooontryd' e 1 n #n :gilvrl o.: fi tq 0 n qi 0'1il fi r.: a o u rir nt rurio 3 1 ATA A = ilL01,[LOL9l0&lfl e = drur%rilnno.rtryrnil 1*rfiu 5 a-/loAA-A-/t E - ilOil0nltnU.l3.J 1 tlgl 0UAT{nn1.l$ a./rodAa/AA./ G - tJ9lil0n1tn U.llJilnl US.Jql LTU.:nTrQqnTvQ'l U Vl rA aVl a I - 1ilil Ll^IT L{LN N Vl rA A d A K - Lil il']'I6[9I? N1TLLFIIJ LU U 1I 9/ LLnv 10 32 Vl rA f a B - LrJlrr01,[Lor9t0lJfl p = drurt,ltLilnro.rlsLnil ufiu 1o F - rioviodrlfiurfrHnluN-o 6u.:rfJu 1 ?t AaVla H = tlL?-lT LULnn dadA J - 8.J?'.l6[9t? n'lTLtgtu LU Uil ln rfi s E r 6[ o %'[#in'[r,tor ?'r EJ i
  • 12. 7 ar d A a.'l ?%[6[',lT?1 20 fi%?1GttJ Tt.F1.2551 t4t 04 ?mEns[16[m{ 1 eli ?r.1,[1Yi 11 31 . rtnfittu ufr'u.: rd ur 1. A,C,G,I A al a.t 9,/ 6l ilnntgilvaT.tnu?J0 L0 2. B,D,E,H 3. C,G, I,J 3. B,F, I,J 5l .1. LuTyl{ nq 3. n. LLnV n. 4. D,E,H,K 4. C,F, I,K 4. fl. Ft. LLnr {. 32. dr oi'ufi ttu r6'u.,: eicu 1. A,F, I,J n. nn?u 1 . n. bLny 1. A al a./ 9,/ 6l ilflnuilvaT{nulj0 Lo 2. D,E,H,K ss.,dr rii alo fi tddria rum r,,l:r fi uud'r 6 o fi uq.: v & a s, & 1. lstniltilrrrn tril' [ilnroruruu:n u&tr&A€a 2. l6trtnilru[[Tn [ylnr0rulunn0.r nointterrutllLl a & YA f r & 3. tfrtnilTu[[:nunyruyifla.] [ilnt0lttuut:n ntoot:.:nralr v & &A tr & YA r4r d 4. t{rnilTutrrnungtufin0.t lilnt0runutt:nunsnuyreo.l'[t4tuoi e+. rfioRuflfiud'r'lqiqlonorr{ntuud'uiirluturqtraG}id'uildifi:;qYuarornfilxau 1 riler:lu:JoouTuqldct-r | & ,4 o , dl e vt ea @ d, r u aruillta u [uq1 L[141{1 [q unsqil til il n n uily ril u0 urr [:il .u 1 . eir rua r.[t r 6 ru oiu'[ris.: du u n s i{ r siun i'r.: du,il 2. rir uurari.: rG ru oi'ul#n.:du uqi cir qi'unfrt ryir rG ruqt 3. rir un dr nr n'ir 16 ru oiulfa rduun y iir d'un{.r rdu.u 'u 4. rir uH r.ir nr n'ir rG ru qi'ulfsrdu uqi iir qi'unir.: ryir rG nEIU ss. sr:tq'lei,i'r ril uiitaiu nr :ufi r oi'r t o r rfi o qtuir { n1 u?J o { n u A 1. Uflnrsuu AA 2. ?gt'tuu Lgt 3. trluaTuLel.r 4. I:J uqrnlfiu ru go. nufiiu:J:vmruurnqnrrile:ilfifrqrxnruu-Grilu'[opr:6n nr:'[oi'irnr:uuvrirtri'iu:Jr;mrur.r-nqE Usi" q e6t iln3r{n lilnn1ilu9l t1{1 a to lJ. Uqr.:Tru 2. a/S Ft. zun Ltru 9t. LLny {. gz. nr:fidrHuotri'riotoyru'[utotrnnrfin:0.:ilrulnnrruo:n-mo.:d'q{rdurnnqirrrirr*ru n. LnfioLLi r. urtu n. nnTern(tl(u 1. 9t. LLny a. 2. n. {. LLnr a. .1. nro oyfiTu o. Tilrduturir rd oet 3. n. 1. o. uny .1. 4. n. 1J. Ft. lLnr '[n rfi u il 6[ o r,b'[#in'[u a ?'r EJ i a.
  • 13. ilrrar 4fi zo fiinraEJ Tr .F1.2ss1 t42 04 ?neno'rasr{ t tvi raurvi 12 A u d d au v tt a a a t v I lrl 38. n1:il9t?nsutlnsn1;il9r6trTil[1'1flfl.]n1uilFr?''lilt14tJ0u14T0ttanqtl.]nuou'].t [T aur6draaaej,u{s 1. t14il0ilnil L?,tilsql.tntilunlTil9rttauqu09rtfl']flT1{n1utlr.tCIq09'1l{tTat:Fl A u t d dt y 6l v, y ^u - & t e X t 2. lfiil0unu rv{T'rv9r1{nr:J%n'rTnTs9rl*t14T1{n']uflT't.t4eJq3Jnufluilln0q1urT0tTn uACtdatAudrAaAY 3. 9t1{nU t?,t:'ts?osl*tilun']Til9rttountQu fl?l{sTtjuJl{n1Tilottoilqil09t[1'tflfl.Jn1u u A dr A a A t Au Ct d ^ Y tt 4. gl1{RU [TtT'ts?Ft9tr1{t1JilnlTflOttoU0U09l fl?1,l6trTilt]J1An1:il91tto1,[9t[0ltt?J',]fl:'t.1R'lU gg. doto'ls,itrinr::Jiuer-rnn"ucinnmst6rutorirtn'lu tdt pH lJo.rt6oqnqn{{ uqiJ 1. 00T1n1Tn1U t0 tlr,lillru 2. nlTl-u u* oannrrkrfiudu 3. ermruqiu co, tott6oorfirudu aaaga9 4. 9?TUfl',tTtfiltfl0.ttflutn0quo{nRRTrqil$q o iU qq U Vl d S f t 6'u lrl e v i ,q +0.lunufi'loi'fusr:'lryurlud' n']:flnluilonTqta r IilrnnnTqEJr{flnauos[erl,{n.].r.ruyroun{:rJ ATpq.lllu &ir vt.t14ilon tilLannq 1.42.83.384.76 + t . Rr fi rita uolr,i'riatq fi fi er m ui r ril ud a nr : un n u:J 6 Er u uri'slu#qr { n. nr:ul,rd r. ruri.:ur.: unsfifirrflundu n. rrynii'rfiorfiaoruert t. frIruInnfiu 1. n. ttne fl. 2. fi. un3.l. 3. n. 1. ttnu n. 4. lJ. Ft. unr.:. +2. n q 6 n::ru uu ui u4 fi n d'qi o rfl o rla,i il utu #q {d ri r ra uotf'rioto n. uR r. I:J:6aoi' n. nuaud'ruuu {. n:seiru 1. n. 2. "t). 3. 1. ltdt n. 4. n. une.:. 43. ilnliruti'.ttut"nt**rfinfr'.:qY.:arnfiuua.:orfiqf uns nl{nnkirorufiuurun.:fifi::Jdr.:n"n:*rus,u o & a a e 6l o u n n1 u 9.h1 Fr 0 1 l q q n:Til1 0 L9r gt't 3J n1 qu 1. orientation, habituation 2. orientation, conditioning 3. conditioning, learning behavior 4. learning behavior, trial and error '[a rfi s il 6{ a t,ttri'intr,ra ?1 il i
  • 14. ir,ulari{d zo fiumaN y{ .Fr.2ss1 143 04 ?nsrflran{ t tvi r4%1Yr 13 -t ++. fotonnd'0.:.u | & tv y n. 1u't 9t1 0.t nTr ltfl:JTsfl'lytl u8 unun?1 il [tT.i1 a{nt:n:tc{u .._._r_ _._--- A, & A u :, & lJ. nrr ru rirt orn:v unil:sarmas tfr t0uufr o errt ru ttr:fl o.:R-t:R:soiurfi lfi u uA&n.',f, rur ut ot tdu'[u:J:s nrnfi o nn:vsi'u .r rfi udurd an?l il r[:{T o{RlTn:raury{ ru1r1.r Eq.t 6 q | | & tv y t 6 .1. n?1ilt:? tl.[R1:fl.]nTvttflilTsfl'lYt$u0 UnUTil'tqt6{utiruFlufjnnr.:lo.: utonsoil 1. n. $ne fl. 2. n. t[n! {. 3. n. 1. unr n. 4. n. fl. n. unr .:. 45. "Rr:unfia'[:J:]qriqfi'lsiuuturarir" fiiiroTuuaqnr:nffirfiqduq:.:ri'ufotoc A s -. ,2/ X U v v e & a n. il?fiu{ 1J. Rnliltuotttjl* n. tflfll.liln{ {. ffilo.] 0. nnrrutuano 1. n. -+ 9t.+ fl. -) 0. 2. R. -+.1. -) 9t. + o. 3. n.+1.-)n.+.1.-+0. 4. R.-+{.+n.-)fl.-)0. +0. riotq'ldr-rnoi'ortfrurfiurrnd'f,uvi-ufunc:vusrrnrro{nlrflirtturuu:cfr-urosrunTuf{ q --''-'-c- --d.'''q a v uy ^-_-___ 61,1 t e & a 1. oqoflT't{ tganoqr?n1 2. rtnn'lri (ovum) nirrflur]nroouq - '-"'t -' q 3. Innriua6:susfind.:afrtduun16ou 4. IoIo'lrcfl':suyfiaareir.:duvrn16ouq -- --- .t +2. ur r n eido aofTru urfi qtq rfii ill#ud ra fi .: fi n::ffi fi rJru rart ilrer fl o er 1. prolactin 2. progesterone- ,. u"'aoor""",n 4. oxytocin + g. i n r fi ut o r fi u r rio.: n-u n r :in :*r e ru o n r o.r r v o-r..r un n 16 u ru tuir r n r u l u :s ric q-- AAAAAAAAAA 1. ?atiluct 2. ?et'lilt*a 3. 1qrilu6 +. iqrfruro +g. foton n d'o r rfi urrY:.rln:r nir l o sqr o ru.u .davuedr&f&f,qe^aAau 1. uoTfior'u.lun1:0orscrult{R{{'rur0.rosElorurilutu1[olt-ufr-lnn'frrrerfftsfinqfiiln".l{ru fl{flo 'uq udt6.Afe 2. inrtairnlofqfinttr[qr:tairtornorunu'irorqoilil:ynouoi'ruT:J:qou 6rfinn:ou rlny u?9tT0l.t adu 3. o rnn a:0ilgr? urnr o{m qrnrfi q ay o rituo 05fi qi'nfi fi :rJdr.: rilun:.:nn ruqq ill .u oasjqrvvdrtu 4. 0'tu?u0 tn nqr0uytnu [uua ngTsqtun n.:.:ruil rir tyirnu '[ n rfr s EJ 6[ a %'Lri'in'Lu a ?1 il i
  • 15. ir+ua'rifi zo fir,rerail y{ .Fr.2ss1 144 04 iyrEJ'lrfran{ t tvi 14%1Yl 14 50. rrq x trne tlgr y finn-.:.:rulooanlutrfufr-.]dqq X: 0.584, 1.823, 2.751, 11.584, 14.837, 18.384, 23.302, 27.466, 31.905, 38.464, 42.661, 201 .283, 222.327 0.596 , 1 .152, 4.91 g, 6.490, 8.1 50 , 10.502, 12.330, 63.341, 70.061, 78.801, 86.376, 94.0, 104.9, 111.6, 1.687, 3.381 , 6.057, B .414, 11.029, 15 .171, 17.974, Y: Z: 14.213, 1g.1gg, 20.391 , 57.056, 494.91, 527.79 92.047, 106 .443 g/ 5l c,/ lJ O Lqnnq 0.1(u 1 . rlq x o dtuH Ll rd u? n-u IArl 4s2 3d 1 qql$ 2. r'lq y odtueluLdurrYu tKrl ss2 5ptqqJ 3. nr:6'q 6ut6lfinarot,tu 0.1 x *3 6o [He] 2s2 2pu 4. flgtTljO.l6['lTil:rnOUTyl4'j'r.r Dlgt y LLny D'tgt $9q A z 9t0YrZ s t . dato riJunr:r:Jiru rfi uu eruuffi qi1.r 1 I o.rl''r q4 n d'or 1. 1l.l',r9t8snail : F) O) S )Se 2. turenlooou : p3-) st-> K* > Mgt* 3. lryn-r.:ru'looa'lurq#u : Br ) Kr > Rb > K 4. tntoonfiuqfutollnHy: Ni (c zoo)r* > Mos, ) Na3p > Ni (c o)+ 52. ornaruubro{nr::J:snouqir.: 1 firitauolri'ar::J:snautqfifiTfl:rafr.rriluuuuTn:.:riru Tsrrrrnuqi' mrilTynou QOHn0ilLHn? ('C)q n'lr*llrntrXtr 9./ nlTnrnl trir A 3730 rirtrnl fl rtd'rililt't y u'1.: fi gr r.r 1*nvnr u B 838 rirtrnhilr 'Lrinyn'l u D 2740 1*r;rtrnlfilr kinrnl u E 1540 rirtrnhXlr t*nrnl u A ttnv D 3. B LLNY D la ufr u er 6r a lt'[#in'Lr+a ?1 il ; 4.2.1. A LLNY E
  • 16. ir,trar 4fr zo #urrail il .Fr.2ss1 145 04 ivrensrasr{ t lr'/ A 14 r,[1Yr 1 5 5 3 . e 1 n oi r ulH r.i.: t o .l r''t srtuq r 11 .l r'1 a d'.: fd ri r H t+o rioto fi oqq 1. 2. 3. 4. m::-l:rn ou m rilum:ilrrnouto o ofrn LLnvrijusi'ri6r'fii6 AArrA 09t t9t09tfl 0.1 T, il91'.lf,.]n',1'lQo L9l09l1J 0.1 M 2qL(llq nr::J:rnouoon'Ltd'to.: O olafigor;rilu Q4 o6Hto Q4 o,o$ Tru rnn n BT o uiluk rnTl nIer?l Lnurfiilei fi;f? s4.Iru rnn nriotq fi:ilirt sirol:JornIru Lnn n6uq$q 1. BCt 3 2. PCt 3 3. HCHO 4, SO, s5. r''rer M. o. R rns T finr:6'q6ur6rfinn:ouEi{uaqttuqr:r.: oontrd'to',:morto firfionrnruriTqq e q - A 'i a a v aY ^ dt a un? 0r hifl'r:fl sn''r uyi fl'ril1:n til n uilflnrvcrlrinqilfl01nflu't t.tulljufl uor.l M 2,4 R 2,8,6 o 2,8, 8, 1 T 2,8, 8,2 A-l 1. M NU R 2. R rTuo 3. orYu r 4. M n"'u r 50. rioto fi or illnrirHuqtd'rr q oi'r.: .l fi unt over o ru d'.: tLcrer.rtusnrl.lq 2. 4. 1. A 3.E ArAd ilFt't oLnnnro L%n1ae6il'lnn'ir J rns c rijurrqnrluR#uq mrilrvnouoonlrd- Do, t*jnrn1 ,ti', A aJ' dVl 6l I A fifstfi'LooolrLunin'ir B * r'1aq A B D E G J tnfl 0ra 0 3.J 9 11 14 27 30 35 '[ a rfr er a.r a a ut#inlu sr m ar i
  • 17. aJ d A et-/ ?%[6{1T1't 20 fi%?1AEJ y{ .G7.2551 146 04 imenc[16[a{ 1 tvi 14%1?1 16 aot6lg6ld,tyA b /. [0T 0 a n6tr tgtTulJ 0.] tnu s lun o Lo n erruo gyt go 1. NH4VO3 2. NarMnOo 3. KrCrrO, 4. FerO, se. turJfifi3u'1 KMnoo + H2c2o4 + Hzsor + K2so4 + coz + Hzo + Mnso+ Hrnilrnr:ncnlu KMnoo fl?liltliilliil 0.100 mot/dm3 :J?rurqr:10.00cm' rutir:Jfiffiutnlu H2c2o4 0.450 nie.r fi 'Qve nsnruotjLuat:nsnru H2so4 rriLrriu 0.500 mor/dm' :-J?rurn: 10.00 cm' rio'[onnru u aa 6tr raaa Xa q 1. A?TO?StlffJfln:u'tlrfi0 H2c2o4 2. n'rrri't14uqililrru1u:1fi neu.Aa, H2so4 3. :JfifiSurfrrirtvirfiqosnaufrrruryeioun#n 0.1s n;iliu 4. :Jfrffiurdvirlrilfiqlo*ldu es.o"'' d l atm rrnu 20.0oc sg. rfiofrsl:flsnlu AgNorn?lillflilliil 0.50 mor/dm3 rir:Jfrfi3u1n-:Jtr1Tnsn1u Fect3 n?lelniilliu o.2o mot/dm'riotonn 1. AgNo, 3.00 cm3 rir:Jfifi3urylodn-:..1 Fect., 7.50 cm3 2. d'rrugru AgNo, 1.00 cm' n-u Fect 3 2.oo"r, ostfionynou o.osz nin 9qv a a v 3. n't[5 Fects illnlflilT.to osrnqnsnoltililn 0.36 nfiJo']fl AgNo, 5.00 cm3 4. d'rr'.rsru AgNo, 2.00 cm' n-u F"ct3 5.00 "r' ovloirr:nsnrufirndocrnol:d'oqj o.ro mot/dm3 oo. riotoneil?nn(i'o.itfiooqu6ooiln6tatar: A fl'rr B ltns m: c rvirrYu 30, 60 ttny 56oc nrruiiro-:..r j ^ a i<, 1. m 4o"c ilfl'tryirilura{riln? 1 uilet 2. fior*ranfi zsoc n,ero-u'loro:fl'rr n qirn'j'rnrrruqiunlo'o.:fl-rr cqqJ A - .: , @ !l -4 | a a a 3. nnrrruoudrnirorrruou'[a ru oo16oo:JnG mr B oyfioq16ooarn.ir:Jn6 oaAtt&aa 4. ntquuT{9t.:o9tTsfii.t.: lrutn1nro.:ar:m.:aretrflo6a er: B > fl.tT c > fl.tT A.lt q 4.oi 61. tfro*1ttfl"n c, H 2 rLRv c zH u firarinrvirniu u::1lutroruloryirnTil osrfiqr{nodrtl:q 1 . ttfl flil.1flo.rfr fl?'tud'uuvirri'u 2. uri'nvit 610.: fi truruTt LnTl n ryirrTu 3. Ft?'tilgt"utur?ourra c ,H z il'lnn'jrn?1ruo"utu?J?gturro c r.H u 4. drurulru Lnnn c ,H a ru''rnn'irdru':uTru rnT]ntutrqurro c ,H z '[ a rfr EJ il d a r,r'[#in'[r,t n m ar i
  • 18. t47 04 imenrrran{ tilurar{fi zo f;'lnraal y{ .Fr.2ss1 e,/ A t4%11't 17 62. nr:rfio:JfiffiurrerfitfioHd.r vru'jtlryn-r.:lrrrro*.roion"'u sr:r{fiqnirxvi unrnr:rf.:d'ouriru#uoi' AttvaSoutud,aaa uo'l[Yl'lRU 80, 170 ttns 290 ntnon ntil6i'tou o.:firilngtrtto.:nn.ltrurionruruugito.::Jfrff3ur l:Jrir ua rir unv:J fr fi3 ur flo un fi'u ril ufi fi Tr p n,u 1. 90 2. 120 3. 150 4. 210 63. nr:oGur u flq o-u fi fi ru n si o o"'qr:r nr:rfi q :J fi fi3 ur Ei o'[:J fl n n oior fi riodiu v a taaa & u y e & e a e d n . 0 qt lt R't r rR gt tJ fl n : u't I un u n ?'l ri rt il tr ur a.: nt :n { qt u un s r{ d n n il'yt fl. nr:t6rurututvrnfirirurfiordr:Jfrfi3ur nu'jrulrnfiriruosrirtv{lrn-.1.:rnr?nno.::Jfiffiurnon.r n. nr:tfiruqrura4fiei.:nrntv{o"m:rro.:vrt::Jfiffiurgonrrruiouurn;:Jfifisurnrrunmruiourniuduq(ll&{ osdAalutvAA6tlA {. n'l:nlaqt[0nn0a0n00n01nnTslLfltn0o [un:J w:rilnrilffiiltturronnaaoei [ut6oqa.l -&.u0 9t:'t RlTn't 0 9t 0 g fl.]1 u 1.12.23.34.4 O+. rJfrfi3ur Hz(g) + tz(g) s 2Ht(s) fioilnnfi +oo ole'lrrnrfiun nr fir:Jair6urf'nr: utu,jae6t unRq?lyt'lRu 20 nln{nfltjonfl0T0[o 111. 64 2. 3. 81 4. 64 81 ,i Os. eirnr.:finruonlo.::Jfrffitr zruo1g) + o z (g) -= 2No, (g) ryirn-:..r 1 x 1012 ,iraaal riror{frsilqnro.:rJfrfl5ur No(s) + ; o, (n) --- , s No 2 (s) rvirriurvirterqw2 1. 1x106 2. 0.5x1012 3. 2x10t2 4. 1x102a 66. mrntnrlrirlrr,,laifitqtiurornrnfiouundou B* unrLLfldau eoH rfior6run:on.r1:Jrfin#oror otjrutdt rfrqnr:rilfi uurr:Jn.: pn tilrurnriluril:rsrnnterq 1. s.rirrJfrffiurrTun:ofirfirulsi'rnfio eH. 2. H* rir:Jfiffiurri'u oH- rfiqrilil BoH 3. aoH rirrJfrffiurri'u n.'[d' a* n-uti"r 4. aoH rir:Jfrfi3lrn-l n. 1q''aH*n-uli..l oz. ri'rnr:'[rtn:nt:radoil NHooH oi'run:quri Hcr fifiomrurriruriurvirriu ovrfior.rnodrtl: dvr 1 . rfi o'Ln rn:qrtrjtd'erdo"doo o.r1q El6 pH oyrJ'rnn-jr ros K bqq! 2. rir.: fi nr:nynl u Lij%fl^l ur,rl oi6 oil n-.lat na q u 6qq iAe./r 3. ?lQglusl pH 1,[0Un?1 7qq 9v a'/ 4. Onn.l 1, 2 LLny 3(u 1 n rfr Er Er 6il a r,t'[#in'lua ?1 il #
  • 19. iurar 4fr zo 6''lnraEJ v{ .Fr.2ss1 148 04 imurnrasr{ t tvi 14%11't 18 68. fl'r:dsn'ru A ttnr a fiqi, pn tvitn-u 3 ufls o nrildrql-u o"q:rciruomlrfruriutal oH-'[u fl'rrfl rfl 'r u R qi o errr ru rriruriut o.r on -lusr:nrnr u B rilurvirto 1. 1:2 2. log3:logO 3. 1,000:1 4. 1:1,000 o e I u 6au a j" 6lv o.: ot a :r nr n r ru rio o g-z r o r n eir sh uSoh 6'uil r q :gr ufi ri ta uotri' i,^-- tr,^- n:.rilfln:u1 E'(V) ni{:Jflri:uT E"(V) Mg'* +2e-)Mg 2r Al -' + 3e -)Al 2HrO + 2e- -+H2 + 1-L Zn-- +2e-)Zn )t Fe - +2e 9Fe sn 4* + 2e +sn2* )t Ni -' + 2e +Ni )-t Pb- +2e +Pb -2.38 -1.66 2CH- -0.83 -0.76 -0.41 -0.40 -0.14 -0.1 3 Lr Fe- +3e +Fe )- SOo'- + 4H + + 2e -+H 2 SO : + HzO )t Cu- +2e JCU ?r -r'l Fe- +e +Fe Ag*+e iAg O z* 4H* + 4e +2H, O H rO, + 2H* + 2e- +2H, O Cl , +2e- +2Cl- -0.04 0.20 0.34 0.77 0.80 1.23 1.77 1.36 6e. ilfrfi3urturiotq rfiq Lo.rtd' 1. As(s) I ng . t"q) ll pb 2* (aq) | nolsy 2. Ni(s) I 'li '. ("q) ll At 3* (aq) | nllsy 3. pt(s) I sn o* ("q) I sn 2* tuq)ll cu 2* (aq)l culsy 4. pt(s) I cr , (g) I ct - (aq) ll Fe2* (aq), Fe 3* (aq) | etlsy zo. riotonnoi'orqt o a d f aa Y ^ o Vl f AY i 1. nlTyll0[nn tfl:nsffiJ0.]1.[1tnounfl La lqTrolrytll? ua luo e u Ae a v 6tcrl a a E<, & 1 2. TuTol,tfl.tnyfl o? u t{1{ 039t 0{ [T tnils L.]14uTflilr'[il1t1? ttn [m 9lqq 3. nr:rir.:ruro.:ruugrqoitrwsiru'[Tluns:J:ro'[rr.l o-eriiurtnd'ri'nrrfinq T ^ 4 T--- - q 1L 4. ttURlnilrm0{ttql.]UTflmf'00n01nlnil3t.|flillj0.] Cu, Zn, Fe, Ag lUfl'l:nsn1Uoi?r,m Fe'* [[ag zn 2+ ln rfr Er N 6r a %'[#in'[r,ta ?1 il i
  • 20. v dA a,l ?%[6[1:1't 20 fi%?1AEJ T{,G1.2551 t49 04 inslrc[16{a{ 1 g,/ j r4%1Y1 19 7 1 . nr:fl 0.,: ri'unr:ru nio ut o rTn r r si ohj dn n d'a.r fi rioIrU n. o sTu'lo".f'rilunr:ru fi rr or rn fi nd'r u o n fi rfi u ru o o n'[roi' (Ar 2 o 3 ) r. nr::ruairrflunr:yirt#firuafinr:Jduurfluar::J:snou Feo(oH) d.:fifirhqrneir !a-.--!^.^^S^-1i-.r-q--.-i-- , ut s dr v alt <Aa n. n'lTt{n Mq fl UYl0 Lilnnmt{ J [glulotnqnlTn]nTou tO tl lT1s Mg tilUgl?00nfi-tqfiytonit re{"q uav6taAA^uvAdtvuaafa .1. fl{nsflil.lnn{n1tljl.[tnnnm[nn0Utl?O?Ufl.:nsfl tilUn1:il0.]nUnr:tnOAflruutuuuer[rGnq 1. 4 2.3 T4.riotoeirufiaqlilryuu tupAc td'nnoi'o.:il 1. 2-methyl-3-pentyne 3. 1,6-dimethylcyclohexene T s . fl't r Fi t q'[ ei u fl ul o I s u il o i6.,: n]"'t,r L L fl y rTu(U 1. ethylether rYu butanol 3. formaldehyde Tt-u formic acid 4. 1 2-ethyl-5-methyl h exa n e 3,5-dimethylpentanoic acid pentanal ri'U pentanone ethyl acetate ri'u propyl formate 3.2 22. ror6o.ruri'rtdt#[uri'0.::Jfrffinr:nr.:imursrnoiciruilrnrufiqrduornuri'.:rfioter 1 . ruri'rIryortn af 13. rioto fio 9,, T T AA 9/ A ar 2. Un? LL Lrfin rnn 3. LLrl?n5msrn 4. uri'rIo:J o n ATA f,aTtFtulj 0.1 LSO1 LtoTFt0 NarCO , 2. o.rri'rJrrn 0uH#nt 0.r!1161ilrrei-d o LriLLFrnlryd' tunr:1zu'rLnfi 0urflr'rffnfinr:ufiru Kro rfiiot#1fiqfi mrill o nrl? uijunr:il:y n o u rJ:r rn ntallter n ot:si- 1. 3. 4. 2. 4. 2. 4. - A taAA I Vl ,X T G. ff orril'1il il fi3ur si o'L:-l fi Ethylene + HrO B + KrCrrO, D+HrO B+C 9,/ 5l rio'LoflTilr{nnnqio.rq$ 1. 6il'lT E 6O ethylbutanoate 3. ileifr.,:ri-#uro{fl'tr B 6o(u tul ntnun, n2t71 > ntnuri , ntnuri , ntnuri , B C B + butanoic acid t o @ @ @ tdA 14 uFl'tTU 01,[n(U 2. 4. nsr:IrurnTln?Jo{6r'tr D 6o cuH ,ro, ilfr fiSurOuny @ 6 o:Jfr fiSurtaTorfifn 1 n rfr s s,r 6[ o r+'L#in'Lr,uq m il i
  • 21. inrar{{d zo #urraru y{ .Ft. zss1 150 04 imsrrtran{ t tvi 14%'lY1 20 zz. riato rfi o o r n :J fi fi i ur n o 6 r a.r on[: rryt.ud r.: rfi o or n u o fi r r o {rfl o 6 u "1 al/l a Vl 5' af ad f . ilon l?ilnflno [Tgt 2. ],{0n til:i',tRu 3. nofis'lqriu 4. nofifluanrr{o{rurn6'lad' 7 8. n n-.:.: r uer r r ru f o uo r n n r : r zu r nln riri r ufi ut fi q'[ o fi ri r s.{ s er .u9 a Ul d Ul 6 A e a aq 1. nn tu9 2. ttol,lytT't tugt 3. y{q 4. 6ruuflilufl .u -v6leA- 79. lJ0Fl?lil lqnnq0.]tnU?flU Melamine.it 1. Metamine tilul:J:6uursitd':J:slumit*14 2. Metamine l*tril:.ndu udfr r'r orioi":u,u aa^i 3. Metamine 60zu.:vlnrnfrnrfronfr.t 4. lio 2 Ltnc 3 eo. foto ril ilo?'r tJ rq n qir r:yn'jr.:'[t fiu 6aty un vri'r nTu loiry l,t@au,.iu,Y-aa 1 . lfl ul,[il Fr?',] il [tJ 0 il9? fl.]n?1*1 il1* 0.1 u0 014 R 0 tJ tfi n? R{R?'t litodu,j-i 7-aaJ 2. t1 tJU8J Ft?'t tJ lil 0 il 0? qtln?1u'] il1+ 0.0 ilo qn n 0 il [14 d? gt''ln?'t 14@aj-,7-aa 3. LlJlJ1{uFt?','lil0ilA?fl.tn?1illilil 0.tu0qfin0il[nn?fl{n?'t vl s A i - ,i ' Y - a a- J '4. tfl ill.uto?'l il a il 0? c{1n?'] il1 ilu 0.1 u0 9n n a il tH nt Ennl't e t . fotq fi r**l rri.r r. rll rn n n rd ur r,* rti.r qn nll rn n n ei rvir riu9tru 1. glucose, cellobiose, maltose, ribose 2. glucose, lactase, amylase, maltose 3. cellulose, amylase, maltose, glucose 4. lactose, galatose, B-galactosidase, sucrose 82. n1n n si o.rtri'rn fi o ufiduniurd u{ fd fi fllufi? il u'r u qi'r u ffsr:r uTr er..: fi e) iltq'lilinnoi'0.] tfi urri'u Lnamrn[dlJ 0 Ft?',] (Uq 9'/ I 1 . .t 1 ual n Ltr.t il fr fi3 ur sr-.r il1 n fi n :v vir rTu n si o.: fr ei r uil uu r n v a.t fry r | 6! X 2. iln{{'t1,[9f n u Ll,[run?.11J 0.tnn 0{ 1ililfl1,[ r.rli'{n ru qfr n:vvirri'l n sio.: fr eir lijue{uri(u 4. .:1t,rfil#[unrrn'lnn 6i0.] fiei'r rijuu?n ln rfi EJ il 6[ a lt'L#in'[r,r a ?1 ilr i
  • 22. 7 ilrrar{{d zo #lnrnil fl .F1. zssl 151 04 inEnrrlan{ t tyj ?r%1Yt 21 ^^ ---.- d AAL u e v v A A i^ s vt 83. :nuilqtrurqRfrurrunu:a:l::yrnnndo nnrotnrurrn'r:nyT.:eo.:rerffoufi6orYu'lrj 96lv flan?lil tonnn0.l.u 1 . :n uud'fi nr:r:J6 uurr:J nrIil riluel-rl rl.rnfi soq 2. :n u::m n fi nr:r:J fi u urr:J n rTru rru uqr-ll ilr n fi eclqq 3. :n yrt: no.: fi nr:r:l fi u uu:J n rTr rr uETru rvir niu lll rlil v l/l rq d u A - 4. U 0 n til [o tl,{T'ty tljTfi?'] u tT?n n.] n1T51+1J o{Tn il{ fl 0.1 n uqt 84. n:{nne.JsTurracfl:{nnrunnr.:firurnrrnviflfiryirri'u ri'r:lcioui'nnyr".:no.:tri'nfirTqu'lrilnn.l u&aeaaq Avt&a,u 01RCl']ilUillJ0{1r,1illAU.]y.lT0ilnU ?An[O0tn.]91l*n'l.llj0.1y,llAt0U.lR0Unil.t 1. Yt::nnilnn?n 2. yt:.:nntqiu -&Aetyvvnra 3. ?Anm.Jflo{n{q1iln1.:?.tT0tjRlt 4. 10iln liltltu{lt0 85. onulfltfisruonontmoon'l:JsirrorrrurTr ro rruo:fiurfi lufie oo" n-ufi'u6u fioqs.]serro.rnl:ru (U ct ---i cJ r AATut.dsi,aa [n n oilyr tru]J tlr{:toR tr n fl n:Jt fl elru't o erm ru ui'l n uil qt:qi 01 uryt(U 2. 56 3.0 eo. tfiaqnnruroro{vi'rtornfirTnntilu s ryirroriefiInn rirnmruli.:ro{oRn'ru1a,drou.rlo,,roqllq Triruriert o rlnn rilufi rvirr oreir s oo^ss1. 34916 82. flilR'r:nr:rndoudrruuarSruofinadr.ljrura.:r-orqrad.:6 a xQ)= l0sin(a/) o.rntj.r rx rrnr'lofiq tuvdtuvd n1il n{{1utIn u [n1nu yt n.].1'11*0 nu ^daAaAa4 1. 0 ?u'tYt 2. 0.25 1u'wi 3. O.SO lUryr 4. r.oo Turfr ge. finflurrrri'rurind': zzo firoiu tdrfionlunoufifinmruul? 80 riln: unsfir#urirerurinfllt 14.0qt A A y a a I e a u Xq iindtilet: thtfranEoooR 2.0 lilor a.:ilrririloetn'ntorrfronrei'ufi"lurar.iru fire]Ttairiln:2 1. 0.5 x 108 2. 1.0 x 108 3. 2.0 x 10t 4. 7.0 x 10s '[a rfr EJ il 6[ o u'[#Yn'[uor rr a.r i 1. 5 4. 10
  • 23. inuar{fd zo #ueraar r{ .Ft. zss1 152 04 inerlflran{ t tyj ?r%1Yt 22 89. ri'r oi'o{nrrLLll?t,rfl'l u il? a 4 fiInniru y a./ q/, Vl etl e/ A A ilr H unr o.: f,lr u'Ld"Ln d'r6 u r fi no 9.,/ x e y et o.t fi o rfi 0 n rfi oto6 r o y 6r't il1Tn yr uiu 9./ d'.::rjrir t oir.: fi(u AVle/ 1. T1,b9t A ?1%LLT.] Lq fi A Vl e,,/ 2. T1,[9t B rl,bLtT.t Lq 25 AVle/ 3. T1,b9t C ?ll,[LtT.t Lq 34 4. rfro D ytt*ur{td' 50 A a'/ 1,[?a1,[ a a-/ 1,[?9% A a-/ 1,[? 9t1.[ A a./ 1,[? o1.[ i . X A io 90. nsio.lil?n m ?'l.ll.t.l0uul,[T,nlLou.t?t?t'tillJ e rTuul,b?Trl,blu$q TvH'j'r.r n sio.:rTu fliufr oi'r rvirter eir #er :J :y Rrr flur.r rA u q il'r unfi sr 1. Lrs - mg sinO 2. Lr s - tan 0 3. l"l s ) mg sinO 4. lrs ) tan e gt. urn:Jciounnuoflil':n too niru ornfis.: 1.2s rruo: nu'irnRuonnrs?rufiluuii'rn:rrruduqt ,u qt fl.r 0.8 relqr tunr:n:syrufi'uk,rruuqr-Lmo.:nnuonr:16uul:JfifiInnil-rruq:fiurfi'.u ,u 1 . -0.1 2, 0.45 3. 0.9 4. 0.1 6l v aX A tu vgz. orn::J :suu:J:vnousi'ru n:suonflutlnrnRflu 3 trg nrr"[uu::ooYrurorrnn? r.Jyruyrl4u'tqrgriuqt.u,uqq 6f,Aal Ta.tn:vuonsutiJu zR , 3A uns A firfirurn Mt,Mz ud! M3?1{orjuunnnuro.:uqinrrqr o u u - aY v r rA a , aql3.ln1au n18nfluiln0uil1t't14uRtu't3J1nuns tililttr.]tflu9t?1'11,[:rfi?1.]ti?lo.lRTyu0Rfluuns.u{caJ ai,qvv6t flnSU rfio:suuoti'lusnrrsaruon n:rruarulnruf:ru'jr.l Mr,M2 Lrnr rr,r, ri.lu'[:Jnrildoter 1. M1:Mz:Ms 2. 2Mr : Mz - 3Ms M, M^ 3. I - z:M^ 23r 4. M1 * Me :M2 AlArvada ff [n nfru fi errr ru u ur rrr.iuit'l nin f 1n3a enr ru ri r.:'ir rnr r ) ryir n-u s 0 n lrfl .] u,u ,t , ,6t Y - a . i o, a , ,usio u un r rlyr { I n n y0 il 0 u h*il't ot { ltfl o.t [u::J o I nr ir tn5a.:t{ n:J5.: o s eir uqir'[o'fr frr srr.liillU Lilarnt,tlfi 2 ) 2.2 4. 20 '[n rfr FJ E r 6{ o u'L#in'Luor m a,r # "f a .f d1 M 93. uvi.:Tnilva.J? n 2 Vl q,/u L ra L? nu 01T.16[1JT.1 (ririlr,lotd' s - 1o 1. 0 3. 16 {PS+*ro is rt rmru@ _fo, tfit rrctred
  • 24. 7 iuuar{{d zo frumail y.r .Fr.2ss1 153 04 inr:rrrran{ t tt/ j 14%1Yt 23 94. ri'i otulln fit o.r ufi'flrfi udueln uG ru 3 lvir LLnrfl?'r roi'urfi udu oq(U ,i avL:Jn uuhJ lijufi lyirt 0.t1,tn-.1.1'lt,rR't utuu6e.l 1 . L?l't Lgtlt 1. Po) P1 )P, 3. P,)Pr)Po 2. Po)P, )P.l 4, P,, )Po)P, uyir l^1 fr'.:.]'l %R'l utulj 0.1 LLti'fl / 4. 12 ryir 120 LqfrLUn tofrLUn 30 2. 3 ryir 3. 4 t?l'l 95. orn::Jroro:Jn:n[riudoirurirr riotquno{nmr#rulnr-uf,':sn'ir.:n':rruoi'u e., , p2 uns po ( er m ru d'uu rr u'r n 1 fl ) r r*r fi vi'r n 1 Tili u ftt d'n n qi'o .r U go. T:.:.:ruqqmnn::iltuvitradr rir#rlrur{iaurinornrS:inrin6nuri'ntufiqr:r so urm qio r nnursrriq uq ql .u A 4 a v r , t ue ttlol: yl0tU14nN 27 0.1€f']t6t'nt6l'Ufl uRtn?1il9ru 1 UTTUlnlfl:J:fngif [:.:.:rUOqtgrnn::ru'l9i -ian-gAaaqT ttnflmilU:illqr 1,100 nnulstfltruqrr ?i0ilr4Ril s7 o.:fnr6rntfrua nttruqu zo urrulntg [:.:.nu'.uqqt &u , a 6l y t a v e ^ * A 0 a fl1 fi n:TtJ 1+9t 0.1 0't u r{ lt t14 tln u T19yt r.l r.t fl 9t ttR fl n u 1 ilq{ 1. 33,000 2. 70,000 3. 600,000 4. 660,000 gz. airunilrd.:vir.:ornrrnci.:rirufiorfrsr uilu:srsn'r{ 3 rruqr: fi:sd'uorrre.rrrirurfist y t o a d A o u A A y o , ja u rirunaildrtfrqt?u.lfrlirnttRurnrfr udrnrunu.:yrrl:rqun?'lrurrirurfru.:rilu roo o ; a d vi r.l o r n un ei.l ri r r fi o r fi u.r ql''r n 6i r r r il u:s l s fi u ru o :ru 1.0.3 2.7.5 3. 10 4. oe. n.rforqli'rarirn:vonrilu:vus so rtu6rilqr ?irtd'rfiqR1lm-?qrtJturotranin'jrl-nn z ryirq __-- o q riat o n ei m 6 { rfi q u n y n m il u r r I y,l fiffi o r n :s o nnl ein n eia.iqt 1. n:sonrir frnmruurrTilfin ryirn-u zo rrufirrun: Y A T lu I u 2. n:san[?'l ilo?'lilu'l?[T{n6[ tyt'lnu 60 r{l*otila: A t ts I u 3. RT;onUU tJfi?'ltjU't?lilnfl r?]1nu zo ttuqrtruo:.u 4. RTronuu ftnrrrurrrIy{n-s ryirriu oo rru6rilq:!u gg. d'rsi'4.:n'r:'[ri'uunuftqr{ro-ufi t ouo{tnlru?rrnfloen o.:sfiefi qr:.:ri'uunufiqtt:n?Jo.]n?qn1un1T(U ,6'uluurloafiqrdur o.:uljr:suv:gfi'jr{nfisrqirilufiryirrftorfisun-uqnrrun{r.:rarafiqrrdrriu '[ a rfi sJ sJ 6[ a u'L#in'[u or r r e.r i 4.3. g 2 2.3 2 1.
  • 25. iuuar 4ft zo fiumnru il .6r.2ss1 154 04 ?murdran{ t g,/ j r4%1Yr 24 100. nnooarunrvrtfiqildr fiil"'q:rnr:tri'rnrdr'wruuarryirfiu soo nrruu rfiann'ldrrul:Jlqi':suriu ,u Arraadlalguaat6d(uv 14U.]?U?'l lJTrfl?lr',nlTtlilnlT114iln.:.]1Uufl.ltnn0t?,lu{ 75 til0i[su9 nrql0.]nr:a1ilR'11^t qed t A d 6t , j j lfiilFr?'1ilfl?''r.1uu00 250 nnry R1?malu0rtJ11.['t9t[14qil1nrfloRa1T'].][3.19t: 1. 0.67 2. 1.5 3.2 4. 3 t o t . ru rui nq or riruir ar:I:Ji.:tnrfie'ildrtuornr erfi rir rvirriu 60 o{ fl'r oltaro''q:r6iru:su'irrnmruumerfiunartusr:IrJdrtnrfiurLriun'nruumerdurs.:tuornrsl r r/g^t. 2 2 2.- ./s 4.T 2 3. 1 02. orfi or:rxrrionmruqi olUd n. frtorvi'orflrfir:rruotrfrurfiqornnr:n:rr6.:ra{[r6r{ ., y^ 7 ^ y & " Y" U 1.:{nuu'ttno01nn1T6[sYt01*un3[flu?[uufl0.]tt6(.10'11,[?u 1 Ft:{ ttoy 2 n:.]q X ,oqe ' a eut n. t{n01nn'l:tnu?tuulj0.tttfl.JtJ'll.lflRqnilltfittnufl?'t{ul*illn3JFt?'ltJtljtJ til[n'lnu.u {. tfito..nu*rriluerduqle.rrrrtvir'lrfrudulnar:osJei'oondunrrrurrirurrarornranoonly{r':TrJen.lt e 6l vq ' Ms , lJ ofi?'t tJ [1.t1 0 lqn n']? L9r nn 9r 0.] { 1. n LLnf .1 2. n lJLLnr.l 3. n nLLnv.l 4. n l nLLny{ 103. ufl.ro'rni'nnd.:orivirtorntnufuurilu:sus ts rtu6rrun: rdofi'nrHairurnudossr-qunudr.:9iUIU ..dt orntnuritijursut 30 uryu6truq: rfioilrtnufri'rrurrr.:sioornrnuduu TquvirrornrnufuuIU IU 5 rryu6 rru n: :J:r n g'h rrs.: fi ri'n uH rir u r n udr{r ril u us.:eJ ur un-u un uo-.: p:J,u f ru € eq 0.114'ln?13.JU',]? lilnfl1A.: [nl,[fl[?'t tl{lt1+? U tryUO rilA: 203.102.1. 25 { 1 W 1 a rfr s E r 6[ o r,r'Lri'in'Lu or e r a.r i 4.
  • 26. 7 1s5 04 insrorasr{ tir,trarid zo f;'r,ltrail il .Gr.2ss1 lt, j l4%'lYt 25 to+. tfioo:Jrto A fi:J:vourn 2q unraoil:ro B fr:J:vourn q rrrdrrn-u 1 rilar otnrdrrrndt fi fi nur ru'lv{fl r ril uelufrfi u u riu sir un ri.:a o :Jxo R9lqq 1. vir.:ornoq:j:so n t:Jyrr.,taqil:yo Bqq99 z. vir.:a'rneqtJ:so n t:Jyn.,taarj:yo Bqq9q 3. virrornaoil:vo A hjyntooil:so Bqqqq 4. vir.:o1neq:J:yo A 1:Jyrr{aq:hyo Bq9q9 I OUqt I OUql ,t OU(u I OU(u 1 - LilAT "lz 2 tilaT 2* J; Lilerr 2-Jt ular tos. ornflxo: drnuolr{uncirrirrfiq'lv{flrn:suao:.Jfiu:.:rn6ou'[rhlr 1ey rvirriu.u tfiu:J:co cr rlds c, ficirorrruo'lv,hXr tyirn-u 20 uns so'lruTn:rhio etJlirgiu 'qu6,&c'AflrfltJ 0 u [ugl? tRU tjTyo?1{14 3J9t t]Jilna n,utlu 2.77 x 10 -6 2.25 x 10 a Tde'/ 3 [?na Lrnya? arid il{n.1.1'lUYltnU 2. 4. 1. 3. 3.75 x 10 -5 4.32 x 10 a ,E t06. fior:rurr#unrortnnrisrfi a firrroqiuudu*uru rirrauqtlir#uarqr.rnnrifinrrrunuruduql - -"---- :J:4 ur n o dr t ndr teru o Io u fi rJ:v1:r u n"o " u, o fi o o surin nl {r o {? { n n rurioto n n siarq q _- "i-'ri 1. i4qrdfir,u'''onurru'lr,{rhryirn-u $, naor:llhlrrvirrYu 19t"a 2. filrdfinu.qnurilldflrryirrYu o , fid'nrj'lv{flrrvirrYu 19q'a 107. v(t) - v,.,.'sin(3 14t) $asfr 3. fiqtAnrt*'tetrru'tiltilhilr lvirn"'u 9, fi dn f'Lr,1flr rvirri'u 0,^, 4. fiqtfinot+'ler6rt+riltilhilrrvi'rri'u 0 , frd'nsitr tfl'rryir#u 0I .l t dv A 6t q:Jn:niqr'rrafi.,:"Lur.ro:'Lrnltilrn;vLLflflfi'u fierme.lqi'r.:d'nrisriorurijuq ( 7[) c.,6r s, nrvurnlrnhilrniruuflu i(t) _ t* sinl sr+t 1 - | rio"LqQnqr'0.: 2) n 1. r.tq:dfin?lilfi 1oo Hz 2. turnasfi v(t) : Vm ovfrtr;lq I i (t) I - 0 3. tfuarufi rqr o{fqn?lruqi'r.,:d'n feriail qilnrn[#Ld'eir rvirri'u vm o qzVl 4. rir n-.:'Lrnhil'r flq rfi ut:J n'r utuo rJ n:nlfi'rvir ri'u r rms V rms Cr 1 n ufr s e,r a a ut#in'[r,un m e,r i
  • 27. Surari{d zo #lreraru r{ .Gr.2ss1 156 04 ?nerrfl1an{ t tvi Lt%'lYl 26 108. ri'rr,ln n-.JHd.:1d'lilhil11ilTo u Lad u j V' A- d Liln uil.l?un? nqt 1. 2,5 2. 150 1 2. RB 3.6 fiIni'qr a{-d'rh.r qi o i'u rir uH fr'.r fi fi frqr;'r nlrt#tr,rl filr 3. 86,400 4. 540,000 1 og. €ier'r'r ru #ruvt'uf"[uriotq fi ofl 1 . qrfiulruIsr:L'lill rTu In:d'rnrffi ofi o 2. i..rfrOuul:r rrer rTu iTrl?r nr ouTn:n v aa '[':Iorngt fiu ilnoqilnoot:attugi'3. :{flonail 1l ua 6: u ' f q ! a ' T 4. 5retant nu nr:enuniln?1il14lt1fla.lttHulflt4stutnro.]Tout{u[nilsq t to. rdo0ri.:frurnlvrqei'rufq:t5r v rri'r'l:Jlusurruuilrnfinnrst-':ttuto B lufiersilarnrYur#u aurruurjruftn uii'ryru'jriirirf;uerlyrqunfioufirijur.:nnruiafi n o.:nrfn:rairu:J:sQqiorurnq fl o.r o t,rR'r gr i.: fi urerlvr oq Rv 1. B V 3. RB 4. do ru nhi n o d'o t'ld'auurh^l fl r rir t :J iu d rir fr rrnlvr olri'ril u u #ugr :.: si'r u .(u 111. o.:ureilFr?'rrJU'r?Frfirlr."riru*rTr,ur,rn:to.:6tfinsr:aufirs,fioufid'ruiln-.r{'ruzo6rfinqr:au I':nri'floutd'oircr'roi'rnn-tri'o.o * to-'ooa-iurfi unsrurn6tfinm:ou e.0 x 10-3r fiInniruy 1. 0.27 2. 0.49 3. 2.5 4. 99 t tz. ri.r6rfinorousr-?r4droi'runmrusir.rd'nri rz hnoi' rrirtua;noru'laTq:routuoolurdu R'r:tn x o4v vrr rn:sgiudu:Jodtu:sqr-uvrn-.:.:tutrt m.:nq:sqTutgluogfl'tillTnYl'l t140g9t0Ll tatqTtaunr q s q, i lllfauXadt6'. (flrnuo0t0r0il ta lortaililv{n{{1ufln1usv,lutfl1nu -1 3.6 0tnnarou [?nqr) 1, n = 1 2. n=2 3. n= 512 4. n=3 113. o1nR1:monar:J:rngnr:nilr,,lTn6ufinminralInnvtfiqfid{ ilu'jr firarusiruufl{Fr?'uru'r? j - | u s & a' e y d ' v 6' 91fll* i"1 n?1ilA1{flnUilU9tU.t03tjn1 Vl Un3n1il',tU9t?Uttfl{fl?'t8JU1?nRU },2 Fr?'ril9r'r.tflnU & Ar I a e 6: 14 UO U.:0 vil n1 V2 Q.114'l Fl'l n{n??{n.l 9l (h).t v2-v1 " ),rJ1 2. 4. v2-v1 e v2-v1 "( , - 1 ) f. )r2 )r, ) 3. .[t t) ln ufi s EJ 6{ a r,t'l#intr,taxl ilr i
  • 28. iurari{d zo #lrerail r{ .6. zss1 157 04 imrJ"lcfT asr{ t tvi 14%1?1 27 t t +. riotod a aunr ntu': r rfi il fi rfi qo1nn1rfln1 u oirr orfir rnd u nqi o'lrjd 13 N-+ 7 4. '; c+( ) 1 n 0 0 1. e +1 0 2.e3. -1 11s. fior:nn:Jfrfi3urfirrndu{sio'lildfi6rfinsr:oururiulnfqr:ouud'renrrd'rloiTrlqrou 0 e* 0 e+ 2^{ Irdqr0uudnroirfitAnllfr'r.t'tuLyirter -1 +1 1. 2.7 x 10-22 on$ 3.0.46s rilnr6rfinarouhnel' nniruq1?TlAreJnt,lq9 nsirual?T'tdm (v) 2. 4.05 x 1o -r3 o n $ 4. o.e3o rrun16rfinnrouTrnei' t to. riolonnoio.: rirqr.:fuvririrn"rlsro::aulnnTeuhifinr:nruu:o:rqTrro.rruq T 6 e dy a 1. niluil [nn0rt141t9t1{0unTo'tl.ltgtu? fdv6.v 2. 9tl{Ul.[tflnQ&tfiuo?{ailn:fln01u Tllr<u5'v6'vyAe 3. niluiltnn0v tilliluo?{0um:[nu tv.rTrsgt?.]0ltytTorfiud'turiorlj']14'ttfllflil0 U ' trtsi e U, d 4. uJfl',ltJlTnU0n [qtu0.101n10iln liltltu.]1t0 at ttz. ncjruorror.rto'luo-n::rfidr3ud*n.orr{uoannrrurrnrfiotfiu 18:00 ra. rorri#trnEr turirrq - -- '-- ---d nn1.t t6 ouf,'u?'tgtu 1. nsiruql?T'lfrftuq 3. nairuqt?T'tfrrTufq 1 19. a1nrild"rusir.: riotqfi er(u 1. Anoqtooul tqun'l9tlt lJ?u"rTnntoi'q r rfjuL? n']n n1.r 6uvi'..:i'1{ A r A I 6ls A v t A 2. 9lfl00tct0uunTlFll.] lJ:ytYtftyt't{fin tnn ta0silt?n1nnl:?llu.t?llrunirnnrr6u 3. turd ouf,u':rn ru d:r rnernrrdnTnntqios 6ru urir flo giou 614A 4. tr*to a ililu'r o ru il:l tvt etvrr.rdnlnntsio s rfi uox or fi q EiduTo Er do illil mrrtsl ln rfr s il 6r o r,tt#intua?"r il i 2. 4.
  • 29. tvi ?r%1v1 28iurari{d zo #r,mrail il .Fr.2ss1 158 04 ims'rrf'lan{ t 119. nl.rrynr.r uacrfiu.:'[nrifinv6go 13o so' rilfio unc 1Bo 40'rnfio nrruiiroir leirlou:Jxrurru;cril omrHfiofiri#.rrnErtu16urtrarirfiuujirurfiuurYufifi#rrnetun:rrmn.rrfiuriluorir.:'[:,u .tl q 'J ^ t 1. oridrn'irori 4o s0' 2. oridrn'irori 4o s0',u ru .u ql 3. aein.:n'irad 4o s0' 4. oda.:n'irari 4o g0' 'u ru ,u ru.u (u ******8***** ln rfr s ar 6r a r,tt#in'[un ?1 il { tzo. ehniunr:ilciauururuairornrsdt*.rndulnn o.:nlirru.ur.unron"ourutusitornlflltng rd'orvrfirorfirirrvirrYuriotoloutdngnr:orlin:ilrurruusTudt t, trfli vs 6o rurnunr onrrur5riln''ronrord'rr*fi.rqril6irei'u, v* fio orrrt5rilnluro.tu'rulluettornrg ['.f)( u' '.1 [,, *:t)3. Mrl 1-- r. "*J 4' tt( ua )
  • 30. - t$nt ?mEJ'lfl1agr{ t 159 ei'rrinigT nr:'[n ufr s a,r rilns irr inslr[16[a{ r aoufit 1) 10.00 5) e00.00 e) 210.52 13) 5 17) 3.8 ks j aown2 2) 4.00 6) 0 .012 mol/dm3. , 10) 16.00 14) 1.e1 18) 1 3) 2. 1o niar 7) 0.12 11) 0.5 15) 25 1e) 30 nn(U 3 cm 4) trifisiraou 8) 4.00 12) 680 s 16) 56.03 20) 2 1) 3 7)2 13) 3 1e) 3 25) 3 31) 4 37) 3 43) 2 4e) 3 55) 1 61) 3 67) 3 73) 3 7e) 4 85) 1 e1) 3 e7) 4 104) 4 110) 3 116) 2 2)2 3)4 8)2 e) 1 14) 2 15) 2 20) 1 21) 2 26) 1 27) 2 32) 1 33) 3 38) 3 3e) 3 44) 2 45) 4 50) 3 51) 2 s6) lilfisirqrou sr) 4 62) 1 63) 1 68) 4 6e) 3 74) 3 75) 3 80) 3 81) 1 86) 4 87) 2 e2) 3 e3) 3 e8) 2 ee) 2 105) 3 106) 2 111) 1 112) 2 117) 2 118) 4 4)4 10) 2 16) 1 22) 4 28) 4 34) 1 40) 1 46) 3 52) 2 58) 1 64) 1 70) 4 76) 2 82) 1 88) 3 e4) 3 100) 2 107) 2 113) 4 11e) 3 '[ n rfr s er a o r,rt#in'[r,ugr m e,r i 5)2 11) 1 17) 2 23) 1 2e) 2 35) 4 41) 1 47) 4 53) 2 5e) 3 65) 1 71) 4 77) 4 83) 3 8e) 2 e5) 4 101) 1 108) 2 114) 1 120) 4 6)1 12) 4 18) 4 24) 4 30) 4 36) 1 42) 2 48) 1 54) 2 60) 4 66) 3 72) 2 78) 2 84) 2 e0) 2 e6) 3 102) 3 10e) 4 115) 3
  • 31. rang iYru'lc['lagr{ t 160 rir ri'n i rr nr :'[ n ufr s sr iuer:rs#frocfou irr inslc['r6[a 4 t aaufi 1 v sa 1 aau lo.oo a6i^da6@ nlT?.r0'r:ru'r14'raInnn:0urou?lJ0{r''ra n?:?01:tu']14'l01nn1Toor:u{0tnnaTauuuuTs9tuq , _xil{n{{'llAU0U (sub shell) 9.11.[ h=1 n=2 n=3 ft=4 n=5 n=6 fi=7 -6 4p 6 5p )6 op sd'o,. 4d'o., " 4f 'o -t-// r' att // ,/ A ilto1Tnt1 1. rlaq cy AJA 9l.l1,[ A da t A v v g'a A d x rutnT8J?n 127 LLn3il1,[?ATOU 74 tL6[9t.]?'t X ilflqnnuilU?LFtnuT Lnflil?n flrJ:orou + firor:ou; rnlovaoil (rn1jsJ?n - dru?ufi?aTou) 2. 3. 9'/ AJ AJ O.l 1,[1,b vt [o o 01.[ 9./ A./ e.r 91.1%1,[ vt L0 0 01.[ cy a./ 4., O.lUlA d 51n X il9 t+a Y'' il A r,'lqYilq 3-'l- ZTJ A T1AZilq 53e 22e 24e 36e 33e 4d'o6D= nL fLFlv__r'- @nrrrrri I d 1 e LOU? j = 6 e tOU? j = 3 e tOU?3d'o@>fTfll o Ad 4i o1}t?1talnnnra?btotJ'tr?El = 1+6+3 = 10 Note : d a yq aru 24 6 o Cr osfrnr:d'o 6ur e sirrorn:JnfiI','l9t?1il Ln? 0lq 1 n rfi EJ EJ 6[ a lt'[#in'[r,uor ?1 ru i
  • 32. rilns insldlasr{ t 161 eirrlnirrnr:-ta rfiEril ila z noil 4.oo r:Irunud (Resonancel 6o rJ:rngnr:nlfifl1:fl'ril1Tnrfiuuger:Io:lnir.r'[sTraflluttuu A A ! ^6 q v tflot0rnnt:tn6i0uYl10.J0[nnqT0ulultl1.[DsTefi?'1.]0t910ll (delocalization) -veli.:fu v,lonunlqrtooou 6a pol- srilr:ntfi uuan:Tn:.:eirtlsi'er1d lrrl a.'/ ?to 3 aou 2.16 nril ^ J yr 0..r Lro..r n rtus'rrn y n1 u En ur o #Lu t er Ter rdruriu ud u u:J fr ni ur d'{ flLAt Cu(s) + 2AsNo3 (ac) + Cu(No s)z(aq) + 2As(s) ra'rIru n 6['lr = 0.635 1x 25 [.-[.-l' = ^ L"-Fl' =-^ [.{-l' - [.i-l' 63.5 = 0.01 mol 0.01 mol Cu 6[flTn1:H'rIrun6['tr n= g ov'Ld'0.02 =$MW 1 000 0.025 mol - & 7 - y ^ a & u Aao y A t 4 + cq.luun1Tn1il't14un Ag 9t0.1o9tnililo''rRfl']Tq{qunel0'11.t?uuau?1flo [qutil0Fr9tYluu01n vt^iq aru:J:v'eimti[ufliln1T d'orfiorfiuuorn Cu 1o.ot tiounil 0.025 ) alnil frniurrir.: si'u lmol Cu = 2 mol Ag 0.02 mol Ag vl e./ Y a/ 0y LO 1,b'lfi1tnTO.'.l Ag = 0.02 x 108 = 2.16 g = g 108 v it ra o ! I i u. e t A <' %a 4 lilNa1aou (r1*0.]01nil?nliltnnn (MW) nnl [9t u0un?1mn?Tas[]J1*) Tovrriuon t. u1flnil fi c, H, o = 64.9, 13.5 unc zt.6 qrrrudrsi:r 2. :fr.rr;,rutiad y =12.06o:, orunnitzto,ormruo-u760 mmHg yru'irufin g.zo niru ulsr?aTNrnqn PV= (1) (12) = MW= NRT 3.70 x 0.082x 300 MW 7.585 o vlgt X- a/ r 01 [? : 6[AT1,[U.]AUil1,[?U1{rqt Iqu P=atm n=mol V = dmtnia L T = Kelvin R = eirsr.:fit o{ $Ti'fl (o.oB2) 6l e/ LH amalerranarilu}flru"ld' nr:r;riosn'irfinr:osuilu uqirarno;fior:rxrtririlul:J'lsi nr:aruru6t rr,rw fi ri'r:J:sil'rtu 75.85 ln rfr s il 6{ a %'[#in'[ua?l il ;
  • 33. - tans ?nslrf'lasri t 162 itrrfinirrnr:-ta rfiEril oi'.:#u Hrdrt+?uora oilmqtunr::hynouq C:H:O 64.9 13.5 21 .6 12 5.41 1 13.5 16 1.35 Ie.rnurffa s : mol'T?r.r PV = nRT (30X75) = n(0.082x2e8) n = 30X75 (0.082)(2e8) riruusr A = drurunnro.tuoanl,t(u(U tv aJv arr+% mol T?lJ = A (mol U0n0}[)(U 1.35 1 Ie.rn urffatuu o n nlbudnvq n : PV = nRT (1X2.5) = n(0.082x2e8) n=2.5 (0.082)(2e8) 1.35 4 1.35 10 nn:odrriru = c4H1oo nli'ru':uasnoilrT e'[unr::J:ynou 1 motq (COHTOO)n = 75.85 (48+10*16)n = 75.85 n = 1.025N1 nr::J:snou 6o (c4H1oo)1 Toufr,irururrruunto"uo 1s ornaal tunr::J:snou lr/ ?to 5 gtou 900.00 nn Tonriuon 't. ufls n uns ufi'a r fi:J3rurrxryirfi'u = x mot 2. firufi'afituro zs.o 6o: , p =30.0 atm , T= 25 "c Iovrrinrru dtutunnuoanu firrirurinl rfi*rtuuannurulo z.so60:, ptu::onnu= 1atm,T=298K 30x75 (0.082)(2e8) ( 2s =A[*] A = 30x75 = goonn 2.5 q '[ n rfr sJ E r 6[ o r,r'L#in'Lu or m eui
  • 34. - r6rarl inslgf'lasr{ t 163 ii'r rin i rr nr :-[ n rfi s a,r ila 6 aou 0.012 mot/dm3. , Td loyrduon 1. A uns B rir:Jfrfi3urrYurfiqn'l: 2. n?1rurriruriuro.,tfl'l:A, B, D Rate ?roirc{1? D ri'rGrurJfifi3urfr D i, uilor?n1ni'ru'l:J 100 r*rfr rilu -0.012 , -a.024, 0.01g mol/dm A = 2.0 mol/dm3 ni'ru'lrj g urfi ua6o A ori o.so mor/dm3$ Ioyrrinr ru vj Ft?'riluu?t 100 ?urfr = .'. fEr:reiru = :J iu #ru rJ :v ayr i'tr;'u iJ ud'r ur u r 6 ru 2A+ tu*rud'ul tr:Jduul 1urafr a1 e/A aarlnr;rrio D A rate = - 0.012 rate = 1 q,t&a 9t.11'[U 6riln1T Ft0 48 B(g) 1 -0.25 0.75 B ---) D - 0.024 + 0.018 2g 2 2c(g) +0.50 0.50 0.50 <__a 2 -1 .44 0.56 2.16 Anr:o At 2.16 3x60 0.012 mol/dm3., B 1.0 mol zudrilrYutunrtuvilSrurqr a dm3 ufiaudrainruqnerrfio C 0.50 mot9Jq <- 3 min x 60 lrJiuHr.ir u L? nr LiJuiurfi ; l)'/ ga 7 aou 0.12 Toyrriuon 1. A 3.0 mol unv mol tdu mol r:Jduu mol 6[uqnq I r [nilqn] ct/ & 9l',lUl{ A(g) 3 -0.25 2.75 2.75 a rc12 v:rr tAItBl .r!i--- 0.75 A a / r2 r 0.50 [;J alnflqr mol = CV(U = 0.1212 Ir)(r) -[ n ufr s a,r a a u'L#in'[usr rr er i
  • 35. rilns ivrsJlrf'lasr{ t 164 eirrinirrnr:-tn rfisilr 9v ?to I aou 4.00 Ioyrriuon 1. rfir v u,irrYu : 1 n:qluuTrdo = 2lrrduarruulsraer 2. Ka lJo{Rroruult6n = 5X1o-5 Tovrsinrru nreir ptt ?ro.:fl1:nsmueinroruuls6nn-uTnduiluuulsran 10 cm3 nlrruflilnrqruuTry6n (c6H5cooHl riuunfialryrduiluuuTqroer (c6H5cooNa;o;rfiorilu ti-& fl1Tnrn1ilulltll0T n:o 9t.ll,tu lHso*l = Kaffi - Ionririrnuo [n:o1 = zlrndal -q zln:q I = 5X10 "X '" ' Irn6o ] = 1x 10-aM nr:n:nrurilnlrv'tofd6.:fiei'r pH = !, fro g grou 210.s2 cm3 Tovrciuon 1. H^So, 1.0 mol/dr3 'iruru 100 "r3 2. NaoH 1.0 mot/dm3 fiar:n;nrur6o:Juiaunc s Tquilrn Iovrsinu NaoH nrnoarrfih tfiatorn NaoH fi?.rr6o:Ju 5% unot'jt [NaoH] = 1 mot/dm3 'lrjhinmrurriruriurrr{03.: rrfli NaoH fiurio3.:oi'athi6qorn?r16o:Ju dtfiqirrvirn-u 1 - 0.05 = 0.95 mot/dm3 o1nflilnlr H2SO4(aq) * 2NaOH(aq) - NarSO4(aq)*ZUrO1l.1 -&O{1*1* 2 mo(H2SOa = mol NaOH 2(1)(100) = (0.e5) v V = 21O.52 cm3 ria to oou i6.oo :Jfifi3ur Reduction : MnoJ + 2H2o + 3e- --* Mno, * 4oH- (x2) :Jflffiur oxidation : 52- + S+2e (x3) rJfiffim Redox : 2Mno o + +u ,o * gs 2- 2wne, + BoH- + 3s iln:ril:J:co = (-2)+ Q + (-6) + o + G8) + o = -16 lotou'hi6orertolnrurr,luv; ln rfr er er d a r,t'[#in'[un ?1 s,r i
  • 36. - r$ag imsJ'rrf'lasr{ t 165 eiT ri'nigr nl:'[a rfr g a.r lv ?to 11 nau 0.5 Iovrsiuon' 1. q?{orfiqf fr rurn#oun'j'r en?qn:$ 4 uvi'r ( Mar 2. o?.,1orfi Erf fi u#uniruqurinnr.:#oun'ir ol?qnd$ Fr ?'r tJ H 1.['r ttdut 0.r or1? q n :$ ufl u fr ryi'rt o { or ?.] or fi q f aln6[aT(U = 4 Morm) 2 uvir ( Ror = 2 Rorr ) Toyr fnrru m O=,V LLN3 V 4? - -nt-3 43 - nt" 3L --m2 R3 M 0.5 d n'l?qnu AGi' Fl?tO'lYlFlU Pr Pz : mlo 43 - nT, 3r 4M - t (2R)', 4MR3 -: SMR' (1) (2) ila 12 aou 68os L H jLc L l'l fior:rxr m2 Ir f ltlQ'lTtU'l m1 IT F-f F-80 ma ffiz?z (20)(4) 80N ma ffit&r 100(6) 680N 1 n rfi s il a a %'[#in'[r,ro er a.r i
  • 37. [6[ner ?ng1c['lagr{ t 166 etT ri'nirr nr:'[n 16 s sJ lv ?to 13 aou s 9r,/ ?ro 14 aau 1.91 a=? td'c.M. LiJulerns{r,t IVtm?u = Innnril t(2) - N(1) 2f=mg f=10N 2m rrd Fl ?'l u LT.l flflil EJ n n1.1 $fl LL?ll.[Ft'l v' r (z,rtr)' r 4n2 f2 r a1n IP- fl. 10 = n a" ma ma 2a 5m/s2 ac : : 4= f- = 4nz f ' (1oo) 1 * Hz (rounr,l1fi) 1 x 6o Toufit,r'rfr 1Oru 1.91 Tount+'tfi ln rfr s ru a o u'l#intuer er e,r i
  • 38. r6bns inslrf'ran{ t t67 etr rln ?sr nr ;'[ n ufi s e.r 9'/ ?to 15 aau 25 Tovrriuan 1. Hfloqttfiril1? 20 ssl. , frllyr.rariroTo 10 q:.ryil. Tovrrinrru z. dorurdsr#uqi':serrrrufi soo rEqr:d , nmrurirrfis.:luornrerr*rriu = gso rilq:fiurfi e a I u' t e j i a v a0'0 [ailu'ln{ [:J 0 u't{ila un nu.{il. masyl'l tfl o [fl u.:o.1 Fl ?'r rJ u'l ? 1J o.t yi o :J n I ufl q fi sr il 1 Tn r fi q n r : #uvi'o .,:td' 6 a 3)" 51, a-a- , 4 , 4 , ...... aln V f 350 s00 = 0.7m = 70 cm - 17.5 cm (oi'o.tt14fionrmsJf,{rvi'rAtoarrfiorfiu.r)(u I4 T 4 31" 4 - 52.5 cm -+ 17.Scm t#Lritqi rn:ry rfiusrlril u'r?yi o 9Yr Ft?'t lJ fl.:lta.tf1fi 16 ru =(u 9'/ I .'. rjSrurnrro.:*rfir6ru = = 20-17.5 = 2,5 1^t.?1. x $.1 (10) (2.5) 25 cm3 ln rfr s il 6t a ?r'[#intr,ra ?1 il i
  • 39. rilas imslF['lasr{ I 168 rirrlnimnr:'[nrfrsa,r tv ?to 16 aou Toyrsiu on 1 . Iovrrinrru 56.03 ri'ouonfirflurum= 500g frT= g2T "c rortrJdu*fin v-1000nu.$il..ul ud'riJq eJr 1'[rioi'or nutnR'rtruy rnyzuriJofi uiluauru) frr=27oc ,ti'l;u) ^ aa v i ' q 3i z. onfirfiurufoururn rfiaqirunrlurirfiqnna4fi 27 rfionr:nrtnrrruiou 1onfirfiurunru aeY a fuil R lJ floYl"t ult 0.1lt'lq{q *nn?1ilH1.['rud% 1 g/cm3 9v r;r looo cm3 firurn looo g + IQnru ffirc,Al (s00x0.9x327 -T) T rQ;u m2crLT, 1000(4.2)(T - 27) 56.03 o c tv ?to 17 aou 3.9 kg Ioyrciu on Iovrrin'rru 1. uuvitTnHvil?n 2 Kg fiermrurirrdlLtnt'ty = 2.5 z, finrnoi Hrin 1 Kg tddlt':' 2 Kg ( g = tr#oeirueirtdrvitlr ( = rurnTnHy + rJ?**', + 9,/ r A a/ Y 9/ Vl r o 6t 1y ,j r n1ilU? U Lfi il 0UnU?l.]6[0.]1J'.l.1 L3.lO'l tlJl,[gt0.l til n UUUU? U l a r l:J us r ut{n-u r', #o m:J3.: u n y qi ru n .rhjtufi n r n o {9'/ I 10 m/s' fi?'tlJnu'ttttiuta.:rfr 1000 Kg / mt ) A( rurnilnrno:; rjienn:sasrird rrft u : rjtr.no'r:iglna .Y t lr) rdfi a ufi'u rj?m a :?l a o rir ufi at fi u 14't rJ? n1Jo.llirfi ufi il M-pV - (1000X0.8 x 10* ) m' - 0.8 kg = ru?nTnra s +il?afinrnai+ il?df1firfia,l = 2+1+0.8 = 3.8 kg ] rir{srnmde,nirqq Hr:J3rurn:TnHs V=m p 2 - 2.5 x 10' = 0.8 x 10-3 '. t'l?AT?il| AA ofltlruutJIU 500g 327oC 1 n rfr s a,r a a ll'[fin'[r,l er rr e,r #
  • 40. 7 rang ins1fl'lan{ t 169 ei'r rln ? gr n r :'[ a rfr EJ fri lv ?to 18 aou Tovr fu on Iovrrinr ru lv ?lo 19 aou 30 R2 lJl,['ll,[ R. -+ t J R,, R23 = 3000 O R:rru - H't I T?il Aln 1 E-9.oTrnq{', R1 =Rz-Rs= 3 kO fi'rlrla'rqnry urnbnl ( I ) idt, n riru R2 3 + 1.5 11+ 33 1.5 kf) 4.5 kO 1.5Kn I- V R _ 9 = 2x10-3A 4s00 fior;rxr Vo" *Sense AB - Io"Ro" , = (2 110-3 X 1500) = 3 V R rvir riun;r LLfl uu nlH n ryi'r ri'u llu'tt,t V rvirri'u Vo" - IrR, 3 - Ir(3000) 12-1mA V - I(R, +R-) 1 = 20x10-r0 (20000 + R,") R* = 30000 O _ 30kO -[ a rfr sr il a a lr'[fin'[r,ror er ar i fdac- !?oFrtJ L9t0T
  • 41. tiln gJ il'r u'r F['l agr{ t 170 riT rlnirr nr:-[a rfi er s,r 1r,/ ?lo 20 aou 2 AA nrT.:fr?sr (T) tiu 169 d Ft0 ja/AA L? n1n51q fln1U9t? tfin 0nT.]q A 5l e,/ HTo Lrf 6retr N(u 12 fu No16^: : : )r t 13 -O 2i 'r aol,[fi 2 tv lr,/ sa 1 nou ?Ja 3 n 1 lil fi sJ lt ril r,r rir fi'o s $J'l rJ 1 0 x40 o s sTa o rfr a u urvi umo isr n n 0 ri a uq ria t - nr::Jiu'[oocud:ru rilunr:rjirurruusrfio;druuireifnnunsrnud rirl#ruo.rrfiunrnfiarufqrougl rriu ':-nnrnuriliofifroyuiletoacryl:il11in{r,rdurdolfiftue{flodosyirhi'fiunT x.il'qrouq ila 2 - nr:t:JdEJuunutiln#isrnnr:d'ufioruraruu (Nose piece) d.rrfluddo6oro.rrnud rio s- nr:r:l6uudrfi'{TUrsJTo.:tnuflndfqrn 'lei'irrilueiorrdourrviu'lrrfnnn.]Rrir4rllro'ruililuqqii rdour:Jd uurnufr uns:JiudrJ utJiuo.'*nsr6 uq ryirliuq ila + - nr:lfrnuitlnri'ierrtdrfi'{rru to0 ryi'r oseiarnuqd"rnTun.:uun:confloralnd'rdoujdsJuriro-sfiq u q v e t@ fllea r & a A u r e , d t nr:nhtnro.:rrso'lrirrhcisrlrnurild' firriuri'unrnorilo [1ro.ro1nufl.ros lru[?J1flrnufl unarnntilaon l:Jriru uon o.rg A e a { q Yl1 [1] R1 lr,t 1'l t14 1,[1J O lv ?to 2 9,/ lY ?ro 3 aou ?lo 4 rfluoet16[a{rJ:ss1nrq aou 9/ 1J0 1 l),/ ?IA 2 ')'/ 1J0 3 9,/ 1J0 4 ila 2 rs%n?Tan vr ra i e'/ Jtgi'l1,tt{nd-nnrfigrRibosome tililtu0{tJ LtAilU Lgt [1,tt{n6 q Gentriote lilft rfi a#a.l rasilu rilnrg'lurun dfi'sriq a i e,,l Lysosome fi rfi ttu LLnyT'tu til?,t'tyturryn d'fr'qr{ A i y U u&q dv d da Golgibody il tu 04il LLnsT,lu Lqil.t llrrsnn6rqi LLnyLsnnfiT nqr*fiiiorurnr:it'oter:rcr{ rilunr:finsriforurnr:rorRrfi6isr fi'ld'rirvrq:afinr:rio16onoril adavhvAraaa rrrilt'l0?0.J01i1uxl'tt{flilHetununmrfltrnr:oiruEu"1 rriu u::r^rfrTu?mur (palaeontology) aun:ruirru (taxonomy) ri'r.tqeraori (genetics) uo;6rnfistraor{ lbiogeography) louranrcnr:drnrrruid'ruvr-ugarror{ :J:ctrn: ilr:J:sundlflunr:oiursiiolurnr:solnri rfioriluvrqufii46un'h mqrfiiiorurnr:fr{rer:rcr{ (synthetic theory of evolution) 1 n rfr s il 6{ o llt#intr,ucr ?'r s{ ;
  • 42. 7 r{16r ar i vr sJ'l Ft1 a sr { t l7t aiT rinigrnr:-lnrfrsar #o + sr o u ?io + rirt#To:o airot-lrq n::eril :cs'r n:ril fi srr'lrJ ril:rcil:csr n:fisur q r5n ao a a ^ ' 6A i ad c a u:uooru6tudnoir4viffnu'lur::rutr6fi z anrunr:nl 6a n:cmuorn{riooir (founder effect) unc rJ:rngnr:nferamo (bottleneck effect) rd ufln0n1Ttrtoo?r?o rno01n 1.:l:strnmurotraqii4f iruru:l:;rrnrnon.:odr.::ror5ro''urfio.rrurornn-ur::rurrG rdu rrriu6u'lrar 4tmh^l:rrfio tlornnualili:ratorfio]:n:curo lirld'ilrsmn:fi:ooornrnqrnrrn[oi'.:nairrfirurorfinn.:sq z. firunrirlrinrrrufrto.tuondutufiurrntouJxmn:fifi6iqrtunr:od:oqunc:J:smnmrudrrSotunrrfiug{ nTuffinrruJduuu:Jn.:ornt6ruorir.:rurn IosrLurrrtonfiuosrfirururndu unr:r'''o,ronduorqilrsl:Jorndunarorq rJ:ctrn:iltu afrJ'loi'ir ta t, z rns 3 fioryl:1sc rio 1 uondufiuafioadoT a6ratotildfild'q ila z nrr rufi r ot uondui4 r:Jd su'[:J rfi oornn-uo:rrusrfi lilld'rfi oornnr:fir ufi a d rio e. nr:rirutmter6oufirudu:sndr.:il:smnr:sir.:neiru 6o nnrnr:nlfiGsn'ir Founder effect rnioI 9t n:s?]u01Riln0a?t lYlDs rTo s st ou ila z. "llTn:arj o3r6s uac6TilaTil ur.roo dtilTowur6i uefi'u{ nr:oonrueou{zaodofi6isr d.:fi6infi6'ooqjtuneirurdsrriud'orfin-nurusur.:arirrirrurYu nrro-o{Qq o ! aao q e4 a <r , j .-__-a I 9 " - & f a. v & v ,q a1t[un?0.1ff.lil5?q tuila0uilllJufl?unu.Jlj0{0unTil'j5''r1* tinlTooairous1,[ [orJiliirousunr:donruro n{-tuql e t <r I t d v 'q ,A j aao a un? ttu.i Hlult ilx ofi U u 0 u 6J onudt ureoL iltjiofi il tfi tuyl fl01 0{ 6i.tl]fi1o n 0{s9 1. otntro-n: (Kingdom) 2. "h{a-il (Phylum) uia6ifru 3. aa16{ (ctass) +. o'r.lo-u (order) s. rod (Family) 6.6{na (Genus) z. aiJfid (Species) riniils'roraoSlfnerruna'rsnfiofir.rsaodofifiinhnr:froururornri?,aodofifiisrToso6io nrro-oU , q eo 11il?oxilat tTnn:til!Yl1:n'lUR1n anuilsYl'htflruEruTmur :rrur.:aruuGnrttnfr -luilaolTufnlvrurnrasri'[6]'1ir { s a- --- do v rl0uanr:lto:rcnairoiltuauud'ru DNA rurairr ultr+R'Iilu6{noarsie;flurn1:saoRofifiio loomain; arruT rnuriokioanrflr.r e Torrlu 6o 1.uunfi6u, truInnnrsrur lssrrluuuunfifiu osln:$unfiGu rourilol:uuofi6s z. arfrdu : ne!rurouqrxn4fiq.:uun:n?1ilrilun:oo-o , nciruairrfirmu , ncirusounmrur6ruq q q .U , q , '4----- r. pnrriu : aorfiTufiln fir #o{ fi.:'[o uoailarnn nrfiirufrrrer.: :rrfion osfiur 'lrlsro"'il{ lnfiIvrr^rnrnrur6o gndur lerTrrtarjoirGis tqr:Iouuo 6TnaTruur+oq fro o nau fra r 'lstJrT%uuerfiGs l,l I aa €r aa j u 6:t e a d t '[qEJrluuunfirSu riluguunfi6rfiarrur:ns.:rn:rsdo'rsual'[ri'finr:Rrriu nnoT:filnri'rarrqrT: fiuuosei'rnstv{lnfifiuoqinruluqrutuurfiriiordrursnsi'ilu'loiyltrturir6quncrir16ru urrsilfifvrulurjosq -7----z-^-.-^--.-.-.qr,-i d u a o 6oqev^ c utet u'lvlTau uflsR']u tqlu']u1J.l1J0{tlfi'lfl8JYlT 01nfinno"l11611nond1uTTil?i'l tl{iln1nurfltnnintOfistl.['[G[i1qq4 '[ n ufr $J il 6[ o t,t'[ri'in'[r+a ?1 il ;
  • 43. rilnsr iYrEllrf'lasr{ t 172 eitfinisrnr:'ta rfisar lsErrTuuunfi6u firtfi'oon6rouluu::urnrflrfiilduilrnluunodn uncriolri'rfioifouurnr:garR.:fifiiErfiq rar ulolo Ertfo a n 6 uo u'lurJo o u-uq ila z aau ila z ruR6Tohlnsrr - ruR6TolruTerorr laasioiomycota) lEiuri rfiosir'r1 louairr Basidiospore uu Basidium fiogiq rir.:loi'ra.: Fruiting body errur:ntoiqtoir.ruqiu'lfiratotoutfrloir.:6J rnsmillrnejoEJanru6nfiuloi' eteu ila 1 ,3 rns 4 triarrur:ndouanrsJfinfiulei' fra I -'[crvrS6TolrrTnErr toi'uri t duoi't :rrir orft flagelta airt zoospor" fi'i.'uti'r'[ui' rio g - uoalertruToor loi'rrri :rnr rilunrnsir.: Ascospore tun.:lascus; rriu rrrnfiad' fra + -ttlnlruInor ld'urri :rfirilur#usrer ?iflurnr:oirnd'rsarndrs air{ zygospore tufiu a:Joi rriu :rdrguilfl.i rio e nau fia z ler:sirorflr.u#u1slil:6illt rnlo.:rirrilunrnfifiIn:rirru{roeinrulud"rurirtoY 3 il?n 6o rilufiurju 1v'lo.rrirfiu:Juy aaYosctfrArY-. 6fi nr 1v'l or rir uri'r 1 unc rfruluT:J:d u 1r l auir n or-a ; eteu ilat 3 $n34 fiorn:rs rio t - rlorrirr{rulraqirilurnnnhifisililrq:(Asymmetryl ratourrtfioaToftaruilrq:ld'ueirflu flilrl1ara1il uurisfi (Radiat ryrir"try) rio g qr-rEiouila{riltritoirflurrugdr (::Jdr.rnd'ruiilfrnuro:aurJrn rdu ururny:u1 uoirilu ::Jn:ri1 fi citia Tqu:ouel-r ila + - rirocr?irmr'i:n:utfin1ro1r1 or-r 6un'l'r ostia iu-0.lnrfr*osr:ireiln:.rluqr-rGsn'jr Spongocoel uuns'lun aonmrqturolraqjoi'ruuu 6sJn'jr Oscutum aY tt/ a d a af f rTo g nau rTa r ar+rsosn uililmrds 8TnTr'ror rrumrlru rilunuogilu nnraurururtdu (class Mammalia 1 nl.r-o rflunrnuruo.r fi o t'r oqilul$'t nnre6utfinol (class lnsecta) stcsrullou odlu on'rafrInTnqr (ctass Chitopoda) 9.Ydqv ?,a 10 orou ?o 2 tJ%r*gilonu% ruu:csi"luo6o finr:td'vrirrsrn:r::rusr6rdonr:dr:tdioryirfu rdu nr:iirao{rdariluornr:unsrilu unioui.:viu nrrsl-od'u'lflrdaair.:fiarioreru usiruupditooriurfluarrilnua-nld'rfionrrarurduormililnrnilmuC I I q I gu ac&v 711.:g1n1iltJ'lnYlflO Yl.lYl'|.]91:'i[Lntm'lJ0Ail ltrU n'lTTst].JOnUil nlTflT'l{tlAU n1:AOOUttl[?{An']Tnl n0lfiOI nr:aeur{uf,lor#q{ilrunsfirurtrfio nr:tfvrirrurn:odrrlilri'rurir riolri'rfionrrslnniau ilruurrunfi:* ei.:runqu I o ' 'l , : e o q ea d t o0n1:rilnuuuila.:vr1{qqn'tdBnefl.ttt?oa0il Yl1 tu[non']'ttJtflufi'tuo0n11il14n1nfinluyt1.ttTTilT't0ltil1[0u'l.]tJ1n '[n rfr u EJ 6[ a lt'[#in'[r,ror ?1 E r i
  • 44. rilaer ?mslrrlasr{ t 173 drrinirrnr:'[n rfisJEr ty lv ?ta 11 stou uo 1 200 ornnr:cirurfiuor-rorjr.r o er{.r'ld'eirradurvirrTu't0 + 6 + 13 + 5 + 3 + 11 = 48 ; 48t6= 8 d'uq ale unsornnr:trfn:auuu'iruru:J:ssrnrr%'rq 2x2 lr.rgrr 6tf irururafisryirn-u g qiulu4 Err.rilar - Z q a. e o"rriulu 100 Etr.rilqt orii'ilruruurflrerr uyirriu (100 x g) I 4 = zoo oiu e v & ^ ie;, ! e r ra 12 gtou ?to 4 nud'usoodr.lfrriju*rufloaeironre: luToru1uo:1 :1-4r.[orrrilurtqfifinquurrriauri'i{ul?ulu oqfaurirt#uq frntrnrcrdrt6oq q rq ---'- J --' dusoo6ufioqidrornfieGuduur+aobjocfiueTarijurirufioocirosnrr nilolry,ruyrl.rErourufiaqq A I a A A A u € u ty a A t y 61 9 T0'0vr?U0tilTn"r[141.[0 t[n;ur:[5u flulrrunsflqli0lfluauilaurlro :J5il1ruilul{auilrn luqofoudrr #u r riru{tdnaAuocn;nrsrei,fitr..nti.triarrur:n6rur.irua.:'[:J1ud'urirufillffi.:virrun-.ooqiuufirGu.u rir1fr:Jgnfir'ld1u:rar#ug firfinuosrilunrntrioanun;'[fvjru unssr-riluRrfi6iEr;furir rriu'[aunuq ila tg srau ria 3 Rlenciuaan lu:J:srmfl'lnsr:JrGud'uilunldtunrnqrsfuoon - nc{r*oanrdlr.itd' lurtnfinr-ofuiluiqau6i'r.:$ngq oflo ttnvR'rntsi nrntoiErouoir.:oY.rulei6'.:nr-ouor:sir::il:1t Eri.r nrtrj :JrGurmnutsi'lunrnrrafio unsilr A e llr4 u A A ou un{y{u to tun'tnqs?u0 an lfl u.: t14u0 tYttAA.lt Tla 14 aau ?ro 2 Nrld,rlfisoilosian1:6t5'106t1:a1il17 t v ct - .l aa.o--!-4- , y gy y v v l. d . da usn'tr{tilun']:T?uo?nusa.:ri.:iJri1qm.:fr9ttngflEriuufouuunu [oufrarudrsrrai{16ue?l$1o a ia I rffnfi6sn'i1 susrtrytnSi lzooxanthettae) riluoodrJ:cnoudrfrrg'lu nr:airoarilr:Iosrn.l: v d e av e ^6tit [o t1 914 u6{it flT'].1 6t6tu un g fl T1.: 14 1.[:J U Iouiln6:Jvnli.:ossrilr:n:liuqr-'rlrairirrTuRrrrroflaru'lsifi.l:so-uorunnfia.:aolunrrsrJnG rdrti-,qg{q -- .-y-- 4 a i a a i , v d mstafoufiu sttryiltmaffosqru tiioryurudErrufrroJil:cnrfifioc6onr uas:J*nrilfiriou "1 Erru'l:J q i f r s3a lufr ao [o EJ:J:rnnnr:nifi rTun'ir ":Jsnri{y'lonmr"qd 6'o#udonurjcnrioldl*ti.dt rilr1c surr+r?rn6 sioot#uaotunrr*lorn:rcrdorur: z?o 1s nau zio z 'luTn:rolr u i u a ad aa , q , A _ X ?00nrlilla:tou 0''lrlu0fluYlit]tlnsuunfit5sJur{n6iil lunr:rjasenruilrnfraqoi{fr 1. nlrcrn'tuI:J:6u (Proteolysis) ToEr*unfi6su1rn6iil riioR.:fifiiqqrun.iJ:J:6ulurdorfloos anrurilu Peptide uns Amino acid orili{rEiu 2. Amino acid nnfldlurilu$oilIiltfiu (Ammonification) IosJuunfirisrncgfiuniriur.:neiru'qc 1 . nr:afrttutor:v{ lruitritication; - uuofiGEt Nitrosomoras r:JdsJuuoruTrurfisJrilululn:?i '[a rfr s il 6[ o ?r'lfinlr,ra ?1 il i
  • 45. rilner imulgf1asr{ t 174 dr rfin irr nr ;'tn ufr er a.r - uunfi6 ?r Nitrobacter r:Jfisuluto:yiriluturo:vr 2. r:Jduutilro:mrfluuoruIrurfisruta'luto:ri lnitrate reduction) Iosruofi6unnruncjnq 3. nr:airllulartou (Denitrification) lfiuntriranrurfiqr:l6uulutEr:yruiluri"rq'luTe:rou rnu Thiobaciltus , Micrococcus o. nr:or€rlulo:rau (Nitrogen fixation) Xfiuvririur.:ilrnu:JdErufl'rstulo:rouriluarr:J:v n o u'[u1e:rou'[ei Io r ravrr; Rh i zobiu m lu:J ru:'rn d"r dtr do t rnc g tdo6uiliririoun'ir i6,fi'n:'lulo:rou 6o ldnfiuntrirftoriounnruv{oedoia unsnr{u oulufi tuasffo{fi qrr srtil rfi o r:Jfi Eruriluarrofiuvririsi o'[:J fia q - r-no-n::rorrirtiltd'oduvriI.i urittoi'2 n:clrunr: 6a&C 1. short cycte triufiurrTuRtfifiiornu rilunr::vuauorori.u.onsrn fitouH6ioti.dr*1 6, €, , * 'X a X Yrrl , a Ln o nl::? il sr? rljl.lrrJlN o n fl .: tJ1 [:J ut l l{11't fl v{ uo u v{ l{u'] lfi n flil 3 [n 0 n 2. Long cycte rfiu'lri'uA.:fifiin IostSilornfirgloriruirl:Jvrrrrrnud"ro",ori,rrrnnrrilrn,u lu :rlvrtr'loti'rfillfi'e.n'r:rars'[o :srilutil:rilfiu'lorirtuo'rnrfl nd''ruriluril,il riluiluqrnnrrurdn v9 rTa te nou rTa t nracil:?sr nrr cil:Ro 6 o nre cfi dh smdo'trirj:cTssfuci 6 n dh s?rdo 16l s rJ :cTerrf unnruu'jr 6Ern'[ei"jrriluun:J:Rm rilufioGunn{ruunfifinqGn::rukjafrti.:ro.: uoios'[rJm.:trjq A- A u r, 4yr t e s ar l4, X I qe r- I ' t v uu, ylT.:1J 0{un ouLtn?tJn 0 u [141r{ a uililn t0114{T.:v{n [1ufls tn u:odn 0 0u tfi [o uyt1t 0 [[tJ 1ril11o.]T.t-trimil1Tn r/ty, d ^ j tq v e et j ' ^ s J A - Ltunuuc [o?-rildnunTuo0t{T?tJ0u [ur.to?u tttJ?1$.J0dnun:JTflatoitutqrl tgrTutSou g un;onur*no.:qI .u ,i,t v a , lil r ! ! AX f acv o clyr t e - X ililosilfi?'tiluan01.t ttJ01nil a ![[lilnntflu:o [our:Tilt1srn u.io.lfl'u4uo tfil^i01,[n[[riuntorto,:f.:tdutg , o J, y , l,l r I a u q 6r e v r r 0nun:JTdqila0 [il t1JlJ0.:unuTdoilna;illn00nlililgr?R0ildnuntdttto.::t Ltnc&tuoylirnru-Lrjla.:uniu ,u Iu to1fla.:T{auniloRll 14Ton'tdnunTina0nt:Juqt't1t:0ilnu nnunil:flaniln0cfitntunnunt{rlo.tf.tou T e 6l e u a a^ i , a o $ao i , ^14lJO LO Un'l:O1{ [140nn{ il10'lnT.: [6f UT? El nlTTtnn1,{n:JTfl91fl',]illTntirnr:il'La{ nr:franunrl:REt -n----Atr, 4 ' fl1il',]:nil'lnlTu to ru0{01n?111.[1qo?dnun:JTdaIn0uytn5uo03tl?Jlt''lo tuqn?']nnunudrg0.ofr lA 17 AOU ?lO 2 pollen grain - Pollen grain 6o nsoo{l:il riJurrynd-fi:J:snouei"]u z firrnfisn 6o tube nucteus (n) unr generative nucleus (n) firrodusdosurj.: mitosis t:JriJu 2 sperm nucleus iio'ir pollen grain d c. tflu male gametophyte soofir Male gametophyte 6o fislu:sErsfiairlrtod'fiuuTuf Tou gametophyte rolfisqsfrdruru In:k:Imr rvirrTu n rncos u:-i.{ mitosis rfi o eirl rrni{fiuriur{ tn) '[n ufi EJ ilr 6[ o t,t'[#Yn'Lua ?'l E r {
  • 46. 7 ranEJ ?mEJ1F[1asr{ t 175 sitinirrnr:'tn rfrsilr atru ria 1 3 Lrns 4 fiorn:r; eav)aeA,i rio t - Anther 6a frunrootr:q {n) ffrfi rrniifiosrilfi uulil rilunsoo.iorinru'[u Y dt <A a , 6 10 3 - Microspore (n) t:Jilt6fdnmtnq0lnn'l:ttu.lt{nn[[U]J meiosis fl0.1 microspore mother A N_ .._!_ A v A a a a .4 y cell (2n) S{ microspore u0sttu.: mitosis t}tOaff.: pollen grain fr.rfr z frrtnrdln (tutio z1 v . .6r dA ,q A ,q 'Ia 4 - Microspore mother cell (2n) t:Jil[Snnm0U !un{tTIu (Pollen sac) qi.:oft luoungoo.]t:tu ttnsosttri.] meiosis '[oi' microspore (n) (lurio s) r7o lA nau #o + ,irrjr n:so-.r.r1 att",u"t oonfi fi raar sio'hituoantdsr rft o roiq riluarn osrilurunnairu d.:toiuri,ir:Jr n:so-r.:r i ^ & 6 su,q ao:otuoT tfiolorzunfiuoqiriuiruruoonunri'rurui.:'Lrj"luuqinsqan uilrrflu 3 rfio 6o . A a A a ull 'u a q a v 6r j a t dve 1. t{ntou? oa zudYllnoillolnT.][101.{[G]u1luo0n[dEJlnu oyrljuoonrdurnSooonriofr'loi' e 6t , url ' t y t4 ' u A i ^ i , e a q n'lLiluoanla:.: t1?0.:ttonsoona0.: ltJunoilT?iln% zun[oUx?ltneotnqontdur tdu f,il ilstflo flnnar rJsrs [[a.]tfiooir.:1 eiruiraudurfirfiorurornoonria r:iu ilsrh{ rus:J:r.r z. nr a neiru 6 o ru nfi rfi oornirlrjn ar rriitd nto n airn o.:ir'ldtuo an rd ur rTur o.: o o n rd sr9q u ll ' ct ' A I u A a, at i{'[s[[qincal,tosnnrutijupinriaEJilfl.:2o [ounnurunotoonffosnarurijuzunnaiilosriluoan 1 oonunsfi ul,l ' v a a u ul4, t a ! - v u dr A :.1t1fifl1u0u lltll'].:Tl{otJu.lT.l lfl[[ans0uogi0onuttr.lururnouruu.:tfr0ru:rrunuonn'runiurijut{dtGu? triu t{nfiosudr aot:otua{i urrsfioruri.rir'lrjtilogjii'ori'uuriu6.rfinrnrfinI uunR-rr rriu flnn:caYoorqJ ,iril ,irrjr Rlrcr.tn t,tilutl? rijud'u 3. zunr?il 6o ernfirfioornirtrjsotoanrdnsoonra.:oanrio drrfiol:rruriuuriu irhiuarirdoy -6r,Avdtj,nnruuijunndot I rfr oruTxilnuttduouoai'rurijur{d[6ux rriu runff:J:Js:o ruuq z7o tg qou fio s 'lalilnofin *.a cr ag X , .q.l X & a ^ r , j n?t1u?tll1{1lg[:lIdu{n ttntt0nocil'l[u[dil.:?u[ufr06f( Epigeal germination) [ou6truff.:on aanornurufioriouda radicte ornutuo;o-uciruso.:ciroi'utdl:lrd'rJr (Hypocotyt) dururuaflo6urioufiosio 6 r u o r eir ul o.:'[u rd'Er r rrn s iir oi'u rm fi otr rd'u r ( E p i cotyt ; durur nr u ra ff.: ohfu Tn ro air o fi In d fiudu6 u ri o u 6 o air oir+t dlu rfi'g o do ri s n'i1 faln n a fi a '[n rfi sJ il 6{ o l,b'[#in'lu a ?1 il i
  • 47. [{16r rJ ir'r rJlF['lasr{ t 176 iirrinirrnr:'[n rfisril 9./ 9r/ ?lo 20 etou ?lo 1 A n:oil1dn , PGA NADP " , HrO Q1nn1?-lfilU dark cycle lJo.lfig C4 A9,/j u5alsrufr (n) 6o Matic acid ernnlulflu (?t) 6 o Ct]? LLnv (.t) 6 o Pvruvic acid a,..Ydag/ Hn{01n1,t1,[ 1 (cor) novnnat{qIr u RuBP ufrqrflu (n) 6o Phosphoslvceric acid (PGA tr.l calvin's cycle 9./ ?JO 21 lr,/ aou ?to 2 t. tu Lignt reaction ftuu[[fl.r I o;ri1uilao6rfinqr:ouultJ#t**rfi NADP.q 2. :suuuar t qslei'iu6rfinEr:ouduoln*u:Ju6t.t il 3. siru:vuuuar tt ovtoi'iudrfinn:ouduornrJfrfiSur Phototysis 6a nr:uqnr-.nr.rti.' uaslri' 6rfinqr:oudurri:cuurar tt unsl# H* uri NADp. rfiorilu NADpH + H. -&qsada-----+uq9lada! o0r+r,ra'rruorono:ou 6o NADP. rraconlfdrf;no:ou 6a ur '[ n ufi u N 6[ o t,t'[ri'in'[u n ?1 EJ i Q, V {i'F rdb FSsflsstffir?J
  • 48. raas iYrEJ'lG[1asr{ t 177 itrrfin?rrnr:'[n ufrsru ila zz srou #a + nnfi ua"o"erru#arfind:cil'irodr6'ufieprfiIa'lnoirYun:oocfiI% :ri'nr{uqn::ru (Genetic code) 6a droi'uto.:rufl 3 oirurarilfirilud'rdruuosfiosorn:oasfiiu dq o vrirhjtrlunr : ff{ rn :r cdTrJ :6 r+ a dT U dda A- v du aT A nlquro.tu?ofr [a'[yroi fi60 dT o]ulo{ruflfl6rruT{1.[!'nuruoro.:nroosrJ [u g{ocriruuo'irrilun:gr osfi lusfi oto lun:sur unr:u:J o:frns ot nr:dL: tn:r sd}l :6u eteu #o 1 ,2 rtn& 3 fio tntrs v a lil 'ues, a & fl A 1 - :14 flTl1{!'nTTil0{ til [O [Uiln']OUlJ 0.1 t1J ffiJ A{ U1,ty1.114 tl O ila z - orn:io t :u-ar{ugn::ruhi1oi'riJufiu o-orfu nrrlfiormrunilrs'jr :u-an-uqn:mr 6ofiucq rirraru od a eiuuTor:hTmr 6.:ki n noi'o r,u ,u rio s- nlrrrfo{oansorfiuosuaoraonrurlu::Jgo.:TrJ:6ufifi'rrn:rsfoanrurteTdou.uwg dt It ca A' rlJuroulgruil5oan:*rusvn.:l ruqnrrilvril:rn40onrr (Phenotype)qi 9 lr/ ra 23 stou go 1 n. uac a. aai,^61 O']R X fli A = 28o/o Un3 Y tJ A = 32 o/o [U0.]01nlj:tl'ltutud[U DNA AlAa./Y QviluTilllil1j0.t A- T 9t.1UU T- 32To $nsil3illtullo.tG-coi'ruT-28% =22o/o G = 18 c - 22% c-18% a;rfloi'ir t. Ie.rra4aDNA?roo x 6irurcmnndr y (rio n)cc 2. :rfi'j'r.:rua c nnv c d.:riluruadaruriuriufuoirufiurclaTo:rou g rnrTursqt :su'ir.: n ri'u t oso-ufiud'rufiuoctaTo:rou z n"uly x dsfiil3s.l1ru?roir G uac c mnn'ir uacr{iailfi'%oirsfr'%scfiufiou:on'j'r 60fi qrun4filr,tnlrildor.rrraaraon'ir y lrio oy la u8 u il 6[ a t,t'[#Yn'[ua ?1 s,r i cy a-/ a-/ O.1141,[
  • 49. r6ras ?ms1r[1asri t 178 rtrrinirrnr;ln rfrs&r 9,/ 9r,/ ?o 24 aoil zla 4 o'rnlonTi- td' 1t8 C-qrrrjnficn'luooe AAAF, l-uttouatouAul.bLil Vl tA A d i - LililLtO1,[9tt0lAUlArilo dt aT Vl 6tVl et/ t LIJI,IO LlA Lril LO?'I *""8 x & x'Y ii BAAc,A | - lttLo1,[atol,[ B ul,ltilotn8qLt9t.t LLnr nnt'l u oi'ortd'iu x' illa1 n $ri unytd'iu y$ yi r t r,i'yr 11 u 6 T ul yr :h o .r rni o r L n v u ei t d"i r r fJ u a/ iA & aln a n t*ilylj 0.1 n n ?1 Ln q1 1,[(u 9,/ Vl q,/o/ d Y st'o.t'Lsiiu il u i u1 yl:orn ili o Lrn r uei P x"Y loi F1 A q Ln 00 !Lgt.,l A tn 0 q uo.l A 0r t1J EJlr P F1 x"x" roi rrY il'1o'lnil a t?1'l%1,b LLny roi orfiIon16r % a/ Y aT 9t.t1,[1,[il 10n16[ 1/+ = 118 _-__&_j- A, , a ta dt .a s j et.tilu lonr efr tnio unsueiosfr fi ri 16oe rfjuH ri rfi oqlo rfi ofi or:ul uanrs roi x ufiqnnlei'rilt*fro, roi ,iilufiq:reiru r:z:r oi'.rriugnfiIonrnrilurdaora{Io rvirfiuru 9I io unsrfrofror:rurgj x"y * x"x" qnfrTon.rnuilu x"x" , x"x" , x"y rrnr xy.u tl fio;'loignarrqr:Jn6 1u:Jn'jrrTr'[ri'[oi sior6qlrn.*n"0.lnHf.:unrrru 1 mtfru r, o-o rfu rfr a 6 o :r erTa nr a{do r"loi4 n are or il n G H ai rfi o oTo do ryir ryu Tn xsqr lr,/ ?to 25 aou 8-+5-+3+ 7+ 2 6o 2n-4 oyufru'irTcr:TruIryrufr u u'l o1r o {Ter :TruIryru fi tri rvir ri'u l)'/ ?to 3 & $,io * *r+ ! ??r# I FI(u 2 Fi 6o 1.Fi AD(u(u ufruld'uilud$ ln rfr s il 6[ a %'L#in'[r,ra ?1 N i ffiri'u ad LLny B n-u b rato#'trnsr'[d'orn
  • 50. raas inslsf1asr{ t t79 dT rinirrnr:'[arfisru z 6a n =2 fiIn:Truitru z uvi.:uoc'lrild'riluririu riluusnd'r{nfi'ylffirfioornR'uaenr:$il.lqlq meiosis g 6o n = 2 frTerilruImr z urvirunr'lritoirilueinTu losrueinsuyi.:riifi z Io:rur6oql uao.:'ir ril ursn ii'r{ n dfil fo. n:, o rR,u"qd Meiosis t ryir#uq a 6o 2n = 4 tilu:csc Metaphase llo.r mitosis Tn:IilTsililn[yi.:6slrnartrryaii'q s 6o 2n = 4 uiju:sus Anaphase t ovrfiu'irfinr:uunqito,: Homologous chromosome,u o 6o 4n = 8 tilu:sss Anaphase 1r0r Mitosis finr:uunTfl:rur6ooon'l:J rirtd'fidruruso.: In:IilIsilrfiirurflu z rvir t 6a n = 2 tilu:cuc Metaphsae tt In:hlmrfirilu n'hifiqi ilr6sr{nnr{rsnd-,u g 6o 2n = 4 tilu:vgv Prophase I orrfiu'irfinr:'i'rnorqr*'rraltorln:hlqilunyfinr:rrirri,u 10.1 Homologous chromosome g 6a 2n = 4 rilu:crls Prophase sor Mitosis osrfiu'irftnr:'irao.:slrro.lgo.:In:hImr lilrdet 1'trifinr:ufifl) 10 6a 2n = 4 rilurqadlu:sucrioufiocfinr:,iroo.rsr-rro.: (riouosrilu;rJfi sy 1'l 6o 2n = 4 tilu:cuc Metaphase t ocrfiu'irfinr:rrirqigorTqr:TruIryrurrnsilr6u.:nnrrrrynd'qt 1riu.:rilu$) o-orfutunr:afrrtqoii'fiuvlTurf'oiorairunr:urirrsnd'uuu Meiosis a:rjloi'irq ria t - fio rfloto'rn s 6o nnapnase I rrdc 6 6o nnaphase flo{ mitosis d.rtilld ,j Et0tu0{nu ila z - fio tfio{orn 5 6a Anaphase I LLni t1 6a:cus Metaphase t drorqlo.rrfiedu riou:cusfi s #o g - rflr+nr:uriorgaduuu Meiosis 6s,oqrileird'uocironnsioo{ ila q - rilr*nr:6ule{rql-uond'a.r ueirilunr:urirrsod'[uu Mitosis d.:'[rjnnoi'o.:qrrrufi9lg Ioyrrinrru tYltlltrdA ra 26 nou flo I sTtllsiactNo 6a 1 ila (fruit) ,vCyad.aAa-cjovuu, ?l'lx 1 $Jao [[?'loril na flatrl$n Garyopsis fr.:ilnn:*rucrorrrufrofr6orrr.lunurulfri.:'lr.i (Pericarp) :J:ynouoireJ z ciru 6a 1. rnflu (Hull raio Hust; : rilueirufir{'ruzunrirrvrtrralot{ :J:cnouei'ru r:Jfrontrani rrjfronqo e&<a<AA tdn nrr rhrruio uny nhu:o.rrrufro ffrurrfiorufionTu 2. rirrnd'o.r (caryopsis nia Brown rice) : :J:;nouEiru - e.rritil'hj (ovary wall) fiftetrudou l g #u rfiorufionTuur.iu fifi'n:enrsuiju Roer '[ a tfi sJ ilr 6[ o %'[#in'[r,ra ?1 il i
  • 51. 7 rilaEJ iyrulcf1asr{ t 180 et'r #n irr nr ;'[n ufi s a.r - r:Jfionri'rurlfio (seed coat) fi z d'u filtfururnq aleurone layer : rflu"futdr{'ru starchy endosperm ror'[{ fi protein "ournu.'ndrio :J:rnoul:Jeiru oil, cellulose uns hemicelluloses - Starchy endosperm : :J:cnouailgrrfl.: z gfio 6o Amylose uun; Amylopectin - Embryo ratofi 6trn'jr oqnriT r fiI:J:6uuas'ltfiugr lr/ 9/ la 27 aou ?ro 2 180 tu:J:vmn:fioritu Haroy & Weinberg equilibrium orrrufilorduostrjuJficruu:Jn.:uf'jr , i - d A,qs A a , d, Aa t dt oril'tun generation nq1il lil0ll4Fr?']ilnfl0.tul,[[ou tilu p $asn?tilnUuclattilu q ornTovrririrrauo'ir fiorurfionfirilun-nurusei'os 1% uuao.:'ir ourfianfi6Tulvrfluilu homozygous genotype rrvrurirld'uilu 92 = 1 o/o = 0.01 d'trfu q = g.1 tuil:strn:vtttrauro..udtorfiureiu:rrud'uorrrrufisarfiuoi'aselar'loirilu 100 o/o 6o p*q=100%=1 t-otiu tdur:rueirqor'[d'ritp= 1-q = 1-0.1 = 0.9 ,*r.'r*rriuuufirilu Heterozygous 6o zpq rvirn-u 2 x 0.9 x 0.1 = 0.18 tnrj:srrn:1,000 nlr 6oryirn'u 0.18x1,000 = 180 ar,r lA 28 OAU ?,O 4 l4EJ1gtA?t 1=2n ?lEJ'luldfl 2=n olnRln tflunrnuao.: Embryo sac lolfig t 6a e.rririlt:i (zn) z 6o Rntipodat ceil (n) 3 6o potar nuctei (2n) + 6a egg 1n; 5 6a Synergid celt (n) e e lt ,a ruri.ri.:'trifio'jrtilu vegetative cell to.:fit ostilu 2n tutrusfirrynei'dadnrsJlui.:nlrivrs.]uilor.iru9t nr:urjttrynei'uuu Meiosis 1a{ Megaspore mother cell (2n) toi Megaspore (n) unsttri{ Mitosis siodn s uio toin{rurrnii-z lrnd' fifr e firrnfiuelu emuryo sac o1ruR'rv{q o'orfr.l rrsingrsnd'6itflu n unt{u Potar nuctei rilurrynd'dftnr:uri.:firrndEra ucilil'lsiuri.rlry T4acrtA,aad lqilnrafiil Grrilu t rsndfifi z firrnfiua o-o'jrrilu 2n (n+n) tr,.t6t&iafd ra 29 oou ?ro 2 rEril'lc[fla6iFlrJryi1ltl[ frtiaaal:fln1r{ci fietu 6o Epidermis rflurdarfiofirj:snouEirEr Epidermat cett dr'lrifionoT:narasi' untiu rradqru dtr:Jfiuuu:Jn{illo'rn Epidermat cett ocrilursnd'fifinnaT:vrnreoi'q ater+ r7o 1 ,3 un& 4 fior rnmc ila t - u-rrilufisildrudr fi:Jrntuodd'ruuufir'lu rio g - rrynd'ilnrsad'sa.rrdoufiofirlu 'lrifinnoT:nnrad' q .t fia + - fitunrJnfirirutraqj fifir1umr'roYrucir.:rortu oirrfurur6rftrhnlu fifirtud'ruei'r.: ,d, n o nr:aru rdu dlmrr :Jrntu la rfr sr ar 6r o ut#intr+n ?1 ar i
  • 52. raas imslr[1asr{ t 181 eir rin irr nr :-ta u6 sr er fro ao nau ?io + or{uouloaan'lsoi firs{d fi 6m Bn a si o nr:it'u rsrmsrduao d a or{u ou'to o a n"lro{ 1cor1 d.r ril uforq Gufi oyn n rirl:Jldtunr:airoirqrrn eftfiiiri'rfitloiiu co, *,lndu 6'o:rnr:#rro:rrfua.:osu.ndu usirfiofi.r:co-u eeAv n'l'rilr{r,{u14ii.J uil'jrosrfiil co, ff'lrivirtri'o'qr:rnr:ffirn:rsfrarrfiruduuqiarir.:lcr q i dt o ia U , g q e,t v d i lutilryrn1$oon$Lol{uJunl6tryr?.tg !ilEro{n1Ttr tilnlrfl{[nr.rrfirrfl{ tua.:ornostiluqr-rl:J virorrornoT:filnii' rirtri'rfior.lfiffiurfiriun'jr nr:nrulouat'loi usiloEr:Jn6il3rurrufi'rroan6uoulu ltrA ,i , au,, d a 01n1FI leriln1Tt:JnuuuUn{il1n o.] ttjfl.lt{fln:sytuEt0n'r:fl{tor]314t[6t.tt0{?lTil1ntyr1iliil1il CO2 gA 31 SIOU flO 4 D, E, H, K :r n g a.: ft tlu r6"u r rd ur 6 u r qr il dr ei'u or n d'r uuo n rrirl:J :J :; n o u oi': u ct X A Y a eAa v u a Y a v d u 'a1. epidermis riluruatU0T1lil0ndo illsddyllTu.ta?nulilsj.]{1{t6iu'tttdsNu.:tgn6iur.l-[rjilnno I:n nr aqi' ur.r rryn d-o v uJ6 rr uuil nrlil ril us u:rn 2. cortex tiluornntsEt:rra'jr.:fu epidermis [[ns stete rJ:snouoYrurdoufionrr:t6rur firir vA Y *' ' a r I r4 " v Z'q nrirfresnil*runsorur:tiludrutraqj Iou:rn cortex osrroun'jrtudrqlu 'ii'uluserso.r cortex oyrilu rtnii'unrrdsnGun endodermis 1lu:rnfirturd'Errrdsrrorrfiuforou; cett tu#udriiofiorqrurnduorft nr#onur un:rsftar:sruoiurato6fiuaverori rreiosfi?ir.:fifirrynd'ruri.:urrrrm:nod $nsodo:.:n-utturqJ.uqtq I/lA to{ tstdil trgn?'r passage cell 3. stele tfluuirrrufiorifioornfu enoooermis rrir'[:J vru'ir stete'lu:rnosuoundrtu cortexql t e U ' -X uTsn 0uo't u'ugt'1.: 6J o{1{ 3.1 pericycle rfllursnd't{#lur'oturotfinft t-z unrnurailrstu:rn riJuuuuaildrrfiorar:rn tl1l{.J ( secondary root ) 3.2 vascular bundle tJ:sn oueir sr xvlem o tiEr:{lonar{6sr riluLran lufi slu rd'urqiosfi ----c phloem oii:sfi'jrt$an eiailltfiotd'otfroto?E vascular cambium frlr:sil'irt xvtem n-u phtoem rreilu X i u,a a q X ,ao lflurrGs'ros'lrjfi flnra.:v{s[:J[as{oila1u?uuan#ouil:sil'rru 1-o uan Ioururnrinfi + rran ciru:rn ^adlv^oro.rfirlurfiulrfiuafnf irururanilrnn'jr (rfiu to lu) .t t* tiluuitrruo:.:nnr'r:rnniat#lugor:rn rfiutqi"i'oroutu:rnfirlurd'Er.:rdur 6iru 0 rdr ! i a , a c J"[ra qi riJurfi o rfi o nr r:t 6 rur eir u:r nfi r lil rfi EJ.: ri et:.: n nr I ru-n ril u xytem v9 ra 32 stou zo 1 A, F, t, J ai r qiufi tlu rd'a.: $ 6 a.: or r ru ii r oiu o r n qir uu a n rrir'[:J lrtoll fi 1. Epidermis airulraqjorrrutfiu.: t #u frmr:vrrn6r6u rato wax rofiouoqloi'ruuon rdtq, euaYXAa u 0{nun1Tfltu tfl u1.[1 0 0n0'ln [u0 [u 0y{rgu ln rfi s il 6rall'[#in'[na ?1 il i
  • 53. 7 tilns ?vrEJ'lr[1agri t 182 drrinirrnr:'ln ufisa.r z. cortex airutHqiriJt,rLfrnd' patenchyma drrtd H n? il tH UU0.1?'l.ITYH?'l { t$n n nr utuolofi chloroplast 3. vascular bundle tudroi'ufrnlrroiru16ulsrtu:yus:JoeJnfids$ X i -. - a ,61 uda tffotfio pntoem tuov xvtem tisJ.rerirunrEJilioo{luttur:-sfirGurfiu fi phtoem orjsiruuon xytem adoiru tu fr vascular cambium ri'unnrt:sn'j1.1 xylem riu phloem 4. plttr :J:snoud'tu parenchyma cells tiluairulrn n'rulurqnd'orofi chtoroptast t. firtuld'u.:qiiinrdohiiiolrJri'rn1 rrnii'oiruuonro.: cortex orarfio ceu differentiation.uc nffut:Jrfluldorfioroirufi6ern'jr cork cambium tdlrari unsrfionr:uri.rrrnd'afrrcork dururriluetrura.: r:J fi o nhi riu,.'r ri,l ul, r.r cortex un ; epidermts ra no o o nl:Jloi' z. rfitiifirfio'lfiufr ctrura.:rdo'[f6o xytem fi:rruqr-rriuudu ruarrfiurilurril uri.:ufiatfikff I a X , ue z riru6o n:yfirunsuuriutf airu phtoem os:riladluciruro.rrilfian'lri laart; z7o gg srou zia s 'lrrailrYr.urnuurrYn fiaro Ty,lnraarrir.lu:n 6{raor:o6an safranin o riludEiorufifiuillfEioil,.rritrsnd'rorR.:fifi?q Touf,sioilos6ofild'6ii6nfiuuuilrirusnd' -Ye'Ja^oayv o.:uulsddYt ilnnuufi 1{1 1 036ruo{ [1J 1t50 [0u - Xylem TsutL!:n[[as:sucfiaa.: fie.rri.:rsnii'fitilusecondary cett watt 6a ftnr:ayarufinfiururn , aunor:r6rur finr:asal6nfiufiruri.lrrynei' (cett watty atru rio 1 ,2 udc 4 fio rr:rs - fir lpitn; uflurdorfi o parenchyma d.:tritoifi nr:ayetfinfiufi ini.:rsod' €a-'Xi^),) - noinrrorrurfitru (cork cambium) rflurdordoroirg{iu:Jfiuuuiln.:rurorn parencnyma filnd epidermis kifiAnfiu rutirnur , trnlruo{ rilu p"r-"n"nyma rfiond.: fifipi{rqad-rurrurn - Phloem TsusttTnt{dflurorfinrfiuon-u yirld'floruftruo.rrfiutoi' uei:yusdao.:orufiururir A - 5il 16l e d avte ytul{ToL01l t{dn tilil t14u0.J[14ufl [ou1nn?"t 9 t/ -9___--r a ynu-& o ty ty & ua 34 stoil flo r srruuuordal stlrlruE!0il%udcairslun{roiilr rfia to ilfiud'rEronor!4.:uuoi'ulffir;Ersvir'rorndu6u 1 rruqr uirrn*rfuriluuirrr*roud.,d,(U n''lxr (Zone of permanent tissue) d.:'hifinr:roirXluuur6r (Primary gromh) o-lriuuriostirutrj to il -.-r- -.-.,4 tvvlv X i ^ a ct X j ^ d asU0Yn{aUil9l'lttl4u.ltotl [[oo1.[ [u0sfl{11l Lilon01nUi[?ilU0oflf tilutfrottJoto5ilosii Primary growth onoot?n1 rirlrir{ruuaoroSqardu6aul airufiaooir6J a{illasndrrrrfluudarfionl?: ftnr:roSrXtar cambium liir'larilufittutfi'r.lqj o;fi cambium) afrr Xytem uac phtoem oon'l:Jd'rudr.: rfioriJuroiru vrr'ld'rurir.: (secondary gromh) virtv{fitfir#udruqrueinnro,fiiudu ra3oii'ruduriuralq '[ n rfi s EJ 6[ o %'[#inlua ?1 il # dA a./ t 9/ LSn n tTU{ a? fl 01*1t1.1 viodrrfru.:il:ynoueYru
  • 54. lansJ imslrf'rasr{ t 183 eir rin i rr n'r :'[ n ufr s, er r7o ss nau ?io + [J$srarfiss,r rio t - rnntdlrillutfiootiluot-rn::{ulunr:lrl6uu Thromboptastin dafrrrurornrd'orfiafirfio uotaunvtnfiorfioo l#narsrilurau'lryf prot'nromuinase dosdrt:Jlflunr:snrEJeirsor prothrombin ld' n nr sJ rilu Th rombi n ei o'[:J 6.: rfi srdo.: fiu nr:rrfi r Eies o.: 16 o o ilaz- iqrfiurnftnrrufrrilulunrtsfrtl:l:6ufitfiurrio.:ri'unr:rrfi.:Eirso.rrfrooornqr-u rriu Prothrombin ria e - Fibrinogen rilul:J:dufincnruoEiluufioo air.:ornCI-u d.rqia'liloyur:J:anrnrilu Fibrin rfi o n n n:soi'ud'r EJ Th rombin uns Fi brin a sm uoi'r rilur#ulsfi t:Jil o uuru ntufi qo ila + - I:JuqrardsJil'[rirfi urlioln-uRTyu?iln1:ufi.:qlrsorrdoo c ga 36 srou ?,a 1 n. uac fl. Aao^c,.qcru urfffiaruuGriJu diuretic osfirld'lo'lilfinr:glorirnffu 6rrfiornr:riu:Jsamclurl?rurrururn 1or:ldrru,u tiu Antidiuretic hormone : ADH) fi ornr:dr,: rd u.tfi ufi qdu'[d' 6 o ' a'rn1r Hypokalemia 6o fiI:Juoardsril(K) non{ olriuer:'ld'i:trl"l:dfi r oo.u rriu nd'ru dru ruohiso r'inao ' o1n1r Hyponatremia 6o urnejld'orrfiilnr:riulqrduil (Na) oonnrrflanrrsq rirlri' trta rir virl#rfioornr:risrufi:r*c lilufinnq ncoSa ' a1n't? Hyperglycemia 6a fitrel-u1i1orntuu6oos.: [nsrfionrrrd'odusfiu 'u ql ' o'tn1: Hypercalcemia 6a rirtrdfiunnrduru (Ca) atrfiuornnr:rfirunr:oofirunfi'u o-.rriunr:roorrar:fifi ca arq r?iu tussiln rata pl-nltrurfluoiuq ' a1n'tr Hyperuricemia 6o fi:Jirurruto'cn:oqinfl.:a'rnn'trlfirunr:oodruna-urolsqiql n:oEJ3fld proximal tubute{' o a'tn'lr Hypertipidemia 6a yirlvifi Chotesterot arduqJ eilriu qio.:iu tj:smr u n #r s ril:r; uo n rd u il ilr n uns uooTil ril ue.r ntrid ft ri.,o u, v9 ra 37 stou ga 3 n.I. o. uae f . A, ar:frilrunr:n:otfi Glomerulus tilusr:suror6n rriu rnfioui uGsJ nolon uncn:ooyfiIu uqiqlg 4r fllrrl+'ro [14t-uosr.ituoanrurhitoi rriu T:J:6u rnsrfrordao d'.:#uorhjyruT:.ndulurirrdoo '[n rfr s s,r 6{ o lt'l#intua ?1 EJ ;
  • 55. rilas ?Yrs1r[1asr{ t 184 etr#nirrnr;la rfierru VvrvsACtAardsd.AaA so 38 oou ?to g eir0nr,l rfl:rcinfr%rilunr:ilouor,rdrou eieufrratrilunr:torrouduod lY rr [?116{T1f n1s . 4 ia % Er _. a A , , j p ,, Vaccine oa ar:fffisru:rGtilu antigen (antigen 6a Rrrr:Jnn:Jnorufirtireiirtnrsu#?R-trur:nt:J v ^v u A n:r{u:;uunffe'iln"ulfinirr antibody ruroiooiru'loi'1 rijodo vaccine rrir6idrrnrs 6ltiln:;d'u:suuqg'sc 4fi{run-utfiefr.: antibody rurqiad'ru riJunr:nir'r4fid'run-uuuuriorar (active immunization){q-{q Serum o ! a i. l.qsa d - iq I a o0 ulrnooyrlt'ttO''rfl.rT1lyt'l[14tfl00[[1{El?o0nnOilud? q{Lu serum r.[o:ij antibody te - A ncnrsoEioTrs oruunr:do serum uri{ilru 6rrilunr:lfi antibody Touo:.ouilunr:afr.:nfid'rurYuuuuiururqql-qlq (passive immunization) 9Y 9'/ ?to 39 aou ?ro A riloeir pH nlTt-u H* oanl:J s nrrrJo'u co, zoor6lorrfindt soordaonoasuaoo'irrfiaofirrrrrurflun:oao 6.rsio.:finr:nonarrurflun:on.: Iou ornnr:ilr ulo urnsnr:riurir sJ nrriloiu Co, r ar rfi ood'a.rnoar (Co, rilun:o) ttl I ?to 40 srou sa 1 4 lsurlud' riluar:fiufiaruuhriluer-rfuf.:routryflun'r:ilrulolffirrurronr:rirunoo Ad-AiUy-Ul,ldAaos,oYt 6tfrno:au o.:uuriiotoi'iutssn'[ud'6rrfioroilrsnr:nruloruuu'[ril"i'aonfiuouryirriu riu6oufio'lsirilyl'rg riu ctycotysis riurdsr toi'nn-.:muornRlTfln.rrJ gtucose rftu.i z Rtp -& i,oolnrnr:nn'ts maltose fi:J:snaueYru glucose z Trurnqn 6.:osloi'nffrr'tilaanil1 = 4 ATp lvt la 41 oau go 1 n. uac s. nr:uuant:JdrurTrrytilun:su?unlrrn ri oio.:firurirurrrnsfifirrflund'u rfiatd'rfionr:urnri'lsi i - - Ae, utea ffi o't n lil 0 { a1 R n'] 6trd1 t J1 :n u?,t T ru1 1.[q ? n nl { yl [u 1.[1J 0.1 Lil a ? tci 6i nr:unnt:lduufl"rry'lri'irriluoi'o.rtdrfiorfioouo.: r:iu r,{orrir '[ao:r rrarurGu ord'EJnr:uili -,_---d---q- ---y4 4 o o , - cAe etea q " a a u,v , e nirutEonSon{rffur.:uosfiufiufiui1to cirusqifrd'orlfrdoqluiirrdu{oon6raut:Jeiletruoir.:1riu oan8rouor4n6'uloudTruInnfindroroos'lri'loiodruufiordoouuorfitei rriu '[#r6ou6u qls .y9 la 42 aou ?ro 2 ?t. uae o. ttqGnmruuuuiu4finddorfro.: nio#rytlertu'riu ocGililuoEjr.:Toqroiulu#n{n'ln arthropod rriu Ittr.: trtt rilueiu'[:J To lnqGn:ru uuudrr]0.:ld'rcuu:J:ysrnfi roSry6lunr:urao: oons o{nqGn::ru dorfu tu Trl:6asi drfitrjfi:cuu:J:sarm uflsr4%a%a-?uuu fi:vuu:J:sarilEr-.:riluuuujrr lA ul,l r a a An- 0.: u: ttj fl'] tJlTn [nqilqonTTil lluuu to '[ a rfr H N 6[ a t+'L#in'[u a tl r,r i
  • 56. lilnEJ imEJ'lrf'lagr{ t 185 eir rln irr nr ;'[n rfi sr E r orientation nrurlfi.: #o{octtmo.:r'{qGntrruorouauoreio:Joo'unruuonoshlrililrcmilrfionr:rirr,:6lr I @ t v v e :'& a ct , j er a [oun1:?1:gl?0u1'1fl000n0{nuflR'l1r{t[?o40il o:u1{1r{q${nTTtJtt:lu orientation 6.:tijunr:qouauo.:oiod.:tir[oufr e,_-_-_-_.-::_.C_- 4 7, t oX . e u r j Uw <, ^ C YlflYl1{RlJfiusn:Jfl.rt:"r lgu iltflouusr1un:rsuflnil t:Jnrilnnur0.JrnflTo0n-[N riluy{qOnr:iltfronr:nrotfi1: nt: !-'---,--.-7,qy y & d dt ^ d A - J ,q - j ?iiln1?1UU'lt14iln{4.0fl'lnnUt[fl.:o'lYl9lU tljltilqAn:Tilty'lAilnUtnU{€lStTYl0UIUTSOUSi't conditioning 6a nr:fiuuf,uuufirtou'[t olnt{n.0"run1:finr*rror Pavtov d.:6'orilu ctassicatI conditioning rilunr:d#n{loiirnr:nr;{'uornR.:rir z rfiefiil1#ilylTufri'u uiu yroaottrdornr:afi rfioaritrfiuq q ----d''----- 3 U & { i q. -e-q !, u I U , .i j , a d o q g - 3 0'114'lr 1.{1n'lu tun olnuuflun:lo'] + 1140'1fi1: YI1t14fll*flli',td'tu tiln aoil'tfluntco,:odrtt6gr flyt'ttfaut$rnru U !l eZ A' uX + d , 4 U,oqe s 3 rl -& a j. c, j vAa, C u [un [o ?1.16] Ylnauilu1l.{n1:flunrs9r.10u1{Lou? tilynt14flil1jli']n1u !un o{il1.{[au{nr;6,ltlluR.:rf'rfrtIjut]ou'[n (conditioned stimulus)'jrfrr'loiEuufiurn:s6.]fioc'ld'fiuorur: airuorur:riluRrrirrurT 6rriluR.:rirfifihifiou'[s (unconditioned stimutus)6noTrodr,:nd.:60 nufiuurunrrfiondtfdfidirrnd'rsf,.:dt'trififi:c oYrradtfiuf,r6rnnS{ &, , u,a o ta ZA^ t{{ a 0 u qt 0il1nu ttJnill1il n{gilolluon tn uil:yt toil tn unu tluau tt/ u %a 44 grou ga 2 a. ud& 0. rio n. uns s. fio ldo{orntdofinr:n:sd'ursnii':Jrcfl'rvr oyoi'0.:nrsei'utri'fi.onrrruu:rritad.r 6.rosqq virlrfrrfion:vua:J:varvr'loi rnsudan:sqiuu:.:duflririrlri'turqro{nryrrflilrsE-ryrur{du orur5eso.: reu'i nrsrrfl:Jrsd'rvrffhirfirud'ru rflu'l:Jnril n0 At or None rute uqisr LHqfr virtri'r:riuer?'rruf6noir.: .1 1A'[* rvirniuq(u t il u u vl r-r y Ty u r vi't .: Ht o fl ?'l el n :v fuT 0 .r n 1 T vAo5-Aa,6,ga n rv o 1{ 6tr.1 tl 0 0 u yt tJ N fl Et 0 o ?'t tJ [T? I 0.1 n :c t[d:J ty gt m uu 6 oq t. r#unirgrurinnr.:so':lsrJ:snrm rirturotraqjos*rn:sua:J:ceriltei'r5rn'jrrurorfin ry{r.rg{U vAiu-XAv nrrruoi.rumrunr:rodoufisa.:"[oaauosrr:J:r.lnnunuv'luytR'lfinorm.:ro.r1s:J:yfl.tyt z. tsi:J:sfl'ryrtift,fjttr,6au{'ru orfinr:rerfroufito.:n:suail:saryrtuuonrou'loi'r5rn.jrtuil:yarnfiq U rai n aa tilil[u0 til0nuilxJq 9,/ 9,/ ?ro 43 aou zro 2 ty gL/ ?to 45 aou ?to 4 orientation, conditioni ng n.-+f.-+a.-+?1.-+o. tu:vuu:J:vfl-l?t somatic fi fi rHri.: uilurar.[r uiu Fr?'l ruff;n (Receptor)(U n rv u a:J :v fl't yt a; r.i't u sensory neurone rrirt'tr#urafi'.:yr1{T'rnut.r ornriuniruqtsruo.rrdorfionr::Jrsrurnrunun:#.rnr:arrurdrus lfuuA 1sffunn".:oanillml.r Motor neurone fi:rneir.:to.rlt#unn-.:t:Ju-.ioigryrflrHilrs (Effector) 6o nd'rrurdautuuncnd'rrurdafroErrrudroiu rfiiotri'rfionr:srndutilunyldfrarJoruofirarir '[ n rfr s aJ 6{ a lt'[#in'[r+n ?1 ru i
  • 57. - [aner inEllrf'lasr{ t 186 air rln i rr n'r :'l n rfr s e.r ila 4G aou ila 3 &nrnr{uo6;sgsfiildoairodnrnnr6o%q * Ere *+g*niurn d"d I 3u* -lzo l**'*-:i: /- l I + I*il -r-==..- Hm tr$It*r *m -"l 1.1..*i,*---:""ss* J l*"*x srm*'u*u - CJ t ffi'mi*"r ,m*t I "- *,*u 1r #ry,i $srm 1 .W*.m**i.* t .fi .h qryff@**p*vtr n m,Mfkffitrplmirrffidf J lffimkmftm ff F il* #r*urm mmd **eftfid pelmr My fo t - qnolot rdororn spermatogonia druri.:taoranooair.:oqituo-ruvwrfu osfinr:rrrjrrrnd'(u'-q rlTaAi.&av6 Lt:J ! til t 9r { fl ry,r 0 r1r.r il a1 u? uo n a o o { [[a ? u [0 :q y{ il5'0 ual u fla z - lrinnd'oo alnRlyr rgaei"hi ocrfllursnd-firfioornnr:urj.:rsnd'[u:sui Meiosis l ogq .z-4...-..i^ra^r4,iuU,e".u,JvtY.--& tn01ilfin{alnmtnonl:ilfldufla{ t1flqn01nr.: tr[r''r6fyr0ril tnrluurirryiruu (Secondary oocyte) oorl-u traai'hi orooslri rfi odufi'tdlr.ursiacrd o% rio 3 uac + - rlnoio.: o.tRR'tlt First polar body unc Secondary oocyte rflurrynri'firfiordu,u nforug niu tilurunornnt:uil.:tryadlursus Meiosis I no.r primary oocyte IqcJo;rfio1urn*yfifrnr:Ern 1:lrrirdviarirlriunsrilu'ldtu:rurfioE6o:uoT vrrir'l:J qirriu z rqoii'd 6.rrfioduvrn'l r6ou rn:ryluHfi.:fr{ q .'---'i' ' a--- llrdr A .l A t nr:qn'[d riju:ou rG ou lumn q rG ou oun'irocnilq:J:y'ir rd au lLr v IA 47 SIOU ?O 4 orytocin aofTruu oxytocin rfluaoflruuornoiarulqiaruoreirurtrufir.rnrirlviruri.:ilonnfiuer-r ruosriT lfirfioE a & - Y ^ iaor q 6 a 6T .o J j j qgo n, nlTan0otnolu o.:1{1*14tU{iletUefi']turrusnn0o[[1{vrg0vagtaaiLetugfroflrfrru rfro ln'rfronr:nnao'[d' lt It a a A ra 48 srou ?ro |inrfiud d €r a ^ i, y A v inrfiuG rilulorilufrir.:nr EJeio.rnr:tflonr:fn:*''rRl?sflrJernro.o:sEiu rrernrdsillu16aonastuq A ' ,4ev e a a alrle q aiu €r e ytvu a a nrven [il4fl{n'ru toru[[fl.ruoo0rd']il1Tndr1{?Er']ililo1s{ tunrnlfi'[rinnuoodrrljuosola.:-[ri'iuTorijuqtql A 6l n I 9' Y A y- dl,l rd o €r A - r a 6ornornr:lfrurnflu o.ouurilo'toi:u[rfl.:[[oov{o fr'lriSinrruirri]ufrosiu:Jrcilruiorfiu o rs3ru ln ufr EJ E r 6[ o t,t'[#in'[r,u Fr ?1 sJ {
  • 58. fo 1 fie cy 4., Yl.lHil9llj 0.1 e rio 2 fo3 lv 9y ?ro 50 etou ?lo ornrio ru n(u riruuo rilneJ ?nu1fl1asr{ t 187 etr#nirrnr;'[a rfiga,r tt/ I rio +g nau zTa s 6r5no:or,lor-ru:nsoooromngfio oroqjtr.too{fi0'ai4figr.lirorflr.rmronalr uaa-alI nr:oot5srdufinoroulu:voiuna.:.:rurlar (sub shett) sia.16'oGsrrdr6nEr:auarlufufifi**-oo.u ,d-a---'- A. a .- t & ' ^ au 6^u oirfrsorioutnruo 6l6a ts [oud'udoutruu S osfrnhunrsooif]sth (orbitat) riluu:tum:lnnru v ,trtu - Wp *rt*r,t*l. YA r4 va a A a u j j q -& -[1lT1y Ul{ytAUtnn1l?[nauflytflo (n=1) ayrjy,tdr{ruqltytno[u:yourfunn.:.:ruql q q -- '--- ril:rs ruu'i'rfl o{osa oil?a.:iyr ryroir^l oio lufir rodsafr udTil:o 01{ e rvirrfu t & y u ao -til . v a -, $rr'ts llCInsgursouiln{.:'tutj0-lu?1{ e [tJtyl1nil a']ilfidnnlToot5EJ.: IHIlJ 2n' s nr:o'origo6r5nn:o%?,aii x*3 6o [Hel2s2 2p6 x ftnr:o-o6urdrfino:ou 6a 2,8,3 (rnsosaail = tg)Toufior:rurornairqr-u te fi x3+ fr6rfinnraurHfro = 10 6.:frnr:o-oGu.:Arfinnrou 6o fl d'["i'urur nr:o'o 6ur 6 rfi n ora u[[u :rrser-uil fi'.: {rud o u nr illia t er o ufi t 1 ila st grau z?a z suro'laoau: p3->s2->K* >Ms2* nr:fior:nnsu'roror'[oaourfioqir'r1 nr:fior:rurornnr:o-oGur6rfinq:ou udoo'iruru?Ja.:s vvad T3 OUTt n{ {'t1{1 0.: a [d n ora il Ao o./ a/ I ql a/ Y Vl il or ur urs du v,r n.r.,r'r r{ tvrl n u o.r uull 1 r q La 0 0 un u tra ni n,j-r ta a o uu? n un v fi .r ril uta o ou6 q n u ilr n r u'r ae stH ni rur ndu d'.l#u turolooou p3- > 52- > K+ Mg'* fi z :yqiulr#.,:'uro{arfinq:au 6.rfi,urqrfinfi noq P3- >s2- >K+ )Mg'* la rfr EJ ilr 6il o %5[#intr,urr ?'l rJ i A il91 A hl 9t e- P5- = fr 15 s2-=ft16 rc=fr19 .Mg'* = fi1zv 2 zp' 18e = 2 8 18e = 2 8 18e = 2 8 10e = 2 8 :l --> s ffirfu,Hf$il$ d,#f:h*'f,e{ f *rh,stn$ (y a./ 6-t Vl A 91.11.$U 1J1*'lO 1000U Fl0
  • 59. rilaeJ imslcf1asr{ t 188 itr rin irr n r :'[ a ufr s a.r ila sz srou r?o 2 Aude D Ior:.rairrlnmuauoi'drtErtirEr riiulnrrnfrrfidorfifisrrn-uei'rsu:rdorilfisrdu{ruu:.:rurn nnoiltiln?fl.:ilrn'lrjacnrsri1ror'lildrtrhlr 1 rnriu un:'[rnld'fiarrur:nrir'hnlflr'Loi'lu#urdurniuy ll/lYAAr.A ga 53 aou ?la 2 nolooo?Joit rrsiFrl6{$ntto9tr9iaoso0 M2 ir6rrraA& tuoialntilrnnn T2 [[as M2 [:]t{liltnndoldfis 0olgtoo agfin0iltiln'l0ynrtruflu0rnuun.:eir.: olnHv (?1ti7A) dA T2 n?:il1orgtogt M2 A& QO14n 0il LHn? tiltuljl,[q A& tLT.ln01,[9101.[ Ll l3.J1JU) Ad 0.18.JA 9l q 9'/ a.t d 9l.l1,[ I I I .'. J oq rd oo A (Ll,bo.t01n I Ol n1 n?1 lr'/ 9'/ ?ro 54 aou ?,o 2 Pct 3 pct3 ft:rJir.: 6o fi:yfiogrt*n'tun46ual j air unr:tudo 6i utio n a.J er ftTer:.: nfr { LLU u 6n il LH n u eJ LLU uyr u rio ss srou ria 1 M fr'u n or::J:snouoontsd'finsarrrir uii'rfiaruuTrflun:o 1r:Jfiruftn:yor:*fion-sornrirriuriluro.i) qior fi aru uT rfll uola ra s o a ntsd' Iou ornrioiln M rns n rvirriufiriluolnuy nri 4 rns nri o orrruiiro-:r.u.u{ ila sG aou lniftairsrou tflntovsrolJH.rsirutur.[.,:to.]r'lsrtuqrril{T1a aytd'QilrLl4r.i.:si'tii' 1A '[n rfr s Er 6{ a r,t'[#intua ?1 Er ;
  • 60. tan sJ ir'r sJ'l F["] agr{ t 189 airrlnirT nr:'[arfre,il ria t nn rilr'rs tuilrirdurnlil 6rfinln:runrGid"oyrfi ruduornrir.:l:Juu$qt rio z gn rilT't! D tunr:rrmn 6a si (rarorororu 14) rfiorfiqrilufl.t::J:snau sio, 6o m:ru iu, Y 6tr.1 tiln3n1UU'] :io g nn rilT.rs E uds G firnroyqoiladludrrrrari,:solrlqm:rufi#uIUqjq rio + qn ry{T.ty rulettooounu lly traqjn'ir ruro'looou:J?n (Bt) ?ro 57 stou ?to 4 Fe , o, rio l TnHv v firaroon8ro#u +5 ria 2 InHv Mn firnraon8rofu +G do 3 TnHv Cr firntoon8te#u +G rio 4 TnHs Fe frrngoanfrrorfu +3 ly 9y Lt atA 551 rAAA Xo ?ro 58 aou ?ro 1 a?iei2tI tr,trJgiritelrl,lda Hzczo4 tnt Ox. nqn{ I L)frfi3ur Reduction t il't oxidise I +7 +3 +4 I +2 K SO + C O +H O+ M nSO 24224 I lflll ox. ,firudu I rJfiffiur oxidation / et-? reduce H2c2o7 rilusir reduce (riru KMno4 riJuqr-l oxidise) ly ly ,',6t9, a a v ego 59 oou ga s nr tf Fecr, tJ1fllfruno octfroncnouilrfn o.so niruoln AsNo, 5.00 cm 3 eAgNo3(ac)+ reCl3(ac) --------) 3AsCt(s)* re(No3)3(ao) 3mol AgCl : 3mot AgNO3 g = 0.5x5 143.5 1000 g = 0.359 N o.eo niil lt/ItUouArfga ?lo 60 gtou ?to I airoutt:0doqo:cuirotrurnqnsaof,r:nsareJgfrqdo 6t1T B > 6{1: c > f,1t A A I^ A C B norr6ooiln6 qrun4firfiru K t4 nO+ + H zCzOt + HzSO+ ln lfi s sJ 6t a ?r'[#in'[r,rrr ?'l r,r i
  • 61. - ranu ?ns1r['lasr{ t 190 atr #nirr n'r :'t n ufi er a,r ria 1 fior uil:rsfi +ooc e{n'iroqu6oora.l A rrqirirn'ir B $ns c rrao.l.ir n figq snrusriluuui'aciau B $ns c ftanruyriluro.:rnnr ria z fio rnr.rd zsoc 1n#oor6oora.: n rurnfiao R 6.r:;ununloirurnfino rirtvifiq q q --- orrruo-ulorurnfiaorc fo g fio rr{flsnlTdororrruEl-u ocfirl?ioer6oqfl'rrnon{ qi.:riuoou6ooso.r qq aJ rfrao<irn'irrJnG rio + nn ryr:rsoor6ooar:uil:riuEr:rn-uu:rfior"do. d'triu n < c < B{q 9/sOreE nou ?la 3 a?'lilat,t[lt?t?ou::n c, H2 aJlnn?lerrrruoulu?t'tstu::o c2 H6 rrfi'a czHz firurnTrurnnn zc ciruufi'a crnu firurnTrurnnn g0 6'o#r.r ufi'a crn, unidndruri'a crnu 6.:firrmrid'ulurrorrurnn.jr rio z uns + fio rn:rrufi'eyrtr z rfiof iruruTruarur{'ahiryi'rniu 6.: fi dru'ruTr rnq ntil rrir riu Io Er rui's c, n, f iruruh rnn nrurnn'jr uri's c z Hoq B orfroetq 9'/ ?to 61 9v ty sa 62 aou ?Jo 1 or:fi.,lfiu - SokJ tv ?to 63 aou d1? rfi,,:doufi'l.rlYud = 290kJ 90 -Ae)d 6[1T0{nnnru?'l = 170kJ a./ Y 91.,11,[1,[ A Ea = = 11 --a--r4aaXvvoilo,Yn t{ o [TtT1 c 0 Et:''t R']T[n o il fl nT g1l unu n?,] il [1t illtl{1 0.: fl1:qN OlUtyir uu A a u 9 v A a1 ra^o a o q ry v l HO L1 tT',t3 il{ ttl t011l.{tjytll4U',tytuJua? [T.1:Jfl nTUl asil zunytr llinn.wru n:voiu (Ea) t a.r:J fr fi3sn oq n.: o 0n ril:'rv qrura4fio;fte.rnrirtri'ounrnfinff.:.rruonfrfirururndu 6.:rirtrdo-o:r$qEq araaaAt nlTrnoufl nTUl [y{ il?u[fl rJ 0 v6'ua,JU,,d6 { ilo [il:"ls nlTn100$afln0aaa10:nuociln10.]il tili1o3il:Jtil.ltuuonnoaan 496 illnilTOUOUnO'ril ln rfr s EJ 6{ a %'L#in'[r,ra ?1 il ; I ha-ta 210 - 120 90 kJ tv ?lo 9v ?JO 9,/ 1J0 9/ 1J0 9,/ fl0 fE5, = 120kJ lfraundu; Ar :gokJ
  • 62. Lads ivrsJ'lfl1asr{ t 191 eir rln i rr nr :-[ a rfr s a,r ly 9r,/ ?o 64 aou ?Jo 1 64 tr*ruoi'ul tr:Jfi ur,tl [nilqn] n, (o) +10 10 + ,:n,- -rilf, +10 -20 10 80 .. tHll2 t lHzlttzl (80) 2 L-:64 (10x10) ila osnau ila1 1x106 1 ertunun'r:fiIovrririrnuerd'ru : ri**unrr '[si'srunr:60 No(g) + ;"2@) 1 K - (1 xtol2y2 - 1X106 U/ tY o raaa a +vr9/ 4 e ? rTa oo nau ?To 3 BoHrirrJfifiSurn-u H- ld e- fr'urir ar:os nr uriill rrrl oiru a B. / BoH ar rur:n Eh unr unr:r:l fi slr*ur:J a.r rir pH uriutatuauri'flruruufinriou Ioudxnruqrilnr:r:Jfiuurr:ln.rrir pn 6a $n:o 1e.; ttns€irua AA Lil 0 tn runT9t (BoH) I A LTJ O 16iln;q$ri (H.) : a./X + 91.11,$ H (nro $rifi uGru; d ru n (BoH) ay rfrruryir:J fr fi3ur + BOH --,.L- B* HrO tY 9,/ ?ro 67 nau sa 3 (guunl ($n;o1 Note: rriurd urrYuri'un'lrr6ilLUflLrri (oH-) ein:o nnlurilu dnrn (BOH) n-u HrO L__ __+ Lilfruurilu (8.) fiov uir rurvi'r:J fr fi3m LLnv rfi orn'rrnvrfi uru mfr rG iltd' dAgt'/l mqaqm pH %osn?1 7 NH4O + HCI -----) NH4CI + HrO (LUadou) (n:o Lrri) (rnfi o ) i__-.a 4-a,q ea v j- ,, & % a A^ X ffoouff filiirir'tnd't6u.ttYuQoails.ln rir ptt To.rdlTasnluocfruaiin:unru:iGto.:rnnomrRortl.lqqqql.g er-.rliu orn:Jfifi3urrnfiofdrfiq 6a NH4ct rilurnfiofifieru:rGrflun:o lrfioornn:ouri + rundouldwirtrri r* Xoqfiftdr pH < 7 nrruaruu6ro.:rnfiodrfiodu la rfr s E r 6[ o t,u'[ri'in'lua x1 s,r i
  • 63. - rilns iYrEJlcf'lasr{ t 192 ei'rrlnirrnr:'tn rfisru tv ty ?lo 68 aou ?lo 4 1 : 1,000 A 6[1TnyA1U A u A FnTnynl u B u t)'l a.t V a// I O.1 Ul+ 0 9lT'l 6[? 1.[ 9/ 4,t A,/ o01,[}[ pH=3->pOH pH=6--+pOH toH-l loHlA 1 0-t' 1 IoHIB 10-8 1 000 ovoi'o.:froir Eocell ll 9u2* (aq)/Cu(s) ilfrfi?ur reduction (;f? unrlno) 11 I 9y A./ a'/ o.tl*u toHl 9y a/ a/ 9t.tuu [oH ] = 1 o-t' = 1o-8 M M ila 09 etou ila 3 pt(s) I sn o* ("q) I sn'* ("q)ll cu'* ("q)l cu1"1 Lrzut,tR'ril Lsnd-rTnmfinfd fl1il'rrn rfia Lo.,:lsi' ilfrfi3ur oxidation Yr (1J? LLo Lt*q) '. Eocell = Eocathode - EoAnode = (*o .34) - (-0.40) = +0.34 + 0.40 = +0.74 Volt ( uao.:'j1 il fr fi3 ur rfi q r o {'[d') ila zo stou fio + usnlnil&?ra{uoituiqnf,aanornTnilcrurrrl?roo cu, zn, Fo, As tu 6{1:A&A1goeilil Fe'* UA& Zn'* nr:*snTnnvn.outodl*ju3qnf, laroftTararrfior6ur6o:Juasi rriu Zn Fe Ag) ld'fi ormruuiavrf,rfiiudu arrur:nrirtd'lou*rlnilvvro.ruor'lrjuiavrfrr.rli'd.fruoTuo {ntr *; riluarnrirlfirfio d^dS nr:rfisJdrffnn:ourorlanv, cu zn Fe Ag urncrfiorilulr'rruurnn.rTnnrr-odcui. ,zn",Fe'*,Ag* Iourarnr:Jtuurfisludr Eo otnqr:rruuaoreir Eo oynu'it Fe2* llflr zn2. freir eo oh n'j't cu'* rn; Ag* 6.:rirhiTnras Fe uflv zn rftu6rfinq:ouirun'ir [qirftonnrtJrijulooou Fe'. ltds zn2* 6.riu6rfino:oulJrnn'j"r rirld'rru Fe'* llfls zn'* luat:ncnru 1 n 16 s il 6t o 1,r'[#in'[r,r a ?1 il i a+ 2+ Pt(s)/Sn' I (aq)/Sn-' (aq)
  • 64. 7 rilns ?Yru1d'lasr{ t 193 dr#nirrnr:'ta ufisa.r 9v 9v ?lo 71 grou ?Jo 4 1 ,iad6le,/ 1il6 uufir Lufin"L#nn1u uijusr:rj:vn ou c,VlrAAVlrAl Lilnn Lil tno6[1,ttj LLnr L8J tnonlTzunTauq Feo(oH) fina*n1nei1 fiunfio'jr Cepidiocrocite T raaa i a & V dr r lo u:Jfr fi3u1fr lfrqfruvt.:Hs.rq tfl'lr+ilfr fi3u'r Redox AeAAetYA€revaat nntT{u.J?J0tou? €10 ?J0 I tYt1ul{ ru0.10']nnlTvt']:il01U.JlanlTilo{nun1Tlnqflililtoug o619) ?1'l lfi stlsuoitg ila zz grau fio z urieTuT:Efirnsr ruri'rTul:firnofio.:d'rj:snou 6o frfinr Tsr6rrruoon'lryoi' rnnrfiEriloantsd' Iotrfinr:r6n oontqei'rar1u:ou (Bror) udorirlv{uui'rarrur:nmuqionr:r:Jfiuuuiln.:rorqruranfild'6 6ryru'lrluacnrrilqq g,/ Vl 9,/A t c),/ a 4i TOu Lqon?ltLn?Tuo01,[ .] ila ts srou zia s tr,tnr:rrurrsrfiaurs:rfinfinr:r6ru x,o r$ia'l#rfioEil q A A dc./ Y A LUnlTtzu't tn n 0u tfrTl eJ n flo? u1,$'t Lfl n a u Y A iq e,/a, u r n *1 L fl 6 o u fr "Lr'fi nir u zu fl rJ lJ 0 .t 6il't r:J :y n o u oan'lqei'soilnra;rail 1A rnv 2A rtiu Kro osrirld'onrnnfinr:unorutarrirrnfiouoonr urqinrn siotnr:tri'rfiofrunsilulli ortd'ar::J:snouoontqei'ro.t At , Fe , Cr , Sb , B , Mn uae ei rflueiu 91,/ 9,/ 7ro 74 aou ?to 3 1,6 1, 6-d i methylcyclohexene dimethylcyclohexene = CHt I cH. ryA, a T v i c i tito a a , j iq- y til0n0{t?uut€tT.]dT1{01nTofl1T nu{6f1ill:n01uT0tor14tJ0utolr uflo.:?']gofl-tTytt14il1nn$i0.1qt ffi?Stffi:g$ffiru'bffi# #"1Tffitrffi:l f;lHtr${-l ln rfr s il 6[ a %'[#in'Lr+a ?1 E r i
  • 65. 7 r$ner inulrf1asr{ t 194 air r['n i r'r n'r ;-[ n ufr s il Formaldehyde I formic acid (methanal) I tmethanoic acid) HCHO I HCOOH fln:TrurnnnqirrnTu tu:rsf iruru o luTrurnnaeirrnTu 6.:'[ilrilu isomer nTuqjqq- tr__tyfa %a 76 stou ?o z an:lil[anago06[r: o 6o c 6H|zo 2 o Xv i ^riofrri'o.:r3ruornnr:ffor:rurrJfiffiarfi{'urnsrriou firfior:rurlrd6r.iroyrilu:Jfiffiurfi A.' 6.:lilurJfifi3u1 Hydrolysis To.: ester IoEJ#{rnoolnn'rrrfio butanoic acid rilurufiqrnlruryi 9,/ 91,/ ?lo 75 aou zlo 3 formaldehyde fi'u formic acid lsomer 6 o m:fi fllil'rrn tfr uuflarTflT.rsfr.:1si'rurnn'ir 1 $ rA T a o/ ILUU LLgITJflAT Lil INNN 1ilil OI,INU(tlq (B) cH3cooH (ethanoic acid) (c) CH3CHTOH + CH3CH2CH2COOH (B) (butanoic acid) cH3coocH2cH3 (ethylethanoate) CH, = CH, + (ethylene) cH3cHroH cH3cH 2cH2coocHrcHu + (ethylbutanoate) (D) cH3cHroH (B) HrO € CH3CHTOH n:q[Lri , gr*'rri.: (ethanol) + KrCrrO, nTaL[ri , qr"rrj.,: ffi HrO n:ouri , (nyOrolysis) + CH3COOH n:ouri (c) ffi o @ @ @ (E) ila tz srou r?o + nafifluoav,lo{ruradlaoi yr o6fl uonr,{ a{rurad'[ad' lery fi 6on.xnr:d'r6 a,,runr'[nd'" rfi oorn:Jfi fiiu polymerisation tru u n? u $r.iu:sfi 'jr.i "fl ua a ri'u r,,l airur a 6taa{', OH n6 rfluoa o il + n H-C-H vnloflin6'[ad' (uruururn) Polymerisation lruunrru uriu -Hzo tcHzfivu a fi rf, u o nvd o Slin 6'[ s d' lq uilr n rfi o il fi ffi ur nr:err u uriuei o'[:J d n osyirt#rfi oler:.r afr.r uu uirl un rfi qdu drrlr tv{ pr fiqruaruuGfiuus.: ufitueit:J:rc ilunrrrufoufiqrura4figr 1 latd nusr:rnfi unsfinmernururduc q_,_--si__ti_ rurnn'irrir filrutdrirurutrta:6rfinm:ofind aiEpf'lv'hlr oirruo-unrsuyu.:ti'runiarorio'lrlflr riluolu ln ufi EJ il 6[ o t,t'[#in'[r,r a ?1 er ;
  • 66. raas infl1sf1asr{ t 195 dtinirrnr:-[n rfreJEr ly uo 78 cir un ofi'lr fi nn n a'[:d' (PVc) n odln:rifi u (pp) rnsfl oR alqiu 1es; rfi oorn:J fi fi3ur polymerisation ttuutGn lyrd aau ?a 2 ual[m:1tffgr rirufiu tfioorn nr:rTunrtortrnfisnrsrtqir:JfianTnnluanrrrfifioonErou'irrYo rir q eo e T a& - r - I tillnqnlTfln']uEr?0u-r.tg1 I [ounlunuilyt{ile.J9t 5 uT3[Ryt o{u fisr finluoi d'ufivrfi#a fivrfiria ua%yr:r'[rsi'q(u i& flilnlil t?,1illjl.tq - Y ' 4 .4 rl G' 6r ia aA d 4 s ra o{1,[u n']ufiuruotto1.{11T"1 lsn [:.Jiln'tultuytuotunliloytflo 6t tldrlsrurruorrrufauorn nr:t zurln firu.' n fi gt To rl'lunr:t zurtra fo slrir:l nrtr lfirir rS uorr 1 fi oriurio u ty ly 9t fla 79 oau to + zta 2 lrdc 3 rtnrfiu (Melamine) rflluar:rnfififiErillflunr:firnnra6n figor:hua1n6o c.HuNu unr,uq fiaEr:In:rafrr d'rd'q.t NHz I -A- */ " H2 -Y ^ s"--/-'totuu rarnfior:rurornTn:rair.:orrfiutsY'ir fi N riluorri':lrrnou'iruruilrn rnsu.rn olf r - Y ri'r'trJr.raruriudruru *nsor:roaaumr:J3rurruTil:fiu Tqunr:o:rosauornrJ3ru''rru!"rEr r.r ltul:J:dufi ru rilu o.:ri'il:snou; o;rirtv{nu:Jirurrx N .,irurururn uunsoror?irtofie'jrdluilfiufirjirurruI:J:6ua.: ,%idtuct nrrrutiluoS.: N fio:ronururorntrunrftu d.rrarndr.rnruiurilorfiurrirt:Jrurn 1 orfrrunrirtri'rfioornr: 'lil d aa Ud A tgr?'ru lln30'r0tflu5?Er [o tl{Ytflo '[n rfi s sJ 6[ o %'l#in'Lr,ra ?1 N i
  • 67. tilag insl'ld'lagr{ t t96 stti'nirrnr:-la ufiEJil .Ygnvajv-r?-a.tr sa 80 aou ?to s tsN%Nererrudrusrea0nitirnu ooriooHaaruruardon'ir 'ltru-u lrat; n-nnururnlufo{Ioufio.:ri':J:snou6irulraei 6o n:onlrru-u6rud'r c{rurirruiu (oi I ) r.r-n n ulufi s Io u fi a I ri':J rs n o u eir ulra ei 6 o n :olt riu'lri 6 ru qr-r - Y r4-.-e-.4---n- --..-"- , d a , ! - Aa o{uu tttjl.lilnro tljtJu0ilEt?il1nn?10vtloolot0o $nr 0onfiail[unralnir$rnufriln:o u-ivu t?Jil1t0ilsr't1{o un?1 ly t/ gA 81 SIOU flA I glucose, cellobiose, maltose, ribose or n si'r rfi o ntulovr ri fl'r rJ1:n uu nrir qrr nlei s il:s rnn 6 a YtA 1. U19'1flliltnnntOU? (Monosaccharide) = glucose ribose galactose it 2. 1{'1nlnttltnnng (Disaccharide) = maltose sucrose lactose cellobiose Yr4r 3. frnrnlrutnnnlnr! (Polysaccharide) = cettutose dtn bctase amytase B - gatactosidase o-olilum:il:ttRyt enzyme nioel-rtitilfiffiurtuRtfifiior ila az oail fio I it'rr,lo1nu:,rdfifiSsrsrsoarnfin:vrirn-rnaioofieirriltru'rn i,o*&r t'rurfro.:otnrr:.::Jfrffiur = 0 lllrlsrlT.l:Jfrfi3ur6'oa.rn n-unr:n:so-o (w : r= "or0 ) 9y ty ?ro 83 aou sa & finrrrilfi suurjnoTa,r rarufrru rvirfi'r,rTnmf 6[of I e/ dT ar a'ln n0 81,[Tnu lil tu1*9t1J SDtPriu, - r Prd., i qe,/ t?'ro LH zu nr? illJotk rruuqi'ruriouunyH fi't lvirrYu Tru rruusi'rut o.rrn ut,roi'fi rfi ru = Tru rruusi'rut o.rrn urril nfi n er q Hto Irurruuqi'ruto.rrnuuoi'finq = Trurruuoi'ruto.rrnurr?rnfdrfiruq 9/r .'. :nvi'.r 6[0.] finr:tilfi u%Ltil n.,:Iru truuoi'ru rvirri'u '[n rfr EJ il 6{ a lt'[#in'Lun ?1 E r i
  • 68. r6[ng ?msld'lagr{ t 197 drrinisrnr:'tn rfisar lv ua 84 lv ?to 85 ly aau go 2 cl tlTf nniln?[ o Vo piu V- 9ru lv aou ?lo 1 s-[ry) , 2s t- r V :Jaioun.til't u:0 A&, illnn{v{un01,[ a1n 1)E, : I(D- Kna{ ,. z Lr ItTtnnilnlt 12e+ -mv2 ltr..lndilna?0 Epr = Ew msh - 1rr'*1u'22 msh : +( ?mR'lg*+ mv, 2[s )B' 2 @ 1t vnatt mgh - mgh - t7 v nn?.: 1tr' * !mv' 22 !( ?mR')4*! mv, 23 )R' 2 .'. ?lr.lnnild'ufi.,:duriou V = V, = U" 1 n lfr s ar a a r,rt#intn n er e,r i il nqfl.t6[o v=vx:ux = 10 cos60" 6gh 5 Uy= 10 sin 60o Ux= 10 cos 50o
  • 69. a rilns imslrf1asr{ t 198 air rin i rr n r :-[ n rfr s a.r tv 9y ?ro 86 aou ?to 4 g 16 X a1n o:b o:bx n'tTnTroo = 0, fl?'lrulTril1nflgtq -+ Ee -0 , Ekmax n1rnrr6'qNln6[gt, Ft?1ilu5r = 0 -+ Eomax , Eu - 0 Aa 4 o.l zuo Gm e'/ e'1/ gurinnrrTnn tflelo) R, (R 9lo'l?oo1n Gm R2 Ri Gm R2 (4R)' 1 _o| 160 o bx : ob 9v 9y ?to 87 elou ?lo 2 fior:rB1nflT'l fiorrnm N?n6oarj3o AA 0.25 ?%1?'l OO A,C,E - OO B.D+-r- rio 1,3 unr t (s) Ep {X -----.)i e r-k oI I ar/ d a./ n0 0ltTnl9T,ln.l.1'l% Ep, = Erz*E, 1rca' - 2 (!k*') 2 2 ) VA J' x = 10 sin (fit) '[a rfi er ar a o r,r'L#in'[r+ or m e.r i x(t) = 10 sin (,rt) aln6[iln17
  • 70. lonH ?mg1r['lan{ t 199 itrri'nirT nT :'[n ufr sa.r n 10 sin nt 10 sin rrt .TE sm- 4 n 4 0.25 iurfi 2.0 x 108 Y er, a/t A *rHunt o.:unl.lt,ttyt h- n')AAL (770)(80) A UIII a v 2 Stbo B ll%rr:o'[oi zs firthu T sin 53o T sin 53o olnril 2T sin53 " = mg(u nt- t= lv ?,o 88 tv aou uo 3 AA ttT{9t.1ttr0n FLo Y (+)0x10-')'e) = 2x108 N/m2 9v ly ?ro 89 aou zlo o T cos 53 zr( !) :.5 , T= (40) 2sN T cos 53o 1 a rfr s il a a %t#in'[r,l er m e,r i T sin 53o
  • 71. r6rdn iyrslcf1asr{ t 200 eirrinirT nr:'[nrfrsil tv ly ?ro 90 aou ?to z lf s : tanO mg sin @ 6{NOn -+ l"tmg f: pN- rosO - p- mg sin0 mg sin0 mg sin0 tan 0 lv ?to 91 A il{41Til'l lv aou ?to AP 0.9 11n.1 mghl : u: 1n -mu'2 5 m/s x 1J1lJU 1n -mv' : 2 V= mghz 4 m/s farcl,aggt Lru uruuailn?lil rT?frnn.: rilu fa./dA&cr Lru rrut+a il n?1 il rT? fr erT%1ill.r - p, _p, - mv-(-mu) - m(v+u) = 0.1(9) - 0.9 kg m/s + I ln rfr s ru a a ut#intusr rr e,r f | 'mg cos 0
  • 72. raas imuldlasr{ t 201 rir rln i gr n'r :-[ a rfi s &r 9y 9y ?to 92 aou ?to 3 M1 _*, 23 :M3 AAQ/alAa/ta./tU lJ 0.1 til n ? r}[9t L 9t u ? n il Ty 9t u L 9t u ? n uFt ?'t il 9t l,t t?11 n u P*-Py =P, Mtg-Mrg _Mrg 2A34A -M3 , A, Uel A L T = Ft'.l710'l1,[ Lq01nLflTo.lT.l Ml-M2 23lv ?lo 93 lr'/ aou ?lo 16 :J3rur arr o.t rrYi.:Tnur V=m p 2 5x103 = 0.4x 10-3 T+F" - mg T+prrarVorug = mg T + (1000X0.4 x tOt Xl0) - 20 T - 16Nm' '[ n rfr s ar a o u'[fin'[r,r er tr eu #
  • 73. rans ins1fl'lasr{ t 202 ai'r#nirrnr:ln rfrsJil 9t/ 9,/ ?,o 94 aou ?to 3 4 rvir l l fr'.:.1'l ltR'l UIU:Y U U u - lm"t2 TJ2 -u1 : : a 1 ;*our, }-'' T2 I 3T T a J 9r/ sa 95 9'/ AOU UO 01nlfla1n e./iAo. 1,[O U L1*0.10'ln 01n1 gf N Fl?'l tl tT? u'ln .'. & )Po P1 )Po)P, 0 0n 6[uTTUlnlstfl fr'nto.: Bernoulli) P2 600,000 Hrrj3rulqr ru 1 ur;ulnl &V' -T, (t)v, (p, ) LLfiot'jr P, > % il qer P2 fren'rrud'u % > P, rirtffignoYutiliiunoed'ruuu q 27oc P,Y, T2 (zoXr 1oo) P, (H tv ?lo 96 9r,/ aou ga 3 300 330 V2 - 20,000 m' Gorflur3u 20,000 x 30 : 600,000 ulyl ln rfr s il a o lt'[#in'Lr+n m er i
  • 74. rons imeJlollasr{ t 203 etr rln i rr nr :-[ a ufr a a,r l),/ lY ?la 97 aou ?to 4 30 F, 00 z?o ga nou fia 2 nrcoflrtr finerrurJreTr'lfia rvirn'u eo rsu6raJn: 9y aJ6-tqtta./-A R'tT{14?9t.11JU1q [Uiln?1?An => Rll^tLflilOUetq It T2O _I - lolosl-L = [U)'"r, 12 [n,J - 20los R2 "R, = los R2 ')3 -R2Ft J -30m 1 10 R2 of a'l}b?6tt m = = nTyontf't :> i'grn o ri:yu'j'r.: nruenri':to qTdri'nqqJq (uno.:'jrfl ?'t tl u'trlr^trYnrurnn'jr 30 cm) - (1)I -+@ s-f .tf 30-f f = 60 cm n?tilu't?Tn.lTrntri'mrflu + -) nrrenr{r ly 9t/ 5 ?lo 99 aou ?to 2 2 Cfisrri-"'----.lf dAr,6n. unuftq d+ - ("-1)^ uoufiq u* - nl. L ( 2) -L ln rfr s il a a %t#5ntr,ln n er i
  • 75. rcr6rs irnE 1F['rasr{ t 204 itr rln ?rr nr ;-[n rfi Er ilr 9,/ 9t / sa 100 aou ?lo 2 ilal 01 aou ila 1.5 a.t 5l q,/ a.t 8 AT1n1T LHT| nt{'t1,ttLfl.l 7 5% =[#)ooo) - 37 5 nLilt,t$ 2s0 - F A 37s A 1.5 E A m' ,.6. 2 A 9t0 ilq 1"1 )"2 s{erenqA (e. ) il an nry?rufi rirtri'ru ruvTn rH go'q - sin0, sin90" - sin60" - "11 2 9v ?to 102 aou 9v ?a n. ?J. Ft. t. 3n nn$ A 29t nn$ nnqt Ft une 0 9'/ fivi'o.rflr ufioe'rnnlTn;v 16{ Lr6(.r rLfl.rfirir rtun:y 16.:td'6n'ir 116r.rfiuq.l c)/ f.:fiurfr rfiqornnr:fi'n rH ud,r ssyi'ot,rnnun'r utuH rrri.I rA9,/j Ltn U !Lfl',] fl?'l { n n1.l ll9l?'l lJ LlJ u ell n n 6[91 q j r r T do q e,/ e,/ L u 0 tL fl{ il'l u tt il 1A Ll n 1 T 0 u 9t Yt r Ln n'l r ru tn 3.J tt 6[.] n q R.l fl1T1ili.',:'lo 01n1F[ '[a rfi s il aa u'[#inl[un tr ar i
  • 76. lang img"lrl'lasri t 205 etr ri'n i rr nr :'[ n ufr s er lr'/ UO 103 nau ila 4 25 LL fl.,]1J 1,['t U LLn l,[il tJ dr #rUqat 01 nril Ft?'r s.J ul?Trnl rTn(u tLt,r? rL 6il.r d'o nTufi o oTr t n-flq = 25 cm 9/9 ila tot oau rTo + r,iroornnorl:vn e'hJnroqoil:vq e "d z-.E,urt 2qEBEAq Ar rB l I X l-X I 1m ru oofdnu1illdfllq EA KQo ) t; 2q x' 2 2 X x'-4x+Z o (rp-o) EB KQ" (1 - ^)' 1 I-2x**T 0 rl q x - 2tJ, x : 2-J, ffi) 2a) -bt I A L1A0{01n ln 16 s s{ a o ?bt#intun rr ar i x<1
  • 77. lonEJ ?ms'lrf1asri t 206 dr#n?rT n'r:'tnr8sil A.ldtt n? LnuilTva a ofl1t'11,[ c;" = cl *c' = 50pF a/'A6la./dl y{ n {.,1't lAyt flv 6[ru Lugt ? Ln u il:yQ u - lcv' 2 - +(ro x 10-6 Xq) 2' = 2.25x 10-4 J ila 105 aou ila 3 z.zsx 1o -a 9,/ lY ?to 106 stou sa 2 lr,/ uo 107 rlU fi q ofif;izrt,t1 o 6r%1 N'h{ fl 'r rvir fiu o,q Av d, ret . aJ KQ ilG[nu lil]$11tl't1nu a 4t+1) 2) 90" ugor.:'j'rrflu ?.:o: C fll.r't rutrnhilr ( rr n ror of; il q ct gt* rin nr na"n d'r.: ri'ulfl uguri d'nsi'lrnhilr nrnnri il oogurinnl{ V - q lr,/ 5l d ila 2 'luzlnrsfr v(t) - vm osiizr,l1o 1,t,ll - 0 1nna.rn1r "(t) - V-sin(: r 4t), i(t) = r-rirrfr t cD = 314 radls nrvunfrfl't1ruqirrd'nri Is nc[- / v'' ': i' aou a 1 n rfr Er il a a ?bt#inelr,u or m ar i
  • 78. [6[ng iYrEJ'Ifi'lagr{ t 207 et'r rln i rr nr :'[ a rfr er a,r A zuo 4. fio l),/ lr,/ ?lo 108 aou ?to 9v ?,o 109 aou 1, 2. 3. 4. fio 9'/ t)'/ ?to 110 stou ?o 3 crl-Znn 3r4 - 20. 14F f - 50}{z olnn:rul il%nrrLL6[=o , i , Vl 9,/ a d A i? 9t'l?10'l1A LOO'lnil LA 0T 910 Vr_, 1. nn$ A zuo 2. 3. =% J' ri r ff.:'lrnh1 r fd nil r ft u rfi o du L illl'r vr .: o :fi fr R rvir #u(llo, 150 I"Jnit 3.6 P kW.hr P b+ 1000 / 150 i'aei- tv ?to 4 nn(U nn$ nn(U valv io fl r a nd fr'u nr :n r u q Er Fr x1 aJ u %r s o o u ni uTa u ctll rni ooisr u r.i t,lln n c f u da A .l y A,, U f tYl;€t?{Ylil 0 n 0 tgn?1 iln u1il Lil [o:t?]l iTru vr o ouIm:o (Bluetootn; t"fi.: d6ur l:r r:o lun a o oyl a a o r:arquei' 6 rfi n o:a usuta rl:a m rirt#rfi oi.r fi uv ud'r uv nrcyr us nufl'lTtTa{l!d.: U,tlee , i x - ray [tJ to?on?']il14u1tlaaT?oflouTaguqtR T0uT? v RB mv2 R mv2 R V BR -[a u8 Er Er 6[ a r,tt#in'[un ?1 il i F. qVB _ q
  • 79. rans inslcf'rasr{ t 208 iirrinirrnr:'[n rfrsar 9'/ lY ?to 111 aou uo 1 0.27 I- 0.275x10-em 0.275 nm trt ra 112 oou ?to 2 n=2 ri.: 6 r fi n o: o uEir EJ n rr il eir r er-n f t z v rirtfb r fi n or : o ufi w n-r.: 1u 1 2 ev rrirrur{u a r o a il talot:rou rirl#finn-.r.r'tu -13.0 + 12 = -1.6 eV En_ +n- -1.6_ # n = 2.91 .'. ori;frufd 2 il v2-v1 "( , _ 1 ') f. )"2 )", ) 6ilil n1 r:J :r n fl n'l rnihlT qr 6 r fi n nin W+e MV 6.6 x 10-30 lv ty ?to 113 stou ?lo 4 ornTo wi @-o - W+eV, -) O - W+eV, -) @ hc ), hc 1,1 hc lv2 h"( L- 1) : (r, L' ) e(% -v,) .(% -v,) '[+ ;) lnrfisilaa%t#intuotrrui
  • 80. lang ?ner1r['lagr{ t 209 etrrlnirT nr:-tnrfrsil 9rr0 ra 114 aau ro 1 e +1 t?N-t'uc+!x 0 qrarrio 1. e +1 t tY aci f d ?ta 115 srou ga 3 0.465 tilflco[ana:o}tt?aa -!e+.lc -+ 2y -?. - drfinqr:ouftrurn o.o0o5 u 0E --+ Tn8qr:ou rurnrvirdrfino:au 0.0005 u+l V a 6rr uvt dsn N dDIDtl lsD Irnloou (D -+ hifirurn 0.0005u+0.0005u = 0.001 u = 0.001 (930 Mev) = 0.93 Mev .'. Iv-ln aurtsinsei'r fi iln-{.:ru 0.465 Mev tYlYf'dvdg/ sa 116 nau so 2 oilu%tanoc[14%ox0o1{?1:4no'l}t / v d u q i ' u T a a o4v I c X ^o't{auflfl4tJuTaun't[0{11{[?n1il[Yt1nuilil1.[T0u[nnv{ao o.:Yn[14fi1.[uutnntn1,[v,tuil?1J0.10?.: funfufiu.reirurdsrryirfu d'ror.ro"uvrfTno::ouTnnTouhifinr:raruu:auor-ruotosrirlrfinuuulnnrfiuor'r u€9 0l{YtTYlnoluq ila'ltl srou ?ia z nrierom:rfirarnuqq 'lurir.:nnr.:rdaufiurrerruor'oorfiEreirirorilunciruorruru.::Jo.: osrordourrireiqrr:rfraut uiufr zt &-eau6tsqgq rurroru o.ruumr.:souflroiruffqlqcr:l.lonlurrn'] 18.00 u. r:rov#.:rnortfiunajruorruru.::Jor 1:rdnqer6nlq AaUreuadoX firo s rffurrriur'rei'r u uasa so n n.:t:Jnfo runuoer orfr o ti tir ru o.: n.:fiurur nirunar.:ri'arrXrt:Jmr.:fi sr ud.a es'rlroonaslnu nnilqr?emuilh (T'rflr+) ol?tlilr?1s[n (:rfirun:) o1']outtunilriorhl:rdnruril om:Jar${:rfiftu) orrun;1:rdtruu; unvottt-t 1:rfirrqun1 qrrrudroYu o r d , u al,le ' I - t e"[u$qi n;tilr r:ro g rfi un6i ruotlon::rfi1d'o cir.: rurnfi qo o n { ru d'rq oo ooduovufi u 1 0 - 1 1 nci ru q - Y A - d Ve a v q -- -- A t v A a r oluuo'nfrosntrnorffuloiyrrrfiflovfiroon"lurrnr 18.00 u. 6o nejruorrirnGoorr:rfinqun rnsn6iil i" - A & t a a aa o'r?mfl1n{ac[Til1uqail't fl 0 nflilo''l?€r1.[9r14T00'l?T'1fliln1l '[n rfr s il 6{ a ltt#intua?1 il ;
  • 81. r$ns ivrslrrlrsr{ t 210 drrlnirT nr:-tnrfrsru ila fa nau #a + rdar.lfirtreiilil:crilqdnTantsYocrfrr,toeoorfi nriduTosdail'lilnrolsi 1. nn tvl:rslutdout'tq:*nrnru Innosri''udnlnnrnfiarrirfiror{arfinEi rrosn'udnlnnlsioanornor.: ar fi qr ei 6 lrirlri'finT n nto"'ril un nr r 6 uvrtrfu 2.en tn:rclutdauilnttntJ Tnnasra.-udnTnnlsirfrnror.:orfiqrri 6.:rirlri'nnrnnr.:{usJlurun.jr 4vat nnrt6u rrnsn'ufin Inntufioaonornor.rorfiqrd 6nirtri'rrn'rnrrdnTnnrnfionnrrduurrurun,irnnr.:fu 3. nn tvl:rs1ut6ouf,umnru Innosra"'udnTnnlqirrirraror.:orfioEJ 6.:rirlri':J:crmnfioeivrr.rdnlnnlEi a ril ur1 giou rasil:s ryrFryrr.:6nTnn nafi o ril uq ouurr +. fio rlr:rlorn3:Jlut6oufiurnru Tnno;ra-urfrugudger:rrirnror.:oT find orlorfioEio;duvrrrfiss qi'--ci"--- nsfuoonunsnnilr{fiflocfuqrnua 6os'lildorul:lvrtfinrnfrontatsi 6.:rirlri'rrnrnar{iuuncnnrrdur:r.lrvirniu 9lU tJ il t.] Uq o rin.:otnfl$ 4 o.:gt't rio ttg srou ?io s otiaon,irod 4o 50'qtg q nr:ruotttluorrtnfroorjn.:orntouflrrurnntoriouduoqjn-urirnr6oqro.:druililrfi#.:rnsr IA A t ' v __.a^ _A-yy- | y .t!_1!-.^_' -t . J rl .,-- .a c d a110.1e'l'llfi1*0tlrl'ltvl']nudsaaoiltJfl.o[naad rir{arrnnorint6oonliiu'[rlyrrtrnfla fiosrua{rfiuorrrnflo q t vA- i , ^ i ? a u?l1 tltn n?'l ruyt fl.: [n a yt 0 u 6tr nc6o o dr ni-l{!{ ornlonri nurdlrrtilri#.:rnorfiuorrrfifrofinc6oo 18a{fl1 +0fi16:iqr{ fliln?{lynt ., #ttnqrliuollrilfladnsfioo ts 0.rfl1 50 v,l6:Jor.q s -& a q o{rlu outfiutlnriastfiuorrtufraode.:n'iroun:rrny{ e 1B a,:g'r 40 filfirJor - 13 a{er..t so flfi:Jorr = so fi16:Jqr (1 o.:Fr"t = oo f,16:lqr) // ila tzo srou ria 4 M,l ,*5 I llI vn/ o1iln0n1:or.15ndknruo-ru |u=o ornTovrf riruuotd' Mr = rurnra.:r#ouri.: MR = il?nT.:rJolyi.tsrururi.:ornretttnctd'oty{fi1 vr = omrurirrJnrsra.:rd'on^{6.J VR = orrrut5riln'lulo{u"lultuei.:ornrg re__X tilriluo?st?u']1.{ = lrurruuqrlruto.:nirtfiorrr6.t M*Vn - MM MR = MtVt VR il? n:? ilfl o{1J o.t u'lu = tJ? fl u,lu * ru? nt o.:n-.: ldo rwird 6o'[iln-u sJr u e,/ y 9t.1%1t MR * Mr M. N. M,+ ' ' 'u* MR = ',[,+;] 1 n rfr s il d a %'[#in'[r,ra ?1 il ;

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