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    Priceless or-worthless-final-wq-2040 Priceless or-worthless-final-wq-2040 Presentation Transcript

    • Priceless Worthless?or
    • 2 Priceless or Worthless Erythrina schliebenii © Cosmas Mligo
    • “This book does not merely tell us which speciesare most endangered, it shows us how we can savethem. It challenges us to commit to safeguarding ourpriceless natural heritage for future generations” His Royal Highness The Duke of Cambridge Priceless or Worthless 3
    • Cover image of a juvenile Eleutherodactylus thorectes© Robin MooreDisclaimer:The designation of geographical entities in this book, and the presentation ofthe material, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the partof the Zoological Society of London, IUCN or the compilers concerning the legalstatus of any country, territory, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning thedelimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of theZoological Society of London, IUCN or other participating organizations.Published by: Zoological Society of London, Regent’s Park, London NW1 4RYCopyright: © Zoological Society of London and contributors 2012. All rightsreserved. The use and reproduction of any part of this publication is prohibitedwithout prior consent of the copyright owner.Hardback ISBN: 978-0-900881-65-7Paperback ISBN: 978-0-900881-66-4Online ISBN: 978-0-900881-67-1Baillie, J.E.M. & Butcher, E. R. (2012) Priceless or Worthless? The world’s mostthreatened species. Zoological Society of London, United Kingdom.Design: Kevin Hawkes www.22creative.co.ukPrint: witherbysonline.co.uk4 Priceless or Worthless
    • Priceless or Worthless?The world’s most threatened species by Jonathan E M Baillie and Ellen R Butcher Nominations provided and text reviewed by members of the IUCN Species Survival Comission Specialist Groups and Red List Authorities Priceless or Worthless 5
    • AcknowledgementsWe give gracious thanks to the Sustainable Use Specialist Group Terrestrial and Freshwater Invertebrate Red South American Camelid Specialist Groupglobal network of scientists who Wildlife Health Specialist Group List Authority Tapir Specialist Groupcomprise the IUCN Species Survival Fish Mammals Wild Pig Specialist Group Wolf Specialist GroupCommission Specialist Groups IUCN/WI Freshwater Fish Specialist African Elephant Specialist Group Group African Rhino Specialist Group Plants Groupers and Wrasses Specialist Group Afrotheria Specialist Group Arabian Plant Specialist GroupAmphibians and Reptiles Arctic Plant Specialist Group Hawkfishes and Sandperches Red Anteater, Sloth and ArmadilloAmphibian Specialist Group List Authority Specialist Group Bryophyte Specialist GroupCrocodile Specialist Group Salmonid Specialist Group Antelope Specialist Group Cactus and Succulent Specialist GroupIguana Specialist Group The GMSA Team Asian Elephant Specialist Group Carnivorous Plant Specialist GroupMarine Turtle Specialist Group Sciaenid Red List Authority Asian Rhino Specialist Group Caucasus Plant Red List AuthorityNorth American Reptile Red List Authority Seabreams, Snapper and Grunts Red Asian Wild Cattle Specialist Group Chinese Plant Specialist GroupSea Snake Specialist Group List Authority Australian Marsupial and Conifer Specialist GroupTortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Shark Specialist Group Monotreme Specialist Group Crop Wild Relative Specialist GroupGroup Sturgeon Specialist Group Bat Specialist Group Cuban Plant Specialist GroupBirds Sygnathiformes and Gasterosteiformes Red Bear Specialist Group Cycad Specialist GroupBird Red List Authority List Authority Bison Specialist Group Eastern African Plant Red List AuthorityCormorant Specialist Group Tuna and Billfish Specialist Group Canid Specialist Group Freshwater Plant Specialist GroupCrane Specialist Group Coral and Reef Fishes Specialist Group Caprinae Specialist Group Galapagos Plant Specialist GroupDiver/ Loon Specialist Group Fungi Cats Specialist Group Global Trees Specialist GroupDuck Specialist Group Cetacean Specialist Group Hawaiian Plant Specialist Group Chytrid, Zygomycete, Downy Mildew and Indian Subcontinent Plant Specialist GroupFlamingo Specialist Group Slime Mould Specialist Group Deer Specialist GroupGalliforme Specialist Group Equid Specialist Group Korean Plant Specialist Group Cup-fungus, Truffle and Ally Specialist Group Macronesian Island Plant Specialist GroupGoose Specialist Group Lichen Specialist Group Hippo Specialist GroupGrebe Specialist Group Hyaena Specialist Group Madagascar Plant Specialist Group Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball Specialist Mascarenes Plant Specialist GroupHeron Specialist Group Group Lagomorph Specialist GroupPelican Specialist Group New World Marsupial Specialist Group Medicinal Plant Specialist Group Rust and Smut Specialist Group Mediterranean Island Plant Specialist GroupStork, Ibis and Spoonbill Specialist Group Invertebrates Non-volant Small Mammal RedSwan Specialist Group List Authority Orchid Specialist Group Coral Specialist Group Otter Specialist Group Palm Specialist GroupThreatened Waterfowl Specialist Group Dragonfly Specialist Group Peccary Specialist Group Seagrass Red List AuthorityWoodcock and Snipe Specialist Group Freshwater Crab and Crayfish Pinniped Specialist Group Southern African Plant Specialist GroupDisciplinary Groups Specialist Group Polar Bear Specialist Group Temperate South American PlantConservation Breeding Specialist Group Grasshopper Specialist Group Specialist GroupInvasive Species Specialist Group Primate Specialist Group Marine Invertebrate Red List Authority Sirenian Specialist GroupLarge Carnivore Initaitve for Europe Mollusc Specialist GroupRe-introduction Specialist Group Small Carnivore Specialist Group6 Priceless or Worthless
    • We would also like to give particular David Minter Mary Seddon Sandy Lukthanks to the following individuals Dominique Burgauer Matthew Grainger Sanjay Molur Donald McFarlane Matti Hämälainen Sara Oldfieldand organisations who generously Douglas Gibbs Mervyn Lotter Scott Blackgave their time and expertise to Elizabeth Boakes Micheal Neutens Sir David Attenboroughreview sections of, and to provide Frank Glaw Michael Fay Stefan Wiswedelsuggestions for, this book: Frank Hawkins Mike Maunder Stewart McPherson Franz Seidenschwarz Neil Burgess Stuart ButchartAdam Kerezsy Fred Katterman Neil Cumberlidge Tandora GrantAdam Matthews Galen Rathbun Nicholas Kinyau Tim BauerAdam Sweidan Georgina Mace Nicholas Dulvy Tim FlachAlan Whitfield Giuseppe Notarbartolo di Sciara Nigel Collar Tim GerrodetteAlastair Robinson Gordon Reid Nigel Maxted Tomas HallingbäckAljos Farjon Héctor Hernández Macias Onildo Marini-Filho Usama GhazaliAllanah Weston Henk Beentje Paul Cowley Vimoksalehi LukoschekAnders Rhodin Ilse Storch Paul Donald Vincent FlorensAnnabelle Cuttelod Isaac Malugu Paul Racey Vincent KalkmanAnthony Rylands Itambo Malombe Paul Williams Viola ClausnitzerArlo Brady James Burton Paul Wilkin Will DuckworthAther Rafi James Collins Peter Cranswick Willem-Joost de GierAxel Hochkirch James Kalema Peter Garson William BakerB.A. Daniel James Kushlan Peter Ng Kee Lin William PerrinBarbara Taylor Jessica Sweidan Peter Paul van Dijk William RobichaudBarney Long James Thornton Peter Rand Yvonne SadovyBattal Ciplak James Wren Peter ThomasBaz Hughes Jean-Christophe Vié Philippe Chardonnet Special thanks to Client Earth forBen Collen John Donaldson Quentin Luke John Dransfield Raj Amin their assistance in formulating thisBert Orr concept and for providing valuableBibhab Kumar Talukdar John Himes Ralph ArmondBush Heritage Australia John G Robinson Randall Reeves contributions to the book.Byron Wilson Jonathan Eames Reagan VillanuevaCharles Clarke Jonathan Ogweno Rebecca Lee Additional thanks to all those whoChavalit Vidthayanon Jörg Freyhof Rich Storton provided the images featuredChristian Randrianantoandro Jörn Köhler Richard Jenkins throughout this publication.Christine Rose-Smyth Justin Gerlach Richard LansdownChristoph Schwitzer Karen B Strier Richard Young Katalin Csatadi Robert Cantley Finally, sincere thanks to RachelClaude Gascon Roberts and Emma Edwards forColin Maycock Kingsley Dixon Robbin ThorpCraig Hilton-Taylor Laura Owens Robin Moore providing feedback on the text, and toCraig Turner Lina Eugenia Daza Rojas Rodrigo Medellin Simon Stuart and Mike Hoffman forDarren Yeo Chong Jinn Lize von Staden Ron Kopas assisting with the selection of the topDavid Burslem Lorenzo Rojas-Bracho Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society 100 species.David Gill Luana Lucena Roy GereauDavid Harries Luigi Boitani Rudy Pothin Please accept our apologies for anyDavid Long Marie Bruegmann Russell Mittermeier Mariella Superina Samuel Turvey accidental omissions.David Mallon Priceless or Worthless 7
    • “Conservation began with a focus on species, especially those in danger of extinction, and a major species focus needs to continue as a central element in all efforts to ensure the long-term viability of our living planet” Dr Russell A Mittermeier President, Conservation International Ardeotis nigriceps © Rahul Sachdev8 Priceless or Worthless
    • Contents Foreword 10 Chapter 1 - The value of extinction 14 Chapter 2 - Species at a tipping point - the 100 most threatened species in the world 24 Chapter 3 - Past extinctions 88 Chapter 4 - Pulled back from the brink 100 Chapter 5 - Final word 114 Glossary 118 Bibliography 120v Priceless or Worthless 9
    • Foreword Written by: Dr Simon Stuart, Chair of the IUCN Species Survival Commission The IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) is a science-based Launched in time for the world’s largest gathering of conservationists network of more than 8,000 volunteer experts from almost every (the IUCN World Conservation Congress), ‘Priceless or Worthless’ country of the world. SSC members include experts on plants, challenges us to confront our moral and ethical beliefs about the fungi, birds, mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates, value of nature. The future of many species is going to depend on and are deployed in over 100 Specialist Groups. It is these reconciling the needs of people and nature, and ensuring economic experts who have nominated the species featured in this book development and conservation do not undermine each other. to draw attention to those which, without urgent conservation If society believes that all species have a right to exist on the intervention, might no longer be with us in the near future. planet,then why are 100 of the most threatened species on the planet receiving so little funding or attention? At a time when The SSC vision is of a just world that values and conserves thousands of species are truly on the edge of extinction, it is timeSimon Stuart nature through positive action to reduce the loss of diversity of to ask society to take a stand – to declare that the 100 species in life on earth. This diversity includes the huge variety of species this book, and millions of others like them, have the right to exist highlighted in the book: the aptly named Suicide palm, a colossus on this planet. This then needs to be followed with appropriate tree that dies shortly after flowering, and the iconic Red River conservation action, innovation, community participation, policies, giant softshell turtle, tightly woven into Vietnamese mythology. legislation and enforcement. If we ignore the question, and fail to Teetering on the edge of extinction, these species and many take action, we shall be inadvertently accepting the ethical position others urgently need strong, global collaboration to survive. that human-caused mass extinction is acceptable. This book signals a wake-up call and challenges us all to take the necessary action ‘Priceless or Worthless’ identifies the threats that these 100 species on behalf of our fellow species as a matter of urgency. face, but it also identifies how they can be addressed. In addition, to remind us that all is not lost and that conservation has tangible benefits, the book highlights the successful efforts which have rescued species from the brink of extinction. We should be greatly encouraged that, worldwide, there are people with the determination and dedication to prevent species being lost. By learning from our mistakes, sharing our skills and knowledge and placing value on the life around us, we can help to ensure that, as custodians of our environment, we save species rather than accelerate their loss.10 Priceless or Worthless
    • Rhinopithecus avunculus © Le Khac Quyet/ University of Colorado Boulder Priceless or Worthless worthless 11
    • “Wild places are where we began. When they end so do we” David Brower Equus ferus przewalskii © Tim Flach12 Priceless or Worthless
    • Priceless or Worthless 13
    • Chapter 1The value ofextinction14 Priceless or Worthless worthless
    • “Nowadays we know the price ofeverything, and the value of nothing” Oscar Wilde Priceless or Worthless worthless 15
    • Priceless or worthless; you decide. Written by: Professor Jonathan Baillie, Director of Conservation Programmes, Zoological Society of London Although a few species on the list provide economic benefits The future existence of the 100 species in to people, such as the sale of the Giant yellow croaker’s swim this book lies squarely in our hands. Do these bladder (worth over seven times the price of gold in 2001) for use species have a right to exist, or do we have in traditional medicine, the majority do little for society other then represent cultural or existence values. If the 100 species on this the right to drive them to extinction? list were to disappear tomorrow there would be little impact on the global economy, jobs or security. This is in fact the case for For the first time the IUCN SSC network of 8,000 scientists have millions of species on the planet, where their value to humanity identified 100 of the most threatened animals, plants and fungi. is unknown or tangential at best. The declines of most of these species have been caused byJonathan Baillie humans and in almost all cases their extinction can be avoided With the threats to biodiversity rapidly escalating, and growing and the decline reversed. Thus, their future existence lies squarely numbers of species on the doorstep of extinction, society is in our hands. Whether they disappear forever or remain on the at a point in history where a decision needs to be made. Do planet simply depends on whether we as a society believe they these species have the right to exist? A decision not to tolerate are worth protecting. In this book we ask you to consider whether human-caused extinction would of course be entirely value the 100 most threatened species are priceless or worthless. Do based – but so is the alternative of allowing extinction to occur. they have the right to exist or do we have the right to drive them We need to decide where we stand on this moral and ethical to extinction? issue and implement and enforce national and international laws accordingly. So – it is up to us. The future of these species The book starts by introducing 100 species from 48 different depends on our values, are they priceless or worthless? countries that will be the next to go if conservation action is not taken immediately. Twenty-five of the 100 are highlighted to demonstrate the diversity of life that is about to be lost. We introduce the reader to the unique traits and characteristics of each species – essentially the wonder and natural beauty of each creature, plant and fungi. We then highlight examples of species that have been brought back from the brink of extinction such as Przewalski’s horse or the Chatham Island’s black robin, demonstrating that averting extinction is possible.16 Priceless or Worthless
    • “Every living species represents one unique pathway to success, developed over millions of years. What we lose with each passing species can never be replaced ” Professor Georgina Mace, CBE, FRSPsorodontus ebneri © Battal Ciplak and Sarp Kaya Priceless or Worthless worthless 17
    • Game changingFor the value of these 100 Marketing and Communicationsspecies to be recognised in The truth is I don’t know if it is possible to save the nature in our day to day lives, surrounded by tarmac,our political, legal, social and 100 species listed in this book. That’s a punchy start, concrete and glass. Caring about nature is increasingly but it’s just me being honest. It may be too late and not natural.economic systems, changes it may require too much effort. That’s a sweepingwill need to be made. Here value judgement that us humans will make, based In order for people to be moved to action they firstlyfour leading figures from on an analysis of four basic points that we have need to be aware of the issue (no mean feat in a embedded in our psyche: world where we are bombarded by messages aboutthe policy, legal, funding and soap, sport and smartphones, 24/7). Then we need • Do I know anything about this, is it on my radar?communications arenas give a powerful rational and/or an emotional argument - •  hat’s the rational argument (economically W you only need a powerful response to one of themtheir personal opinions on to get some traction. Then finally, when you have speaking) for doing something?what would need to be done. established interest you have to be sure not to fall •  hat’s the emotional argument for doing W at the final hurdle by neglecting to provide a call something? to action, something that your audience can do • Can I actually do anything anyway? themselves to help. Get all that in place, or even part of it, and you are well on the way to saving If we, as conservationists, want to give saving species and getting nature back on the agenda. these species a shot then the first stage is to consider our answers to these questions. It is in answering these questions that communications and marketing has a significant role to play. Dr Arlo Brady We may not be able to craft a convincing argument Managing Director in all instances, but we will be able to flush out freud Communications the most convincing angles. The first question isDisclaimer: often the hardest; it is also the most important.The views expressed in this section are the opinions As conservationists we frequently assume thatof the individual authors themselves, and as such do everyone else should have the same degree ofnot necessarily reflect those of the authors of this care and passion about the natural world that webook, the Zoological Society of London, IUCN or otherparticipating organizations. have. This is not the case. Nature is not prominent in the media; increasingly we are divorced from18 Priceless or Worthless
    • PolicyPolitics is driven by [moral] values and economics. There is now a real political opportunity for theThe influence that each has on public policy conservation movement to continue to maintain thevaries according to both national context and the moral and ethical arguments that are the foundationindividuals involved. Although their respective of its legitimacy, while at the same time highlightingimportance is determined by their context, the the economic benefits that biodiversity provides.combination of the [moral] values and economics The Natural Capital approach provides a frameworkdefines and determines the public policies on which to do exactly this – to recognise simultaneouslya political party will fight an election. both the intrinsic and utilitarian values of nature. It encourages governments to measure and monitorThe conservation movement faces competition for species and ecosystems and calls on society topoliticians’ time, interest and commitment. How decide how these should be valued. They can thenit addresses these driving forces will be the key be protected through legislation and viewed as afactor determining its relevance to, and impact on, national asset, with degradation showing up as apoliticians and the key decisions that they will make loss on the national balance sheet. This does notin the coming years. undermine or displace the long-standing cultural or ethical values people may have in and for nature,For most of its history the conservation movement but provides another politically relevant reason forhas largely advanced moral and ethical (values- decisions to be made that support conservation.based) arguments for protecting nature, rather thanpromoting a more utilitarian, ecosystem-servicebased approach. This balance is now changing, with focus turning towards functional arguments. Adam C T MatthewsCommitment to a more utilitarian approach Secretary Generalmay be at the expense of some of the world’s Globe Internationalmost endangered species. However, it would bepolitically naïve to use this as a reason completelyto reject it, when it demonstrates the materialbenefits some components of biodiversity provideto people. Priceless or Worthless 19
    • Legal What would have to change about the law to protect What might this look like? We could start with the the threatened species celebrated in this book? The Convention on Biological Diversity and give it some main problem is that there is simply no enforceable real teeth. Here’s how. Placing a species on a law globally that protects threatened species in their National Red List would trigger the requirement habitats. We have the Convention on Biological to produce a biodiversity action plan for the most Diversity, under which action plans and protected threatened species. These plans would differ from areas are created, but it is not legally binding. the current ones in that they would be binding. We have the Convention on International Trade in They would come with targets, timetables and a Endangered Species which is legally binding, but only pathway to the desired outcome. There would also covers species threatened by trade. We have the be sanctions attached for not complying with the plan. IUCN Red List prepared by the International Union for Crucially, technical help and funds must also be made Conservation of Nature (IUCN), which is a key tool available for the countries that will be doing the in identifying species at risk of extinction. But it has conservation work needed to help threatened species no effect in law. Many countries also have National to thrive. The critical issue is whether we can generate Red Lists, but few are linked with any legal the understanding to create the political will to make obligations. What we need to do to protect the the legal regime work. species in this book and a host of other threatened species is create a system of law that tracks species at risk and creates real enforceable protections. James Thornton CEO ClientEarth20 Priceless or Worthless
    • FundingThere are few universal causes that require massive Wildlife generates interest and arouses our passion It is time to scale up funding efforts and call uponmobilization from all sectors of society. Preserving which is demonstrated by the huge popularity of zoos the governments to increase their contributionthe diversity of life on Earth is one of them. or botanical gardens visited worldwide. Species have towards a better understanding and monitoring ofGovernments have repeatedly recognized the need the power to communicate; their conservation is biodiversity, as well as conservation action on theto do so, but this is no longer an option; we must portrayed through wonderful photos, amazing stories ground, directly, through multilateral bodies such asdo it. Thousands of enthusiastic people are trying to and dedicated, driven individuals working with local the Global Environment Facility or dedicated speciesdo miracles around the globe, often anonymously communities. We have first and foremost an ethical conservation funds. However this responsibilityand with very limited support. Most of the time obligation to conserve wild species. Our materialistic cannot be left solely to governments. SOS – Saveit is to preserve one species or one natural site. world, however, tends to restrict its attention to what Our Species, is a global partnership initiated byThis publication features some of their successes. is useful to human kind, has an immediate monetary leading conservation organizations aimed at mobilizingThese committed conservationists and conservation value and considers the rest as obstacles. For this new sources of funding for threatened species,groups stand ready to do more but unfortunately, utilitarian view of nature, we are not short of powerful their habitats and the people depending on them.we cannot rely indefinitely on the contributions of reasons to conserve the diversity of species that By joining SOS, governments, foundations,volunteers, nor the passion of a few committed we have inherited. Wild animals, plants and fungi companies, wealthy individuals can join forces andindividuals, to undertake such a mammoth task. are excellent indicators of environmental change, ensure that species featured in this book prosperThey need money. contribute significantly to ecosystem services. again. www.SaveOurSpecies.org Conserving species also helps to tackle complexBillions of dollars are being invested to carry out environmental problems. Species are also of greatresearch on other planets. The landing of the robot value to companies which depend on their useCuriosity on Mars with the objective of finding tracks for business or for promotion and for brand logos.of new forms of life is the most recent example. What is the gain for species from their extensively Dr Jean-Christophe ViéAt the same time, the diversity of life, on which our valuable and free contribution to the world economy? Deputy Directorvery existence depends, is disappearing fast. If equal Global Speciesamounts of money and ingenuity were invested to Programme Directorprotect the natural resources of our world, our future SOS - Save Ouron Earth would be secured. Then species such as Species IUCNthose featured in this publication would not disappear. Priceless or Worthless 21
    • “There’s no betterdesigner than nature”Alexander McQueen22 Priceless or Worthless
    • Priceless or Worthless 23
    • Chapter 2Species ata tippingpoint24 Priceless or Worthless worthless
    • The species featured here represent the100 most critically endangered species inthe world. If we don’t rapidly increase theamount of conservation attention thatthey receive they may soon be lost forever. Priceless or Worthless worthless 25
    • 26 Priceless or Worthless worthless © Peter Paul van Dijk
    • Astrochelys yniphoraPloughshare tortoise, AngonokaText reviewed by the Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group Often referred to as the most endangered tortoise The illegal trade of ploughshare tortoises is in the world, the ploughshare tortoise (Astrochelys undermining the otherwise laudable attempts ofPopulation size: yniphora) is named after the plough-like projection local conservationists and organizations to protect440 - 770 individuals that protrudes between its front legs. Having this species. There have been concerted efforts narrowly survived hunting pressure and habitat to stop illegal collection with the presence of theRange: destruction by fire in the past, this species’ good Madagascar National Parks Authority in the town looks may be its ultimate downfall as illegal of Saolala, close to the species’ habitat, and the12km2 in Baly Bay region, collection for the international pet trade is likely to establishment of a small network of villagenorthwestern Madagascar push it to extinction in the wild in the near future. para-rangers. These para-rangers monitor for possible smugglers and outbreaks of fire.Primary threats: Baly Bay, the location of the single remainingIllegal collection for international metapopulation of the ploughshare tortoise, was What needs to be done? gazetted as a national park in 1997 by the Malagasy Expansion of the current network of para-rangers,pet trade government to protect the remaining fragments along with an increase in the level of protection of the species’ habitat. Another layer of security provided by government authorities, would go aAction required: for this attractive reptile is accorded by its listing in considerable way toward ensuring the survival ofEnforcement of legal protection CITES Appendix I, outlawing its international trade. ploughshare tortoises in the wild. These efforts However, poor enforcement undermines these need to be coupled with ongoing monitoring of theand protected area management legal protections, with illegal trade and collection species’ presence in the illegal global pet trade, escalating in recent years. In 1996, 73 individuals along with effective repatriation of confiscated were stolen from the Durrell Wildlife Conservation animals. Unless these measures are implemented Trust’s offsite captive breeding facility, while in rapidly, human desire to own one of these May 2009 four tortoises were stolen from their fascinating creatures will rob future generations of onsite quarantine facility, where they were being the opportunity to ever see them in the wild. monitored prior to their planned release into the wild. Many wild animals have been poached off national park lands and appeared in the illegal pet trade, especially in Southeast Asia and China. Relying only on the current levels of legal protection to save this species has an extremely poor chance of success. Priceless or Worthless 27
    • Atelopus baliosRio Pescado stubfoot toadText reviewed by the Amphibian Specialist Group Drawing its name from the Greek word for dappled Also known as harlequin toads, the rediscovery of or spotted, ‘balios’, the beautiful Rio Pescado this species was a rare moment of celebration inPopulation size: stubfoot toad (Atelopus balios) is clinging to an otherwise sobering search for ‘lost’ amphibians.Unknown existence in a fragment of habitat in the pacific However, amphibian lovers should draw hope from lowlands of south-western Ecuador. Unseen since the fact that they now have a rare opportunity toRange: 1995, the rediscovery of this species in 2010 was rescue a member of a group that has been hit one of few high points in the ‘Search for Lost particularly hard by amphibian declines.Azuay, Cañar and Guyas provinces, Frogs’. Launched in August 2010 by the IUCN SSCsouth-western Ecuador Amphibian Specialist Group and Conservation What needs to be done? International, with support from Global Wildlife The immediate protection of this species’ habitatThreats: Conservation, this campaign resulted in expeditions in the Pacific lowlands of south-western Ecuador,Chytridiomycosis and habitat by 26 researchers in 21 countries. Sadly only four of coupled with further intensive searches for other the high priority ‘lost amphibians’ were found, only individuals that could be used for captive breeding,destruction due to logging and one of which featured in the ‘top ten’. This was the may yet save the Rio Pescado stubfoot toad.agricultural expansion Rio Pescado stubfoot toad. Ecuadorians must take rapid, decisive action if this beautiful piece of their natural heritage is to be saved.Action required: Only a tip-off from the local community led researchers to find a single adult toad by aProtection of last remaining habitat river during their search in 2010. This discovery partially allayed fears that the species had already succumbed to chytridiomycosis. However, the spot where it was found was not under any form of protection. As habitat degradation and loss due to agriculture, logging and pollution also severely threaten the survival of this species, protection of the last remaining fragments of the toad’s habitat is needed without delay.28 Priceless or Worthless
    • © Eduardo Toral Contreras Priceless or Worthless worthless 29
    • 30 Priceless or Worthless worthless © Andrew Young
    • Brachyteles hypoxanthusNorthern Muriqui, Wooly Spider MonkeyText contributed by Karen B. Strier, Primate Specialist Group The long-limbed northern muriqui (Brachyteles To address these threats, current conservation hypoxanthus), or wooly spider monkey, is found tactics are aimed at the preservation and expansionPopulation size: exclusively in the Atlantic forest of south-eastern of remaining habitats and at the protection and< 1,000 individuals Brazil. This peaceful primate is quite peculiar as, management of existing populations. This often instead of fighting to monopolize fertile females, requires delicately balancing research, ecotourism,Range: males wait patiently for their turn to copulate. It is and environmental education programs, with both not unusual for an ovulating female to mate with the well-being of the animals and environmentalAtlantic forest, south-eastern Brazil multiple males in close succession. These low impact concerns. levels of aggression give females the opportunityPrimary threats: to choose their own mates without the risk of What needs to be done?Habitat loss and fragmentation violence that other female primates may face. With the formation of an advisory committee ofdue to large-scale deforestation Revelations about the northern muriqui’s egalitarian experts and the recent completion of a national social relationships and promiscuous sex lives have action plan for the muriquis (O Plano de Açãoand selective logging captured attention both in Brazil and internationally, Nacional para a Conservação dos Muriquis), leading to the proposal for it to be a flagship species the Brazilian government has taken impressiveAction required: for the upcoming (2016) Olympic Games in Brazil. steps in demonstrating its commitment to theHabitat protection and development of informed conservation policies for Large-scale deforestation in the past and selective its endangered and critically endangered species.commitment of resources to logging has reduced the northern muriqui’s unique The success of these policies now depends uponsupport the implementation ecosystem to a fraction of its original extent, and the appropriate allocation of global resources forof the national action plan hunting pressures have taken their toll on local conservation initiatives. populations. Today, fewer than 1,000 northern muriquis are known to survive, distributed among about a dozen private and government owned forests in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santos and Bahia. Habitat fragmentation has isolated these populations from one another and most of the remaining populations are now alarmingly small. Priceless or Worthless 31
    • Bradypus pygmaeusPygmy three-toed slothText reviewed by the Anteater, Sloth and Armadillo Specialist Group Less than half the size of its mainland cousin – the Isla Escudo de Veraguas is already gazetted as a brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus) – the protected nature sanctuary. However, enforcementPopulation size: pygmy three-toed sloth (Bradypus pygmaeus) lives of this status is currently nonexistent, leading< 500 individuals almost exclusively in the red mangrove forests to the exploitation of both the sloths and their which cover between 1.3km2 to 1.5km2 of the Isla habitat. Though there is currently some evidenceRange: Escudo de Veraguas, off the Caribbean coast of of local indigenous governance, this needs better Panama. This small sloth has blotchy, pale grey- coordination and enforcement, via engagement ofApproximately 1.3km2 – 1.5km2 on brown fur with a slight greenish tinge. This green all the stakeholders.Isla Escudo de Veraguas, Panama hue is actually a cunning camouflage created by a coat of algae, helping the sloths to blend in with The pygmy three-toed sloth is a quintessentialThreats: their habitat. charismatic species. The willingness of humanityHabitat loss due to illegal logging to save such species is well documented and if this Although the island is uninhabited, seasonal visitors little sloth could be elevated to flagship status in theof mangrove forests for firewood pose an increasing threat with reports of fishermen minds of Panamanians and the global community,and construction and hunting of and lobster divers opportunistically hunting the it could become a valuable ambassador for the sloths. There is also evidence of clearance of their conservation of the mangrove ecosystem on whichthe sloths mangrove habitat for use as firewood and in local it depends. construction, endangering the survival of this tinyAction required: creature. Anecdotal observations from researchers What needs to be done?Enforcement of protection of the visiting the island have estimated the population As the primary threat to this species is of humanIsla Escudo de Veraguas nature of the pygmy three-toed sloths to be around 200 origin, transforming the current perception of individuals. The small size of the population and the the species is of paramount importance. Localsanctuary and raising awareness limited extent of their habitat increase the species awareness programmes could improve its profile of vulnerability to unexpected environmental events, and, when coupled with increased law enforcement and reduce their ability to withstand continued and to protect the nature sanctuary, could help to reduce increasing anthropogenic pressure. the myriad of pressures that these little sloths face. Furthermore, the use of the pygmy three-toed sloth as a flagship species for both its mangrove habitat and Panama could increase its value to the Panamanian people and their government.32 Priceless or Worthless
    • © Craig Turner/ZSL Priceless or Worthless worthless 33
    • 34 Priceless or Worthless worthless © Frank Glaw
    • Calumma tarzanTarzan’s chameleonText reviewed by the Chameleon Specialist Group Named in the hope that it would be a clarion ‘Tarzan’ The preservation of tiny fragments of forest, while call for conservation, the arresting Tarzan’s chameleon seemingly less important for the conservation ofPopulation size: (Calumma tarzan) was discovered in a small, and larger animals such as lemurs, play a critical roleUnknown shrinking, patch of rain forest close to the village in plant, amphibian and reptile conservation on formerly known as Tarzanville (now Ambodimeloka) in Madagascar. In light of the current rapid rates ofRange: eastern Madagascar. Madagascar has rich chameleon habitat degradation and destruction, the protection diversity with numerous strikingly beautiful species of these refugia is of utmost importance. While the< 10km2 in Anosibe An’Ala region, occurring throughout its remaining forests. The bright situation may seem dire, prior experience showseastern Madagascar green and yellow Tarzan’s chameleon is a spectacular us that the ‘Tarzan’ calls of species such as this species, with the yellow stripes that males display charismatic chameleon can inspire communities toPrimary threats: when agitated being particularly eye-catching. overcome seemingly insurmountable obstacles toHabitat destruction for agriculture preserve their heritage. Sadly, habitat destruction as a result of slash-and-burnAction required: agriculture is threatening the survival of this recently What needs to be done? discovered species. Currently only known from three Local community organisations require support, asSupport for nascent community small rainforest fragments, covering an area less well as the promotion of economic activities thatconservation initiatives and than 10km2, the species faces an uncertain future. don’t require forest clearance, to effectively manage the remaining fragments of forest. One such activityprotection of habitat Thankfully there are some legal restrictions in place could be the development of a basic infrastructure and forest clearance, enforced by local community for ecotourism as a partial alternative to destructive associations, is prohibited in two of the small agricultural practices. Eco-tourism that rests on the fragments in which the species is found. However, survival of Tarzan’s chameleon, coupled with the during a recent visit to Ampotaka Forest, a provisional provision of better education and health services, protected area, researchers found evidence of forest could provide the impetus needed for locals to clearance for the creation of trails for logging. protect this valuable habitat. Community conservation efforts, including the establishment of new protected areas, are underway in two of the sites where this species occurs. These tiny patches of rainforest harbour a variety of endemic plants and animals, and their value to the local economy and environment is well understood locally. Communities that use these forests are strongly supportive of conservation efforts that focus on sustainable use. Priceless or Worthless 35
    • Coleura seychellensisSeychelles sheath-tailed batText reviewed by the Bat Specialist Group A member of an ancient family, the tiny Seychelles What needs to be done? sheath-tailed bat (Coleura seychellensis) owes its Aggressive control of invasive vegetation andPopulation size: name to the membrane stretched between its hind predators, drawing from international experience< 100 mature individuals legs. The bat’s aerial acrobatics are facilitated by in the eradication of these threats, could assist the presence of this membrane - by shifting its hind this little bat’s recovery. These activities shouldRange: legs the bat can adjust the length of the membrane, be coupled with the restoration of the bats’ enabling it to rapidly duck and dive whilst in flight. lowland forest home which should increase theTwo small caves on Silhouette and Sadly, this winged aerialist is now flying ever closer bats’ invertebrate prey and augment the currentlyMahé, Seychelles to the edge of existence and may soon be lost for limited habitat available to the species. Finally, legal good. protection of habitat and roosting sites, combinedThreats: with the initiatives mentioned above, could secureHabitat degradation and predation Already extinct on the islands of La Digue and the persistence of this species into the future. Praslin, this captivating species is now clinging toby invasive species life in several caves on the islands of Sihouette and Mahé. However, even these caves are no longerAction required: safe havens as the world’s most endangeredRemoval of invasive vegetation and bat is beset from all sides. The most significant declines of this species were probably driven bycontrol of introduced predators, lowland forest clearance and the extensive usecoupled with legal protection of of horticultural pesticides in the late 1800s andhabitat and roosting sites early 1900s. Now however, the proliferation of invasive species, such as the Kudzu vine (Pueraria phaseoloides), seems to be the primary factor imperilling the species’ survival due to damage to forest habitat and the entrances to roosts. Human disturbance to the bat’s roosts in well lit boulder caves, coupled with predation by voracious feral cats, rats, and introduced barn owls may seal the fate of this aerial acrobat.36 Priceless or Worthless
    • Aggressive control of invasive vegetation and predators, drawing from international experience in the eradication of these threats, could assist this little bats recovery.© Justin Gerlach Priceless or Worthless worthless 37
    • 38 Priceless or Worthless worthless © Jaclyn Woods/Fort Worth Zoo
    • Cyclura colleiJamaican iguana, Jamaican rock iguanaText reviewed by the Iguana Specialist Group Believed to be extinct for much of the last century within the Portland Bight Protected Area, which following its disappearance from the Goat Islands, was declared in 1999, and should provide furtherPopulation size: two small islands off the Jamaican coast, the legal weight to stop current levels of abuse.Unknown Jamaican iguana (Cyclura collei) was re-discovered These legal instruments could also be used to on the mainland in 1970. Hanging on in a remote limit the expansion of development projects intoRange: section of the harsh Hellshire Hills, this large lizard the area that would open up the forest to further seems determined to fight on. When cornered the exploitation.< 10km2 in Hellshire Hills, Jamaica species will strike out with its front claws, and there are reports of it putting out the eye of hunter’s dogs What needs to be done?Primary threats: when attacked. The reintroduction of the Jamaican iguana to thePredation by introduced species offshore Goat Island cays, which also fall withinand habitat destruction Once common on the southern coast of Jamaica, the Portland Bight Protected Area, should proceed the introduction of invasive predators (particularly without delay. The establishment of a dry forestAction required: the Indian mongoose in 1872) coupled with biodiversity reserve on these islands, and the changing land-use patterns and human population eradication of predators, would provide the iguanasTranslocation to predator-free growth, have driven the rapid decline of this with a safe haven and is critical in ensuring theislands and control of deforestation species. In the absence of reintroductions from species long-term survival. The head-starting a head-starting programme run from Hope Zoo in programme, which has released over 174 iguanas Kingston, and extensive predator control managed back into the wild since 1996, could then be used by the University of the West Indies, the species to boost populations in these sanctuaries. The would probably have vanished entirely from its establishment of populations on these offshore refuge in the Hellshire Hills. As it is, they persist islands would provide a lifeline for the iguanas and only within a 10km2 core zone that is protected secure their future. from predators by a series of traps. The iguana’s forest habitat is protected under the Forest Act of 1996, but a lack of enforcement has meant that the area continues to be exploited for wood used in charcoal production. If this destruction is not controlled within the near future, there is a real risk that forest users will enter the remaining iguana habitat and destroy it, wiping out the species within it. The Hellshire Hills is also Priceless or Worthless 39
    • Dendrophylax fawcettiiCayman Islands ghost orchidText reviewed by the Orchid Specialist Group Known only from Grand Cayman Island, the ethereal Flower), and Hohenbergia caymanensis). The latter, ghost orchid (Dendrophylax fawcettii) grows on a giant bromeliad nick-named “Old George” is ,Population size: the trunks of trees and bare rocky limestone karst known naturally only from this area.Unknown pinnacles. A leafless, spider-like network of roots for most of the year, delicate pale cream flowers bloom What needs to be done?Range: between April and June, decorating the moist forest The Cayman Islands currently lack the comprehensive adjoining the wetlands. Sadly, this beautiful orchid conservation legislation necessary to establish< 1km2 Ironwood Forest, George faces an uncertain future. The Ironwood Forest, national protected areas, and only five per cent isTown, Grand Cayman the last remaining fragment of old-growth forest in under the protection of the National Trust for the George Town, is bounded on all sides by the urban Cayman Islands. With appropriate legislation, protectionThreats: development of the nation’s capital. The forest of the Ironwood Forest would be possible, eitherHabitat destruction due to extends to just 46 acres; of this, while the ghost by purchase or through establishing management orchids are confined to an area of only six acres. agreements with the private landowners. This wouldinfrastructure development benefit the landowners by enabling them to maintain Development of the west side of Grand Cayman their land in its natural state, as they have done forAction required: has been voracious in recent years. In 2008, generations. All that is required to enable this is theDevelopment of legislation that government plans to construct a bypass through political will. the forest, and through the portion occupied by thewill facilitate the protection of orchids, provoked outcry from both the public andthe Ironwood Forests the owners of the privately-held Ironwood Forest land. The forest won a stay of execution thanks to the campaign by the protestors and the bypass plans were shelved. However, this temporary reprieve will be insufficient to ensure the long- term survival of the enchanting ghost orchid as the Ironwood Forest continues to remain without any formal protection. The successful protection of the forest would also preserve (among numerous other native species) four additional Cayman Islands endemics of cultural as well as natural significance (Ironwood: Chionanthus caymanensis, Thatch palm: Coccothrinax proctorii, the Banana orchid: Myrmecophila thomsoniana (Cayman’s National40 Priceless or Worthless
    • © Christine Rose-Smyth, Stuart Mailer Priceless or Worthless worthless 41
    • 42 Priceless or Worthless worthless © John Burrows © Mervyn Lotter © John Burrows
    • Dioscorea strydomianaWild yamText reviewed by the South African Plant Specialist Group Touted as a cure for cancer in South African As the primary threat to the wild yam is unsustainable traditional medicines, the recently discovered levels of collection, developing solutions that willPopulation size: wild yam (Dioscorea strydomiana) holds the alleviate this are essential. Concerned parties,200 individuals unenviable title of the most threatened yam in the including the Mpumalanga Tourism and Parks world. While claims of its healing properties are Authority, the South African National BiodiversityRange: currently unsubstantiated, related species are rich Institute and the Mpumalanga Plant Specialist in elements which formed the original basis of Group, are currently collaborating to address this.Oshoek area, Mpumalanga, steroidal drugs and the contraceptive pill. These groups will also need to develop conservationSouth Africa programmes in conjunction with the community that Unfortunately, the plants purported curative has primary custodianship over the wild yam if theyPrimary threats: attributes may be the cause of its destruction. are to have any chance of success.Collection for medicinal use Excessive levels of collection for medicinal use are currently the primary threat to this slow-growingAction required: species. In fact, the most recent survey of the wild What needs to be done? yam population found over 89 per cent of the plants Possible solutions could include substituting otherDevelop strategy for sustainable had harvesting scars. Collectors remove large parts similar species in medicinal products or developinguse and establish ex-situ populations of the tuber, which protrudes from the ground, often systems for harvesting the seeds and selling plants leading to the death of the plant. If the species post-cultivation. The development of a successful continues to be exploited at the current rate, its cultivation project in particular could provide a persistence in the wild is highly unlikely. In addition, lifeline for the species, alleviating pressure on the burning, mining, cattle farming and firewood wild population. Ex-situ cultivation projects have collection are threatening the surrounding area, been started, but after eight years no plants have adding to the pressure on this valuable species. reached reproductive maturity. Although cultivation and the stockpiling of seed may provide an emergency parachute of sorts for the species, they alone can’t be relied on to save the wild yam. This makes immediate protection of the species in the wild of paramount importance. Priceless or Worthless 43
    • Eurynorhyncus pygmeusSpoon-billed sandpiperText contributed by Rebecca Lee and reviewed by the Threatened Waterfowl Specialist Group The spoon-billed sandpiper (Eurynorhynchus Many organisations across the conservation pygmeus) is a weird and wonderful bird, having community have united to attempt to save thePopulation size: a uniquely shaped bill that resembles a flattened spoon-billed sandpiper and preliminary results are< 100 breeding pairs spoon. It is also a species in deep trouble and is positive. In Myanmar, efforts to reduce trapping today considered to be one of the most endangered by providing local communities with livelihoodRange: birds on the planet. With the global population alternatives have shown success, and two arduous estimated at less than 100 breeding pairs, and an expeditions to far north eastern Russia haveBreeds in Russia, migrates along annual rate of decline of 26 per cent over the last resulted in a captive population of spoon-billedthe East Asian-Australasian Flyway decade, the species could be extinct within the sandpipers, as well as birds being released on the next ten years. On leaving its breeding grounds in breeding grounds after being hatched and rearedto wintering grounds in Bangladesh the coastal tundra in far north-eastern Russia, the in captivity, which has helped to alleviate the highand Myanmar. spoon-billed sandpiper undertakes an epic 8,000km mortality rate of chicks in the wild. migration along the East Asian–Australasian FlywayPrimary threats: to winter in southern and Southeast Asia. What needs to be done?Trapping on wintering grounds A flagship species for the East Asian–Australasian The most acute cause of the species’ very rapid Flyway, the spoon-billed sandpiper’s fate, and thatand land reclamation. recent decline is believed to be trapping and of the millions of other waterbirds that migrate hunting, primarily on the wintering grounds along the same flyway, hangs on the preservationActions required: including the Bay of Martaban in Myanmar and of key staging sites. In addition to the long-termMaintenance of critical intertidal Sonadia Island off the Bangladesh coast. This small measures needed to protect these sites, activities wader has also undoubtedly been affected by the such as conservation breeding and a reduction instaging posts and reducing loss of intertidal habitats along its migratory route, winter trapping pressure are essential.trapping on wintering grounds. particularly in the Yellow Sea. This problem also affects many other birds and local communities who It will not be easy to save the spoon-billed depend on the region’s coastal natural resources. sandpiper – time is short, funds are limited and the The precipitous decline of waterbirds along this logistical problems are considerable. Success is by flyway has been described as the gravest bird no means guaranteed, but with a huge collaborative extinction crisis on Earth. effort on habitat protection, reduction of trapping and conservation breeding, there is still hope for this remarkable bird.44 Priceless or Worthless
    • © Baz Scampion/bazscampionnaturephotography.co.uk Priceless or Worthless worthless 45
    • 46 Priceless or Worthless worthless © Paul Donald
    • Heteromirafa sidamoensisLiben larkText reviewed by the Bird Red List Authority Perfectly camouflaged amongst the sunburnt As well as threatening the Liben lark, the decline Ethiopian grassland, the cryptic Liben lark in pasture quality is impacting the livelihoods ofPopulation size: (Heteromirafra sidamoensis) resides solely in the the local Borana pastoralists. Deteriorating pasture90 - 256 individuals open, tall grass habitat of the Liben Plains. Sadly quality has transformed the homelands of the this enigmatic species looks as though it could Borana from some of the most productive in AfricaRange: become mainland Africa’s first recorded bird to a landscape overrun with famine and ethnic extinction. Between 2007 and 2009 the number hostilities. Regeneration of these once productive< 35km2 in the Liben Plains, of Liben larks dropped by 40 per cent with the areas is urgently required.southern Ethiopia population now numbering between 90 and 256 individuals. Unless current trends of habitat loss are What needs to be done?Threats: reversed, there seems little hope for the species As the Liben lark avoids woody vegetation, very shortHabitat loss and degradation due survival. grass, and bare ground, regeneration of the open, tall grass habitat on which it depends will be pivotalto agricultural expansion, over- While as insidious and disastrous for the to any recovery programme. The establishmentgrazing and fire suppression biodiversity they contain, the degradation of of cattle exclosures could facilitate this. In rangelands globally attracts far less attention addition, implementing sustainable managementAction required: than the destruction of tropical forests. It is this practices, including clearing scrub and abolishing destruction of rangelands that is pushing the Liben fire suppression policies, is necessary to ensureRestoration of grasslands, including lark to the edge. The loss of habitat in this area has the species long-term survival. By reinvigoratingestablishing sustainable land been driven by crop planting, overgrazing and scrub traditional land and water management strategiesmanagement practices, clearing encroachment, a result of both excessive grazing and increasing the appeal and sustainability of and fire suppression. Modelling suggests that apart pastoralism, both the livelihoods of the local peoplescrub and reinstating fire regime from a small, politically insecure area near Somalia, and their biodiversity may yet be saved. there is no other suitable habitat for the species anywhere in the Horn of Africa. This makes the protection of remaining patches in the Liben Plains critically important. Priceless or Worthless 47
    • Johora singaporensisSingapore freshwater crabText reviewed by the Freshwater Crab and Crayfish Specialist Group Hiding under rocks and dank leaf litter in just two or The survival of this freshwater species now hinges three streams in central Singapore can be found the on this stream in the reserve and a small drainagePopulation size: Singapore freshwater crab, Johora singaporensis. canal near Bukit Batok within five kilometres of One of only three endemic freshwater crabs in this this stronghold. Worryingly, the latter site remainsUnknown highly developed island city state, for over half a unprotected, and lowering of the water-table that century it had been assumed to be a population of sustains the stream, pesticide use, and urbanRange: the Malaysian species Johora johorensis. However, development could all result in the loss of this speciesBukit Timah Nature Reserve morphological and genetic studies have since from it altogether. However, the National Parks Boardand streamlet near Bukit Batok, confirmed it to be a distinct species, and it was of Singapore is working with other government formally named in 1986 – underlining the need agencies in an urgent bid to prevent impacts to thisSingapore to conduct careful analysis of taxonomy when unprotected site and help to prevent the impending developing conservation strategies. This tiny (up to extinction of one of the country’s iconic species.Primary threats: 30 mm in size), mainly nocturnal creature feeds onHabitat degradation – reduction in detritus and worms found in the stream bed. What needs to be done? Protection of the crabs’ habitat and the surroundingwater quality and quantity Until recently the Singapore freshwater crab was stream systems offers the only chance to ensure the assumed to be relatively well protected with one of long-term survival of this species in the wild. InActions required: its two populations occurring in a stream drainage addition to in-situ conservation by protecting theProtection of remaining habitat within the country’s oldest and best protected national species’ habitat, the establishment of an ex-situand establishment of ex-situ park, Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. However, studies population is being explored; as this could provide in 2008 surprisingly found that it had completely some insurance in the short term against the suddenpopulations disappeared from this particular stream within the disappearance of the Singapore freshwater crab. reserve. Acid rain was suspected to be one of the Without the rapid implementation of these measures, culprits as the water in this stream had become the loss of this species seems almost inevitable. too acidic for the crabs to persist. Most recently, however, follow-up surveys revealed the presence of a hitherto unknown population in another part of the reserve but in a different drainage, which fortunately does not appear to be experiencing similar problems of stream acidification.48 Priceless or Worthless
    • © Choy Heng Wah Priceless or Worthless worthless 49
    • 50 Priceless or Worthless worthless © Tom Friedel / BirdPhotos.com
    • Lophura edwardsiEdwards’s pheasantText reviewed by the Galliforme Specialist Group and the World Pheasant Association Since proper records began 400 years ago, no What needs to be done? pheasant species has been lost from the wild in Complete cessation of hunting is necessary inPopulation size: Asia. It now looks as though Edwards’s pheasant any protected areas found to hold Edwards’sUnknown (Lophura edwardsi) from central Viet Nam may pheasant, as will increased control of hunting in the succumb to this fate, leaving its shimmering blue surrounding habitat. In addition, habitat restorationRange: and black plumage and bright red wattles to adorn and management will need to be incorporated into a only display cases and zoo exhibits. comprehensive conservation plan that includes theQuang Binh, Quang Tri and Thua full establishment of protected areas in the knownThien-Hue, Viet Nam Rediscovered in 1996 after a 70year gap in records, range. Phong Dien and Dakrong have already been there have been no confirmed sightings of this species classified as nature reserves, but their status needsThreats: in the wild since 2000 despite intensive surveys in to be confirmed without delay.Hunting and habitat loss previously known areas. Deforestation has left the species’ historical range almost completely devoid Fortunately, there are a large number of individualsAction required: of the original tree cover. The spraying of herbicide held in captivity around the globe, although the genetic during the Viet Nam war, and logging and clearance purity of this population is uncertain and requiresEffective law enforcement, habitat for agriculture have driven this loss which has left investigation. If this captive population is deemedrestoration and development of a only fragments standing. In addition, indiscriminate suitable for a breeding programme, then this could hunting practices have pushed Edwards’s pheasant be considered as part of a long-term managementcaptive breeding programme to what may be a point of no return. strategy to save the species. Habitat restoration and management, coupled with conservation breeding Previous experience with highly threatened bird and reintroduction within the historical range of the species gives us reason to hope that this seemingly Edwards’s pheasant, could provide a much-needed desperate situation could be reversed. Intensive reprieve for this enigmatic bird. surveys may yet uncover small remnant populations, and attempts to find these survivors should be continued. Critically though, the key to the survival of this striking species in the wild lies in effective law enforcement, coupled with awareness raising within local communities. Although current hunting practices do not specifically target Edwards’s pheasants, the random nature of the activity still results in bird deaths. Priceless or Worthless 51
    • Nepenthes attenboroughiiAttenborough’s pitcher plantText reviewed by members of the Carnivorous Plant Specialist Group Named after one of the world’s most famous Had Attenborough’s pitcher plant been discovered broadcasters and naturalists, Sir David Attenborough, any later, attempts to protect the plant and itsPopulation size: Attenborough’s pitcher plant (Nepenthes species-rich habitat may have been too late. attenboroughii) is one of the world’s largest, with traps Fortunately, governments, scientists and the localUnknown reaching up to 30cm in height. This spectacular, inhabitants have been given an early opportunity colourful species was discovered by science in to safeguard this remarkable pitcher plant andRange: 2007 and three colonies have since been found on Palawan’s unique biological heritage for the benefit< 1km2 on either side of the the uppermost slopes of the Mount Victoria Massif. of future generations.summit of Mount Victoria, The location of Attenborough’s pitcher plant is What needs to be done?Palawan, Philippines currently relatively inaccessible, meaning that habitat Attenborough’s pitcher plant currently has little degradation and destruction do not yet pose a major monetary value, apart from that gained throughPrimary threats: threat. Instead, the primary risk is that of over-collection its collection and sale - a practice that is ultimatelyPoaching by locals and visitors. The monetary and curiosity futile since harvested plants are unlikely to survive. value of this species is high, particularly in Asian An education programme focusing on developingActions required: markets and if unregulated, could drive this fascinating responsible eco-tourism, coupled with better and iconic plant towards extinction. Elsewhere in enforcement of existing laws prohibiting wildCreation of a protected area the Philippines, the locals have noted the interest collection of the species, could ensure the plant’sand enforcement of current of foreigners in rare plants and may occasionally continued existence. Designation of the species’legal protection respond by collecting plants from the wild and selling habitat as a protected area under Philippine law them at roadside stalls. As the profile of this species would also assist in ensuring its long-term survival, continues to rise, this practice may escalate in as would escalating cultivation efforts with the aim Palawan, especially in the absence of an enforced of reducing demand for wild-collected plants while protected status. Another potential threat to potentially facilitating future reintroductions. Attenborough’s pitcher plant relates to mining expansion. Though operations are currently suspended at the nickel mine at the base of Mount Victoria, the soils in the area are rich in heavy metals and have been prospected for future mining operations. Such expansion would result in habitat destruction and open up the area, facilitating poaching.52 Priceless or Worthless
    • “This project is clearly a most valuable initiative, focussing attention as it does on species that are particularly endangered. I was greatly flattered when a pitcher plant with perhaps the biggest pitchers yet discovered was given my name, but aware too that such a potential record-breaker could attract the attention of unscrupulous collectors. So it is good to know that the Zoological Society of London and IUCN SSC have decided to include it among the species to be given special attention” Sir David Attenborough OM, CH, CVO, CBE, FRS, FZS, FSA© Stewart McPherson Priceless or Worthless worthless 53
    • 54 Priceless or Worthless worthless © R D Bartlett
    • Neurergus kaiseriLuristan newtText reviewed by the Amphibian Specialist Group Restricted to only three fast-flowing streams in the The Luristan newt is protected by Iranian national southern Zagros mountains of Lorestan in Iran, the legislation and was listed on CITES Appendix I in 2010.Population size: stunning Luristan newt (Neurergus kaiseri) was This listing renders all trade in the species illegal,< 1,000 mature individuals described relatively recently in 1952. Spending the unless in exceptional circumstances which require a winter hibernating in arid shrub land under stones, the licence. However, enforcement of this legislation isRange: species then returns to spring-fed streams to breed. currently insufficient and needs to be strengthened The males of the species perform an intricate courtship to respond to increasing international demand.< 10km2 Zagros Mountains, dance prior to mating, but after expending all thatLorestan, Iran effort the pair don’t even touch. Instead the male What needs to be done? deposits a sperm packet for the female to retrieve. Monitoring movement of the species both locally andPrimary threats: internationally should be an important componentIllegal collection for pet trade Cloaked in black, white and flashes of bright orange, of any management plan, in order to map the illegal this handsome amphibian has experienced a trade flows. In addition, the expansion of the ZagrosAction required: dramatic decline in its population over the last ten Oak Forest to include the range of the Luristan years with numbers now estimated to be less than newt would provide a strong legal framework forEnforcement of protection 1,000 mature individuals. A significant threat to the tackling current levels of habitat destruction. Finally, survival of the Luristan newt is the growing demand a habitat restoration project should be initiated to from the international pet trade. Prized for their connect the remaining fragments and to ensure distinctive colouring, a warning of their toxic skin that genetic isolation of the remaining populations secretions, some individuals have been spotted for does not further threaten the chances of survival for sale in markets in Tehran. Wood collection, together this colourful amphibian. with the effects of severe droughts in the region, is severely limiting the suitable habitat available for the species. Finally, damming of the streams in which the species lives, and the spread of non-native cyprinid species that predate on larvae and eggs, may be the final nail in the coffin for the species. Priceless or Worthless 55
    • Phocoena sinusVaquitaText contributed by the Cetacean Specialist Group During the last decades of the twentieth century, Creation of the Upper Gulf of California and the population of baijis, China’s endemic Yangtze Colorado River Delta Biosphere Reserve in 1993Population size: River dolphins, declined from several hundred to and the Vaquita Refuge in 2005 gave cause for nothing. Sadly, the global attention and political optimism that protection for this species was on its< 200 individuals and declining will needed to save this charismatic species was way, but these initiatives proved far from adequate. too little and arrived too late. The world’s smallest Initial implementation of the 2008 ‘Action Plan toRange: porpoise, a beautiful desert species known as Protect the Vaquita’ was designed to reduce fishingcore area of approximately vaquita (Phocoena sinus), is now facing a similar pressure through a voluntary buy-out programme2,500km2 in Northern Gulf fate. and there was a strong effort to enforce the refuge boundaries. Today, however, fishing effort, althoughof California, Mexico The only immediate threat to the vaquita’s existence reduced, is still higher than in the early 1990s is accidental drowning in gillnets deployed by and while fishing is banned in the Refuge, bothPrimary threats: artisanal fishermen. This makes saving the species gillnetting and trawling continue to occur there.Incidental capture in gillnets as simple as removing these nets from its small range. However, doing that presents an economicActions required: and socially complex problem as fishing is one of What needs to be done? the primary sources of income in the region. The Gillnets will need to be removed from the vaquita’sBan on use of gillnets throughout government of Mexico has taken important steps entire range within the next few years. Alternativethe species’ range to reduce fishing effort in the upper Gulf, and has ‘vaquita-safe’ shrimp gear has been developed, but banned gillnets and other fishing gear from central its adoption by local fishermen awaits governmental parts of the vaquita’s range. However, models indicate approval, training in its use, and initiatives to support that the current levels of protection have only slowed, gear replacement. Alternative gear for catching finfish not stopped, this species decline. Winning the still needs to be developed. Only with the wide- race to alter human behavior in time to save this scale adoption of ‘vaquita-safe’ fishing methods desert porpoise will require a complex mixture of will it be possible to ensure the species’ survival. governmental will, genuine economic alternatives International support of gear-switching efforts and for local people (including access to alternative a mandatory timetable for gillnet phase-out will be fishing gear), and the funds for implementing and critically important. enforcing some difficult changes to the status quo.56 Priceless or Worthless
    • © T.A. Jefferson © P Olson . The government of Mexico has taken important steps to reduce fishing effort in the upper Gulf, and has banned gillnets and other fishing gear from central parts of the vaquita’s range.© T.A. Jefferson Priceless or Worthless worthless 57
    • 58 Priceless or Worthless worthless © Noel Rowe
    • Prolemur simusGreater bamboo lemurText reviewed by the Primate Specialist Group Possessing powerful jaws that can crack through Encouragingly, positive collaboration between the tough bamboo that makes up the majority national and international non-governmentalPopulation size: of its diet, the greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur organisations and local communities provides hope100-160 individuals simus) has returned from supposed extinction that this species will continue to chew through once before. Discovered in 1870, the species stocks of bamboo well into the future.Range: was believed extinct for almost fifty years before being rediscovered in 1972. Since that date there What needs to be done?Southeastern and southcentral has been a near constant struggle to protect the Protection of suitable habitat in the Ivato andrainforests of Madagascar species’ last remaining strongholds. Karlanaga regions should be implemented immediately. In addition, to reduce the impact ofPrimary threats: The greater bamboo lemur was once widespread continuing destruction outside reserve areas, theHabitat destruction due to throughout Madagascar but now survives in only development of a reforestation programme to create about 1 - 4 per cent of its historical range. In fact, it corridors between the forest fragments needs urgentslash-and-burn agriculture, may have the smallest population size of any lemur consideration. This would also facilitate movement,mining and illegal logging in Madagascar, and hence the world. The major and therefore the transfer of genes, between threat to this species is habitat destruction as a populations. If the survival of the greater bambooAction required: result of slash-and-burn agriculture, mining and illegal lemur is to be ensured, as well as that of many logging. other Malagasy species, community education andHabitat protection and the development of more sustainable agriculturalreforestation in the Ivato and The establishment of the Ranomafana National Park practices, which drives large amounts of habitatKarlanaga regions in 1991 and the Andringitra National Park in 1999 destruction, will be of paramount importance. provided legal protection for large chunks of the greater bamboo lemur’s habitat, throwing a lifeline to populations in this area. However, there may also be additional groups that are clinging to existence in the Ivato and Karlanaga regions, where their home range is completely unprotected and severely threatened by slash-and-burn agriculture. Without immediate protection the habitat and populations in these areas may be lost, significantly undermining the genetic viability of the species. Priceless or Worthless 59
    • Pseudoryx nghetinhensisSaolaText contributed by Barney Long and reviewed by the Asian Wild Cattle Specialist Group The saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) is such To have any hope of stemming the unsustainable a distinctive species that no general English loss of species throughout Asia national andPopulation size: descriptor, such as cat or dog, can be applied to it. international groups must collaborate to stem theUnknown It is simply a saola – a relative of cows and goats- illegal wildlife trade. Preventing the sale of illegally and its name represents the only Lao word in the caught wildlife in restaurants across the area wouldRange: English language. Despite its recent and remarkable help to save species, but demand in other sectors discovery in 1992, this modern day unicorn remains will also need to be addressed. Finally, reducingAnnamite mountains, on the Viet under immediate threat of extinction. Residing in the rate of forest loss in the saola’s habitat andNam - PDR Laos border the dense rainforests that cloak the steep Annamite improving protected area management will be Mountains along the Viet Nam-Laos PDR border the critical. The situation seems dismal, but if local,Threats: saola has yet to be seen in the wild by a scientist. national and international support can be musteredHunting and habitat destruction there is still hope that the saola can be saved. Intensive hunting in the species habitat is theAction required: greatest threat to the saola’s survival, with What needs to be done? ubiquitous and uncontrolled snaring to supply the A reduction in snaring effort in the areas whereIncrease enforcement efforts illegal trade in wildlife products being the principle saola are thought to still survive will be an essentialand habitat protection driver. Although hunters are not targeting saola, conservation measure for this species and could their incidental capture results in a similar outcome. be achieved with an increase in both the number The failure to address this, due to a lack of control of rangers and their operational budgets. A pilot of hunting in both Viet Nam and Laos PDR, is programme in Thua-Thien Hien Saola Reserve in Viet driving the declines in populations of numerous Nam was extremely successful with 12,000 snares threatened species. The lack of enforcement of removed in the first year it was implemented. national laws that govern the sale and trafficking of Financial and operational support from the wildlife products only adds to the difficult situation. international community is urgently needed to Finally, habitat loss and fragmentation, driven by expand this programme to other areas in which the agricultural expansion, infrastructure development saola may still roam. and extractive industries is increasing the extreme pressures currently facing saola populations. Though researchers are unable to provide any confident estimates of numbers, they are aware that the species has only been found in less than 15 patches of forest.60 Priceless or Worthless
    • To have any hope of stemming the loss of species throughout Asia national and international groups must work together to stem the illegal wildlife trade. © Toon Fey/ WWF© W Robichaud/ Ban Vangban village/ WCS/ IUCN © W Robichaud Priceless or Worthless worthless 61
    • 62 Priceless or Worthless worthless © Tim McCormack, Asian Turtle Program
    • Rafetus swinhoeiRed River giant softshell turtleText reviewed by the Freshwater Turtle and Tortoise Specialist Group The enormous Red River giant softshell turtle be on sale there. However, as officials focus their (Rafetus swinhoei) can reach up to 120kg in weight, hunt on gigantic specimens (large adults), youngerPopulation size: with a shell over 100cm long. The species plays a individuals may be slipping through under the4 individuals significant role in the cultural history of the area. assumption that they are a more common species. In fact, the turtle in Hoan Kiem Lake is fabled toRange: be the legendary Kim Qui, or Golden Turtle God, What needs to be done? and has appeared at notable points in Vietnamese The creation of a clear identification kit for officialsHoan Kiem Lake and Dong Mo Lake, history. Unfortunately this cultural icon may soon that distinguishes between all size classes of softshellViet Nam, and Suzhou Zoo, China be lost forever as hunting and habitat destruction turtle species in the area would be invaluable. If these have devastated populations. Previously found were then distributed throughout the area otherPrimary threats: throughout the Red River of Yunnan, China and individuals could possibly be rescued and included inHunting for consumption Vietnam, the known global population now consists captive breeding programmes. In addition, options to of four individuals. include the turtle in Dong Mo Lake in the breedingand habitat destruction and programme should continue to be explored.degradation as a result of wetland An intensive conservation breeding programme at Suzhou Zoo with an old male and the last known Finally, comprehensive surveys and awarenessdestruction and pollution female has been running since 2008. Unfortunately, campaigns across the region need to be continued. despite multiple attempts, none of the clutches of The value of these was demonstrated in 2010, whenActions required: eggs laid by the female have produced hatchlings, Dong Mo Lake broke its dam and a turtle was caughtEducation and awareness and in 2011 were all found to be infertile. Attempts downriver. In the absence of an awareness campaignprogrammes, and captive breeding continue and efforts may be made to pair the this individual would have found his way onto a dinner female with a younger Vietnamese male discovered table, rather than being rescued and released back in 2007 in Dong Mo Lake. into its wetland home. As well as continuing conservation breeding efforts, scientists have made several missions to Yunnan in recent years to assess reports of possible sightings of the species by the forestry bureaus and others in the area. Although awareness levels of the species and its significance was encouragingly high, there were no confirmed recent sightings. The forestry bureaus in the area were continuing to monitor markets in order to rescue any individuals that might Priceless or Worthless 63
    • Rhinoceros sondaicusJavan rhinoText reviewed by the Asian Rhino Specialist Group Formerly found throughout south-east Asia, as far What needs to be done? afield as Bangladesh and southern China through As the primary threat to the survival of the JavanPopulation size: to peninsular Malaysia and the islands of Sumatra rhino is hunting, then the success of rescue efforts< 100 individuals and Java in Indonesia, the Javan rhino (Rhinoceros will hinge on understanding the motivations for sondaicus) is now the rarest of all the living rhinoceros these activities and effectively addressing them.Range: species. Like many rhinos, their horns are prized Ramping up patrolling efforts and the enforcement in traditional medicine and can fetch up to $30,000 of protection laws in the area will also be of criticalUjung Kulon National Park, (US) on the black market. importance to save this species. Due to the smallJava, Indonesia population size, disease is also a significant threat This charismatic species is battling to survive, and needs to be continually monitored. In addition,Threats: with only a small population of between 40 - 60 habitat management, to enhance its suitability forHunting for traditional medicine individuals remaining in Ujung Kulon National Park the Javan rhino, should continue. in Java. Until recently a population hung on in theand small population size Cat Tien National Park in Viet Nam. However the With the loss of the final population in Viet Nam, last individual was poached from the protected there is an urgent need to review the feasibilityAction required: area in early 2010, the value of its horn in traditional of a conservation breeding programme and theEnforcement of protection laws medicine is overshadowing any intrinsic value that potential for reintroductions and translocations. the species has. Any translocation or reintroduction would carryand possible establishment of substantial risk, but as the sole remaining populationa captive breeding programme A principal form of legal protection for the species of this rhino exists in a geographically limited is its listing on CITES Appendix I, and since 1975 area of Java, not implementing these ambitious this has made the trade of individuals or any conservation measures may no longer be an option. component parts illegal. However, the often under-resourced nation states that hold CITES Appendix I species require increased levels of international support to enforce this legislation and protect what is of global value. Rhinos are one of the world’s most recognisable species, filling children’s story books and providing inspiration for generations. Losing one of their species due to the human desire to consume ever more resources would be inexcusable.64 Priceless or Worthless
    • © Klaus Lang Priceless or Worthless worthless 65
    • 66 Priceless or Worthless worthless © Reagan Joseph T Villanueva
    • Risiocnemis seidenschwarziCebu frill-wingText contributed by Reagan Joseph Villanueva and reviewed by the Dragonfly Specialist Group Discovered in 1999, the Cebu frill-wing (Risiocnemis The fate of this distinctive, blue-eyed damselfly seidenschwarzi) is a beautiful black damselfly with (and Protosticta plicata, another endangeredPopulation size: unusual blue eyes and is found only on the island damselfly) depends largely on encouraging variousUnknown of Cebu, in the Philippines. Two years after its stakeholders to protect the habitat around the discovery a local farmer moved onto the only site Kawasan Falls. There is a high risk of this siteRange: from which the species was known, destroying being destroyed, with the lower section having the original vegetation. With its forested habitat already been developed with concrete paving and< 1km2 in a rivulet beside the lost, the population of Cebu frill-wings began to ornamental plantings. Clearance of vegetationKawasan River, Cebu, Philippines decline rapidly. After the farmer was found washing above the waterfalls has also been noted. As the his pesticide sprayer in the frill-wing’s only known area is not currently protected, there are no legalPrimary threats: habitat, thus poisoning the water, the species restrictions to prevent landowners modifying theHabitat degradation and seemed to be lost forever. Extensive efforts to area further. locate the species and to raise awareness of itsdestruction plight came to no avail. What needs to be done? The presence of the two threatened odonataActions required: Fortunately, in 2009, a small population was species, four other island-endemics and a numberDesignation of area as ‘Critical discovered at a spring located by Kawasan Falls, of other Philippine endemics, should accord the near the source of the Kawasan River. This Kawasan Falls ‘Critical Habitat’ status. This wouldHabitat’ – restricting human access population is confined to a narrow area measuring restrict human access to the area and remove theto the area less than 30m2 and may itself have only narrowly threat of habitat modification. It would also reduce escaped destruction. According to locals, the site the risk of the site being poisoned, which wiped was nearly destroyed in 1990 by the construction out the previous population. Careful management of a house. In a strange twist of fate, the delicate of the designation process will be of paramount frill-wings were saved only by the deportation of importance, to avoid negative reactions from the the owner, leaving nature to reclaim the abandoned current landowners which could have disastrous property and return it to its former state. consequences for the Cebu frill-wing. Priceless or Worthless 67
    • Scaturiginichthys vermeilipinnisRed-finned Blue-eyeText contributed by Adam Kerezsy, Freshwater Fish Specialist Group The red-finned blue-eye (Scaturiginichthys total numbers were estimated at between 2,000 vermeilipinnis) is a tiny fish which has an extremely and 4,000 individuals. In contrast, the gambusiaPopulation size: restricted range in an isolated group of artesian springs population had exploded and they were present2,000 - 4,000 individuals on Edgbaston, a former sheep and cattle station in their millions in thirty springs. It is thought that in central western Queensland, Australia. First gambusia invaded the springs following extensiveRange: discovered in 1990, the existence of a beautifully- flooding of the region, and there is a high risk that coloured member of the blue-eye family in such the species could colonise the final strongholdsEdgbaston Station, central an unlikely environment was exciting to everyone. of the red-finned blue-eye. The situation is a littlewestern Queensland, Australia better in 2012, but is still precarious. Rotenone – a However, from the onset of its discovery there was substance used to kill fishes - has been trialled atThreats: recognition of an impending disaster: the presence Edgbaston. It successfully eliminates gambusia and,Predation by introduced species of the fish Gambusia holbrooki. Introduced as a when applied correctly, doesn’t damage populations biological control for mosquitoes, feral populations of non-target taxa. Red-finned blue-eyes have alsoAction required: of gambusia are associated with catastrophic been successfully relocated to three springs which declines in indigenous fish populations, and this were free of gambusia, opening up the possibilityControl of the invasive species is certainly the case in the spring complex at for future successful reintroductions. Work isGambusia holbrooki, and Edgbaston where the species predate on red-finned currently underway to trial methods of preventing blue-eyes. future gambusia colonisation, barricading springsreintroduction of S.vermeilipinnis using a range of materials. During the 1990s, staff from the state fisheries agency in Queensland worked to get red-finned What needs to be done? blue-eye listed as an endangered species. These The red-finned blue-eye has survived in an extremely efforts were successful and it is now listed as harsh aquatic environment, but unfortunately this endangered under Australian and Queensland little fish’s impressive adaptability is nothing in the legislation. Unfortunately, conservation breeding face of a gambusia invasion. Although much progress efforts failed so the best hope for this fish now has been made in protecting the red-finned blue- rests on conservation efforts in its arid homeland. eye, there is still a long way to go. Rescue currently hinges on red-finned blue eye reintroductions and In 2008, Edgbaston was purchased by Bush prevention of further gambusia colonisations. While Heritage Australia and a project commenced to this is possible, the species requires dedicated attempt to control gambusia and save the red- funding and support to ensure its long-term recovery. finned blue-eye. An audit of all springs in March Without this, the extinction of this unique species 2009 revealed only four springs with the fish, and remains likely.68 Priceless or Worthless
    • © Adam Kerezsy Priceless or Worthless worthless 69
    • The species was previously found in six estuaries in the Eastern Cape Province, but is believed to have disappeared from five. Its situation was so dire that it was feared extinct in 1994.70 Priceless or Worthless worthless © Paul Cowley
    • Sygnathus watermeyeriEstuarine pipefishText reviewed by the Seahorse, Pipefish and Stickleback Red List Authority A relative of the seahorse and sea dragon, the Fortunately, a population of estuarine pipefish returned estuarine pipefish (Syngnathus watermeyeri), like all to the Kariega Estuary after an absence of fourPopulation size: species in its family, has flipped reproductive roles decades. This re-emergence was probably linked toUnknown with the male being the one that gets pregnant. a period of heavy rain in the area, which resulted in Females deposit eggs into the male’s brood pouch the Kariega River flowing once again and giving riseRange: after mating, where the male then carries them to to optimal levels of salinity and nutrients in the estuary. term – between 12 and 14 days. Unfortunately this Ensuring that this quirky little species improvesKariega Estuary to East diverting species and its quirks may soon be lost its currently shaky grip on life will require carefulKleinemonde Estuary, Eastern due to continued declines of habitat quality and management of the water flows into the estuary.Cape Province, South Africa food resources in its estuarine home.Threats: The estuarine pipefish relies on pulses of river What needs to be done? water that both nourish its food supply and The establishment of a freshwater ‘reserve’, whichConstruction of dams altering maintain habitable saline levels. The construction could help to ensure regular pulses of freshwaterriver flows and flood events of dams and other barriers along waterways, into the system, coupled with habitat conservation and the direct abstraction of water from rivers, and pollution control are the main measuresinto estuaries in the Eastern Cape Province have reduced the needed to protect this species. Management of frequency and intensity of these flows – resulting these freshwater flows, that supply both food andAction required: in a decline in food availability for the larval stages living space for the species, should be achievedEstablishment of a freshwater of development. The species was previously found without too much difficulty since allocations for‘reserve’, pollution control and in six estuaries in this area, but is believed to have water use have been agreed for other estuaries in disappeared from five. Its situation was so dire the area. Now all that is required is for them to beimplementation of water use that it was feared extinct in 1994, before a new implemented, and then effectively managed, on theallocations population was discovered in East Kleinemonde Kariega and Bushman’s rivers. Appropriate land-use Estuary. Sadly this population was wiped out management and ecological water allocations could by a flood in 1998, which resulted in the loss of avoid potentially catastrophic outcomes for this submerged aquatic grass beds on which this species in the future. species depends. Priceless or Worthless 71
    • Tahina spectabilisSuicide Palm, DimakaText reviewed by the Palm Specialist Group Large enough to be seen in satellite imagery, the well distributed collection. The financial proceeds suicide palm (Tahina spectabilis) can grow a trunk from this enterprise were returned to the localPopulation size: up to 18m tall which is topped by a crown of leaves population, who used the revenue to build fire90 individuals over five metres in diameter. This enormous palm breaks around the site and construct fences to remained undetected until 2007 when it was first , keep cattle out. An additional benefit includedRange: discovered at the foot of a tiny limestone outcrop refurbishment of the local school, demonstrating in Madagascar’s seasonal west. Once mature, the the advantages of conserving the site and theAnalalava district, north-western suicide palm extends a 4 - 5m high inflorescence species to the surrounding community.Madagascar which is covered in a multitude of small yellow flowers. This impressive reproductive effort is so What needs to be done?Threats: taxing that, true to its common name, the palm dies Although ex-situ conservation efforts have providedHabitat loss due to fires, logging a few months after flowering and fruiting. Described the suicide palm with a level of security, an ongoing in 2008, the palm’s generic name, Tahina, is based sustainable management plan now needs to beand agricultural developments on the Malagasy for ‘blessed’. developed. This could include the establishment of a protected area, enrichment planting and ongoingAction required: Habitat loss, as with so many of Madagascar’s monitoring, as well as the maintenance of currentEstablishment of a protected endemic species, is the most serious threat to conservation measures. These efforts will be this species. Its small population size and its instrumental in sustaining the species for the longarea and development of a restricted range, makes the suicide palm particularly term in the wild. Encouragingly, progress so farmanagement plan vulnerable. Even small-scale modifications to the indicates that an increase in resources and effort surrounding area may have a devastating impact really could help this species defy its ‘suicide’ moniker while unforeseen events, such as a cyclone or and pull itself back from the brink of extinction. wildfire, could result in the species’ swift extinction in the wild. Establishing new populations of the species is, therefore, of critical importance. Seed has been harvested from wild specimens through collaboration between the Madagascar National Seed Bank (Silo Nationale des Graines Forestières), the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and a commercial seed distributor. These seeds were then distributed to botanic gardens and private palm enthusiasts around the world to ensure a72 Priceless or Worthless
    • © William Baker Priceless or Worthless worthless 73
    • 74 Priceless or Worthless worthless © Andres Charrier
    • Telmatobufo bullockiBullock’s false toadText reviewed by the Amphibian Specialist Group The mottled greyish-brown Bullock’s false toad The hydro-electricity project, and the continuing (Telmatobufo bullocki) was discovered in 1952 habitat destruction from agricultural expansion,Population size: but, being extremely rare, there have only been also threatens the 17 other amphibians (includingUnknown three recorded sightings since 1992. Found hiding five endemic species) that inhabit the Nahuelbuta under logs in temperate southern beech forests of forests. This devastating loss must be prevented,Range: Nahuelbuta, this tiny frog is considered one of the and the treacherous position these species are most evolutionarily distinct amphibians in the world. currently in necessitates quick and decisive action.< 500km2, Nahuelbuta, Arauco Its family, the Calyptocephalellidae, split off fromProvince, Chile other amphibians around 130 million years ago. This means that the toad’s relatives were developing What needs to be done?Primary threats: separately from other amphibians when dinosaurs If the hydro-electricity development goes ahead,Habitat destruction as a result of were still roaming the planet. the known wild populations of this species will almost certainly be wiped out. Therefore, theconstruction of a hydro-electricity Sadly, this curious creature is now facing a fight for Chilean national government must decide whetherscheme its life due to ever-increasing demands for energy. increasing energy supplies is worth the cost of a Its sole known breeding population, discovered in species extinction.Actions required: 2011 in the Nahuelbuta forests in Chile, is threatened by plans to establish a hydro-electric project. Adult Expansion of the existing Parque NacionalHalting development of the Bullock’s false toads spend the majority of their Nahuelbuta, and enforcement of the protection ithydro-electricity scheme and time on land, as evidenced by analysis of their provides, would help alleviate the pressure on theprotecting habitat stomach contents, whilst the tadpoles seem to Bullock’s false toad from pine and wood collection. be adapted to swimming in fast-flowing streams. Planting buffer strips along the toad’s breeding Alteration of these habitats could be disastrous for streams would also improve habitat quality by this species. The construction of this hydro-electric reducing the levels of siltation – a by-product of tree scheme would irrevocably alter this amphibian’s removal. Finally, the establishment of an ex-situ home and probably wipe out the only known population, to act as an insurance policy of sorts for breeding population, pushing this little toad closer the species, should be explored without delay. to extinction. An additional threat to this species is the expansion of pine and eucalyptus plantations; the resulting deforestation and habitat modification destroying the habitat of the Bullock’s false toad. Priceless or Worthless 75
    • © Gregory A. Payton, The Dawes Arboretum © Andre Freitas © Vimoksalehi Lukoschek © Viola ClausnitzerAbies beshanzuensis Actinote zikani Aipysurus foliosquama Amanipodagrion gilliesiBaishan fir Leaf scaled sea-snake Amani flatwingPopulation size: 5 mature individuals Population size: Unknown Population size: Unknown Population size: < 500 individualsRange: Baishanzu Mountain, Zhejiang, China Range: Near Sao Paulo, Atlantic forest, Brazil Range: Ashmore Reef and Hibernia Reef, Range: 10km2, Amani-Sigi Forest,Primary threats: Agricultural expansion Primary threats: Habitat degradation due Timor Sea Usamabara Mountains, Tazaniaand fire to pressure from human populations Primary threats: Unknown - likely Primary threats: Habitat degradation dueActions required: Ex-situ conservation and Action required: Protection of habitat and degradation of coral reef habitat to increasing population pressure andre-introduction, and establishment of a Mikania obsoleta (host plant) Action required: Evaluate reasons water pollutionprotected area for population decline and formulate Action required: Habitat protection appropriate management plans ©Ciro Albano www.nebrazilbirding.com © Justin Gerlach © Barbara Nicca © Rudy PothinAntilophia bokermanni Antisolabis seychellensis Aphanius transgrediens Aproteles bulmeraeAraripe manakin Aci Göl toothcarp Bulmer’s fruit batPopulation size: 779 individuals Population size: Unknown Population size: few hundred pairs Population size: approximately 150 individualsRange: 28km2, Chapado do Araripe, Range: 5km2, Morne Blanc, Mahé island, Range: small springs, south-eastern shore Range: <10km2, Luplupwintern Cave,South Ceará, Brazil Seychelles of former Lake Aci, Turkey Western Province, Papua New GuineaPrimary threats: Habitat destruction due to Primary threats: Invasive species and Primary threats: Competition and predation Primary threats:expansion of agriculture and recreational climate change by Gambusia and road construction Hunting and cave disturbancefacilities and water diversion Action required: Habitat management to Action required: Raise awareness Action required: Protection ofActions required: Formal protection of prevent further invasion by introduced plants in national conservation groups and Luplupwintern cave and enforcedremaining habitat and protection of springs governments, monitor and conserve prohibition of huntingand streams current springs, develop action plan for lost springs and maintain captive populations76 Priceless or Worthless
    • © Rebecca Pradhan / Tshewang Norbu © Rahul Sachdev ©Peter Cranswick © Washington Academy of SciencesArdea insignis Ardeotis nigriceps Aythya innotata Azurina eupalmaWhite bellied heron Great indian bustard Madagascar pochard Galapagos damsel fishPopulation size: 70 - 400 individuals Population size: 50 - 249 mature individuals Population size: approx 20 mature individuals Population size: UnknownRange: 56,300km2 in Bhutan, North East Range: 570,000km2 in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Range: 1km2 volcanic lakes north of Range: UnknownIndia and Myanmar Maharashta, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka Bealanana, Madagascar Primary threats: Climate Change -Primary threats: Habitat destruction and and Madhya, India Primary threats: Habitat degradation due to oceanographic changes associated with thedegradation due to hydropower development Primary threats: Habitat loss and slash-and-burn agriculture, hunting, 1982 / 1983 El Nino are presumed to beActions required: Develop captive rearing modification due to agricultural development and fishing / introduced fish responsible for the apparent disappearanceand release program, eliminate adverse Action required: Establishment of Action required: Formal protection of of this species from the Galapagosuses of riverine habitat, and mitigate protected areas and community reserves, current breeding site, habitat restoration, Action required: Surveys to identify if theeffects of hydroelectric development and realignment of Indira Ghandi Nahar and development of release programme species still exists in Los Lobos Islands Canal Project for captive-bred individuals © Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences © Fletcher & Baylis © David Long ©Tim Wacher/ZSLBahaba taipingensis Batagur baska Bazzania bhutanica Beatragus hunteriGiant yellow croaker Common batagur, Four-toed Hirola terrapinPopulation size: Unknown Population size: Unknown Population size: Individuals unknown, Population size: <1,000 individualsRange: Chinese coast from Yangtze River, Range: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, two populations Range: South-east Kenya and possiblyChina to Hong Kong Indonesia and Malaysia Range: <10km2 in Budini and Lafeti Khola, south-west SomaliaPrimary threats: Over-fishing, primarily Primary threats: Illegal export and trade Bhutan Primary threats: Habitat loss anddue to value of swim-bladder for traditional from Indonesia to China Primary threats: Habitat degradation degradation, competition with livestock,medicine - cost per kilogram exceeded Action required: Enforcement of CITES and destruction due to forest clearance, poachingthat of gold in 2001 Appendix I restrictions and control overgrazing and development Action required: Establishment of protectedActions required: Establishment of of illegal trade Action required: Protection of area to areas and community conservancies,appropriate protection in Hong Kong and prevent future development damaging increase in level of management andenforcement of legal protection in China remaining habitat protection of wild population Priceless or Worthless 77
    • © Brendan White / USFWS © Richard Lansdown © Luciano Candisani/ www.lucianocandisani.com © Sheila CurtinBombus franklini Callitriche pulchra Cavia intermedia Cercopithecus rolowayFranklin’s bumblebee Santa Catarina’s guinea pig Roloway guenonPopulation size: Unknown Population size: Unknown Population size: 40-60 individuals Population size: UnknownRange: Oregon and California, Range: 2m x 1m pool on Gavdos, Greece Range: 0.04km2 on Moleques do Sul Island, Range: Cote d’IvoireUnited States of America Primary threats: Exploitation of the species’ Santa Catarina, Brazil Primary threats: Hunting for consumptionPrimary threats: Disease from commercially habitat by stock, and modification of the Primary threats: Habitat disturbance and as bushmeat and habitat lossbred bumblebees and habitat destruction pool by local people possible hunting; small population effects Action required: Protection of habitat fromand degradation Action required: Provide alternative water Action required: Protected area logging and conversion to agricultural landActions required: Protection of habitat sources for stock, involve local people in enforcement and regulation of accesscontaining nectar and pollen sources the protection of the pool and document to the island remaining water bodies on Gavdos © David Harries © Lázaro Guevara © Save the Rhino International © Eric van der VlistCryptomyces maximus Cryptotis nelsoni Dicerorhinus sumatrensis Diomedea amsterdamensisWillow blister Nelson’s small-eared shrew Sumatran rhino Amsterdam albatrossPopulation size: Unknown Population size: Unknown Population size: <250 mature individuals Population size: 100 mature individualsRange: Pembrokeshire, United Kingdom Range: <100km2, Volcán San Martín Tuxtla, Range: Sabah, Sarawak and Peninsular Range: Breeds on Plateuau des Tourbières,Primary threats: Limited availability of habitat Veracruz, Mexico Malaysia, Kalimantan and Sumatra, Indonesia Amsterdam Island, Indian Ocean.Actions required: Continue protection Primary threats: Habitat loss due to Primary threats: Hunting for horn - Primary threats: Disease and incidentalof current populations and habitat logging, cattle grazing, fire and agriculture used in traditional medicine by-catch in long-line fishing operationsregeneration projects Action required: Surveys to map species Action required: Expansion and Action required: Prevention of the spread range; improved protected area management reinforcement of anti-poaching programmes of disease and promotion of best-practice and continuation of captive breeding efforts measures in all fisheries within the species range78 Priceless or Worthless
    • IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE © Jeisin bin Jumian © Oz Rittner, Zoological Dept, Tel-Aviv Uni, Israel © Loïc RuellanDiospyros katendei Dipterocarpus lamellatus Discoglossus nigriventer Dombeya mauritania Hula painted frogPopulation size: 20 individuals, one populationRange: Kasyoha-Kitomi Forest Reserve, Population size: 12 individuals Population size: Unknown Population size: UnknownUganda Range: Siangau Forest Reserve, Sabah, Range: <2km2 in Hula Valley, Israel Range: MauritiusPrimary threats: High pressure from Malaysia Primary threats: Predation by birds and Primary threats: Habitat degradationcommunities for agricultural activity, illegal Primary threats: Habitat loss and range restriction due to habitat destruction and destruction due to encroachment bytree felling, habitat degradation due to degradation due to logging of lowland Action required: Restoration of habitat alien invasive plant species and cannabisalluvial gold digging and small population forest and creation of industrial plantations cultivationActions required: Enforcement of legal Action required: Restoration of Sianggau Action required: Control of invasive plantprotection of area, field surveys for further Forest Reserve and re-introduction of species, habitat protection and re-search and ex-situ conservation in arboreta / species to previous range introduction of propagated individualsbotanic gardens© Christopher Kaiser-Bunbury © Robin Moore © Robin Moore © Fred KattermannElaeocarpus bojeri Eleutherodactylus Eleutherodactylus thorcetes Eriosyce chilensis glandulifer Macaya breast-spot frog Chilenito La Hotte glanded frogPopulation size: <10 individuals Population size: Unknown Population size: Unknown Population size: <500 individualsRange: Grand Bassin, Mauritius Range: Massif de la Hotte, Haiti Range: Formon and Macaya peaks, Range: Pta Molles and Pichidungui, ChilePrimary threats: Habitat degradation Primary threats: Habitat destruction Masif de la Hotte, Haiti Primary threats: Collection of floweringActions required: Unknown - trees are due to charcoal production and Primary threats: Habitat destruction due individualscurrently being closely monitored to slash-and-burn agriculture to charcoal production and slash-and-burn Action required: Protection of plants throughdetermine level of threat and how these Action required: Habitat protection agriculture construction of a fence and signage alertingshould be addressed Action required: Protection of habitat people to threatened status Priceless or Worthless 79
    • © Cosmas Mligo © Olivier Hamerlynck © Axel Poulson © ZSLErythrina schliebenii Euphorbia tanaensis Ficus katendei Geronticus eremitaCoral tree Northern bald ibis Population size: < 50 mature individualsPopulation size: < 50 individuals Population size: 4 mature individuals Range: Kasyoha-Kitomi Forest Reserve, Population size: 200 – 249 mature individualsRange: Namatimbili-Ngarama Forest, Tanzania Range: Witu Forest Reserve, Kenya Ishasha River, Uganda Range: Breeds in Morocco, Turkey and Syria.Primary threats: Limited habitat and small Primary threats:Illegal logging and habitat Primary threats: Agricultural activity, illegal Syrian population winters inpopulation size increasing vulnerability to degradation due to agricultural expansion tree felling and habitat degradation due to central Ethiopiastochastic events and infrastructure development alluvial gold digging Primary threats: Habitat degradation andActions required: Complete establishment Action required: Enforcement of legal Action required: ex-situ conservation in destruction, and huntingof Forest Reserves and continue protection in the Witu Forest Reserve, arboreta / botanic gardens; enforcement of Action required: Protection of key breedingpropagation efforts, ex-situ conservation which has diminished due to civil insecurity protection to contain encroachment and and roosting sites habitat degradation; community development programmes in areas adjacent to the reserve IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE © Quentin Luke © Tom Wilke © Atherton de VilliersGigasiphon macrosiphon Gocea ohridana Heleophryne rosei Hemicycla paetelianaPopulation size: 33 mature individuals Table mountain ghost frogRange: Kaya Muhaka, Gongoni and MrimaForest Reserves, Kenya, Amani Nature Population size: Unknown Population size: Unknown Population: UnknownReserve, West Kilombero Scarp Forest Range: <10km2, Lake Ohrid, Macedonia Range: < 9km2, Table Mountain, Range: < 8km2, Jandia peninsula,Reserve, and Kihansi Gorge, Tanzania Primary threats: Habitat degradation due Western Cape Province, South Africa Fuerteventura, Canary IslandsPrimary threats: Timber extraction and habitat to increasing pollution levels, off-take of Primary threats: Habitat degradation due Primary threats: Habitat destructiondegradation due to agricultural encroachment water and sedimentation events to invasive plants and water abstraction due to overgrazing and trampling byand development, seed predation by wild pigs Action required: Implement transboundary Action required: Protection of habitat, goats and touristsActions required: Enforcement of protection agreements to improve habitat management continued implementation of management Action required: Conservation of habitatin reserves and establishment of plans and integration of activities and control of goats, and limitingmanagement plan to mitigate effects of water between sites recreational access to area by touristsloss from hydroelectricity developments80 Priceless or Worthless
    • © Ken Wood © Sarafutsu Itou no Kai © Nigel Maxted © New Zealand Department of ConservationHibiscadelphus woodii Hucho perryi Lathyrus belinensis Leiopelma archeyi Sakhalin taimen Belin vetchling Archey’s frogPopulation size: Unknown Population size: Unknown Population size: < 1,000 Population size: UnknownRange: Kalalau Valley, Hawaii Range: 233,498km2, Russian far east and Range: < 2km2, outskirts of Belin village, Range: Coromandel peninsula andPrimary threats: Habitat degradation due northern Japan Antalya, Turkey Whareorino Forest, New Zealandto feral ungulates and invasive introduced Primary threats: Overfishing (sport fishing Primary threats: Habitat destruction due to Primary threats: Chytridiomycosis andplant species and commercial bycatch) and habitat loss urbanisation, over-grazing, conifer planting predation by invasive speciesActions required: Survey the extremely from damming, agriculture and other land and road widening Action required: Continuation of currentsteep terrain for additional individuals use practices Action required: Habitat protection, control conservation effortsControl of invasive species in the remaining Action required: Expansion of conservation of grazing, halt conifer planting and periodicsuitable habitat so that species can be protection in rivers in Russia and Japan and sampling for ex-situ seed conservationreintroduced if more individuals are located enforcement of fishing regulations © John Himes © Rafa Araujo, MNCN, (CSIC) Madrid, Spain © Justin GerlachLithobates sevosus Magnolia wolfii Margaritifera marocana Moominia williiDusky gopher frog Population size: < 5 individuals Range: Risaralda, ColumbiaPopulation size: 60-100 individuals Primary threats: Isolation of species and Population size: < 250 individuals Population size: <500 individualsRange: < 10km2 in Harrison County, low regeneration rates Range: Oued Denna, Oued Abid and Range: 0.02km2 Silhouette Island,Mississippi, USA Action required: Protection of remaining Oued Beth, Morocco SeychellesPrimary threats: Fungal disease and population and exploration of potential Primary threats: Habitat degradation and Primary threats: Invasive species andhabitat limitation due to climate change for ex-situ conservation disturbance due to pollution and development climate changeand land-use changes Action required: Habitat protection Action required: Protection of habitatActions required: Protection of habitat to mitigate effects of construction of and control of invasive speciesand management of population to Image © Dr. Jan Wolf, University of Amsterdam Institute hydroelectricity schemes and agricultural for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Dorian Ruizprevent spread of disease Penagos, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Colombia, abstraction Grupo de Investigación Jardín Botánico Priceless or Worthless 81
    • © Carlos A Mancina © Jessica Bryant © KD Dijkstra © Oliver LucanusNatalus primus Nomascus hainanus Oreocnemis phoenix Pangasius sanitwongseiCuban greater funnel eared bat Hainan gibbon Mulanje red damsel Pangasid catfishPopulation size: <100 individuals Population size: <20 individuals Population size: Unknown Population size: UnknownRange: Cueva La Barca, Isle of Pines, Cuba Range: 10km2, Hainan Island, China Range: <10km2 Mulanje Plateau, Malawi Range: Chao Phraya and Mekong basinsPrimary threats: Habitat loss and Primary threats: Hunting Primary threats: Habitat destruction and in Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Thailandhuman disturbance Action required: Gun confiscation in the degradation due to drainage, agricultural and Viet NamActions required: Protection of Cueva La area of the Bawangling population and expansion and exploitation of forest Primary threats: Overfishing and collectionBarca and its surrounds habitat protection Action required: Enforcement of habitat for aquarium trade protection Action required: Protection from overfishing and collection IMAGE NOT IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE YET AVAILABLE © Onildo Marini-Filho © Sanjay Molur/WILD/ZOOParides burchellanus Picea neoveitchii Pinus squamata Poecilotheria metallica Gooty tarantula, metallic tarantula, Qiaojia pine peacock parachute spider, peacock tarantula, SalepurguPopulation size: <100 individuals Population size: Unknown Population size: <25 mature individualsRange: Cerrado, Brazil Range: Qinling Range, China remaining Population size: UnknownPrimary threats: Habitat degradation Primary threats: Forest destruction Range: Qiaojia, Yunnan, China Range: Nandyal and Giddalur, Andhradue to pressure from human populations Action required: Ex-situ conservation Primary threats: Limited distribution Pradesh, India Primary threats: Habitat loss and degradationand range restriction and re-introduction; establishment of and small population size as a result of deforestation, firewoodActions required: Protection of gallery protected areas Action required: Ex-situ conservation collection and civil unrestforest habitat and re-introduction; establishment of Action required: Habitat protection, protected areas awareness at community level, inclusion in the national Wildlife Protection Act and national and international trade legislation82 Priceless or Worthless
    • © Tom Ghestemme © FAO ©Kevin Schafer www.kevinschafer.com © Atherton de VilliersPomarea whitneyi Pristis pristis Propithecus candidus Psammobates geometricusFatuhiva monarch Common sawfish Silky sifaka Geometric tortoise Population size: UnknownPopulation size: 50 individuals Range: Coastal tropical and subtropical Population size: 100-1,000 individuals Population size: UnknownRange: Fatu Hiva, Marquesas Islands, waters of Indo-Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Range: Maroantsetra to Andapa basin, Range: Western Cape Province, South AfricaFrench Polynesia Currently largely restricted to and Marojeju Massif, Madagascar Primary threats: Habitat destruction andPrimary threats: Predation by introduced northern Australia Primary threats: Hunting and habitat degradation, and predationspecies - Rattus rattus and feral cats Primary threats: Exploitation - has removed disturbance Action required: Establishment of additionalActions required: Increase control the species from 95 per cent of its Action required: Continuation and reserves and management of fire regimesof introduced species and consider historical range expansion of efforts to end hunting andtranslocation, either to another island or Action required: Further research required establishment of protected areasby creating another, larger controlled area to understand current distribution andin an accessible part of Fatu Hiva threats and ways of managing these © Loïc Ruellan © Battal Ciplak and Sarp Kaya © Le Khac Quyet/ University of Colorado Boulder © Kingsley DixonPsiadia cataractae Psorodonotus ebneri Rhinopithecus avunculus Rhizanthella gardneri Beydaglari bush-cricket Tonkin snub-nosed monkey West australian underground orchidPopulation size: Unknown Population size: Unknown Population size: < 200 individualsRange: Mauritius Range: Beydaglari range, Antalaya, Turkey Range: Northeastern Viet Nam Population size: < 100 individualsPrimary threats: Habitat degradation and Primary threats: Climate change / habitat loss Primary threats: Habitat loss and hunting Range: Western Australia, Australiadestruction due to development project Action required: Development of a Action required: Establishment of a Primary threats: Land clearance forand alien invasive plant species bioacoustic monitoring scheme and conservation area for Khau Ca Conservation agriculture (96 per cent habitat cleared toActions required: Effective protection of strategic conservation action plan, area in Ha Giang province and increase law date), climate change and salinisationthe area, continuous and effective control establishment of a nature reserve, enforcement to reduce hunting pressure Action required: In-situ protection of theof invasive alien plants particularly grasses implementation of habitat management two supporting organisms, and protectionand replanting of hardened nursery scheme, and research on population size, of seed stocks and the fungus partner ingrown plants trends, distribution, and ecology a seed bank Priceless or Worthless 83
    • © Medicinal Plant Conservation Project Egypt and St © Ian Vernon/ Tim Hounsome/ Durrell Wildlife Con-© ZSL/KWS Katherine Park servation Trust © Lizzie Noble/ Fundación ProAves www.proaves.orgRhynchocyon sp. Rosa arabica Salanoia durrelli SantamartamysBoni giant sengi Durrell’s vontsira rufodorsalisPopulation size: Unknown Population size: unknown, 10 sub- Population size: Unknown Red crested tree ratRange: Boni-Dodori Forest, Lamu area, populations Range: 200km2 in marshes of Lake Alaotra,Kenya Range: 14.6km2, St Katherine Mountains, Madagascar Population size: UnknownPrimary threats: Habitat destruction due Egypt Primary threats: Habitat loss Range: Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta,to development Primary threats: Domestic animals grazing, Action required: Improved management ColombiaActions required: Formal protection of climate change and drought, medicinal of the Lake Alaotra protected area Primary threats: Habitat loss through urbanBoni-Dodori forest and finalisation of formal plant collection and restricted range development and coffee cultivationidentification Action required: Protection of individuals Action required: Surveys to map species from exploitation range and continued habitat protection at known site of occurrence© Tony Gilbert © Martin Hale © Norihiro Kawauchi © Nonn PanitwongSquatina squatina Sterna bernsteini Tokudaia muenninki TrigonostigmaAngel shark Chinese crested tern Okinawa spiny rat somphongsi Somphongs’s rasboraPopulation size: Unknown Population size: <50 mature individuals Population size: UnknownRange: Formerly coastal waters of NE Range: Breeding in Zhejiang and Fujian, China, Range: 3km2 on Okinawa Island, Japan Population size: UnknownAtlantic as far north as Norway and into and outside breeding season in Indonesia, Primary threats: Habitat loss and predation Range: Mae Khlong basin, Thailandthe Mediterranean Sea. Now restricted to Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand by feral cats Primary threats: Habitat loss andCanary Islands only Primary threats: Egg collection and Action required: Surveys to map species degradation from farmland conversionPrimary threats: Benthic trawling habitat destruction range, protection of remaining habitat and and urbanizationActions required: Protection of Canary Action required: Protect breeding sites, feral cat control programme Action required: Wetland restorationIslands habitat and nearby continental strengthen legal protection status andshelf habitats from trawling raise awareness at breeding colonies84 Priceless or Worthless
    • © Hein van Grouw/ National Museum of Natural© Heiko Kärst © John Dransfield/ Royal Botanic Gardens Kew History , LeidenValencia letourneuxi Voanioala gerardii Zaglossus attenboroughi Forest coconut Attenborough’s echidna Population size: UnknownPopulation size: Unknown Population size: <10 individuals Range: Cyclops Mountains, Papua Province,Range: Southern Albania and Western Range: Masoala peninsula, Madagascar IndonesiaGreece Primary threats: Harvesting for consumption Primary threats: Habitat modification andPrimary threats: Habitat destruction, water of palm heart and deforestation degradation due to logging, agriculturalabstraction and aggressive interaction Action required: Protection of individuals encroachment shifting cultivation andwith Gambusia and habitat coupled with public awareness hunting by local peopleActions required: Protection of habitat campaigns Action required: Enhance awarenessand control of Gambusia and cultural significance of the species, establish sustainable management practices and conduct additional surveys “Saving all species is not just an option for wealthy societies or a hobby for nature freaks, it is a necessity for humanity” Professor Luigi Boitani Priceless or Worthless 85
    • 86 Priceless or Worthless worthless Antilophia bokermannii © Ciro Albano www.nebrazilbirding.com
    • “These 100 species make their own case for survival. They are beautiful, intriguing, unusual, unique, thought provoking, and emotionally stimulating. They are an expression of the world’s diversity and they appeal to our appreciation of beauty, symmetry and color. Each species expresses a solution to a set of very specific environmental conditions, and each appeals to our fascination with adaptive problem solving. They allow us to turn away from our parochial needs and desires, and play on the larger stage of biological richness and variety. We owe it to ourselves, and to them, to find room on this planet for all of them”Dr John G. RobinsonExecutive Vice-President, Conservation and ScienceWildlife Conservation Society Priceless or Worthless 87
    • Chapter 3PastExtinctions88 Priceless or Worthless worthless
    • These 100 wonderful species could easilyfollow in the path of the species in thischapter and exist only in history books.Let us not forget what we have already lost. Priceless or Worthless worthless 89
    • Plants Hernandia drakeana Hibiscadelphus bombycinus Hibiscadelphus crucibracteatusBryophytes Hibiscadelphus wilderianusFlabellidium spinosum Hopea shingkengNeomacounia nitida Ilex gardneriana Ilex ternatifloraFlorideophyceae Kokia lanceolataVanvoorstia bennettiana Licania caldasiana Madhuca insignisJungermanniopsida Melicope cruciataRadula visiniaca Melicope haleakalae Melicope obovataLiliopsida Melicope paniculataOeceoclades seychellarum Myrcia skeldingiiSporobolus durus Neisosperma brownii Nesiota elliptica Ochrosia fatuhivensis © Sue Wickison / New Zealand Plant Conservation NetworkMagnoliopsidaAcalypha rubrinervis Ochrosia nukuhivensisAchyranthes atollensis Ochrosia tahitensisArgyroxiphium virescens Oldenlandia adscensionisBegonia eiromischa Ormosia howiiBlutaparon rigidum Otophora unilocularisByttneria ivorensis Pausinystalia brachythyrsumCampomanesia lundiana Pelea obovataCasearia quinduensis Pluchea glutinosaCasearia tinifolia Pouteria stenophyllaCentaurea pseudoleucolepis Pradosia argenteaChrysophyllum januariense Pradosia glazioviiClermontia multiflora Pradosia mutisiiCnidoscolus fragrans Psiadia schweinfurthiiCoffea lemblinii Psidium dumetorumCrudia zeylanica Santalum fernandezianumCupaniopsis crassivalvis Shorea cuspidataCyanea arborea Stenocarpus dumbeensisCyanea comata Sterculia khasianaCyanea cylindrocalyx Streblorrhiza speciosa Trilepedia adamsiiCyanea dolichopoda Trochetiopsis melanoxylon Trilepedia adamsiiCyanea giffardii Adam’s mistletoeCyanea marksii Valerianella affinisCyanea pohaku Vernonia sechellensisCyanea pycnocarpa Viola cryana Last sighting: 1970Cyanea quercifolia Weinmannia spiraeoides Cause of extinction: habitat destruction,Cynometra beddomei Wendlandia angustifolia Wikstroemia skottsbergiana over-collection and browsing by introduced speciesDipterocarpus cinereusEuphrasia mendoncae Wikstroemia villosaFitchia mangarevensis Xanthostemon sebertiiGalipea ossanaGomidesia cambessedeana PolypodiopsidaGuettarda retusa Adiantum lianxianense Dryopteris ascensionis90 Priceless or Worthless
    • Invertebrates Crustacea Afrocyclops pauliani Austrogammarus australis Bythinella limnopsis Bythinella mauritanica Bythinella microcochlia Annelida Cambarellus alvarezi Bythinella punica Hypolimnus pedderensis Cambarellus chihuahuae Caldwellia philyrina Liocypris grandis Campolaemus perexilis Bivalvia Namibcypris costata Carelia anceophila Alasmidonta mccordi Pacifastacus nigrescens Carelia bicolor Alasmidonta robusta Procambarus angustatus Carelia cochlea Alasmidonta wrightiana Stygobromus lucifugus Careliacumingiana© Dave Clarke/ Zoological Society of London Chambardia letourneuxi Syncaris pasadenae Carelia dolei Elliptio nigella Tropodiaptomus ctenopus Carelia evelynaePartula arguta Epioblasma arcaeformis Carelia glossemaPolynesian tree snail Epioblasma biemarginata Gastropoda Carelia hyattiana Epioblasma flexuosa Achatinella abbreviata Carelia kalalauensis Epioblasma haysiana Achatinella buddii Carelia knudseniLast sighting: 1994 Achatinella caesia Epioblasma lenior Carelia lirataCause of extinction: Epioblasma lewisii Achatinella casta Carelia lymanipredation by introduced Epioblasma personata Achatinella decora Carelia mirabilis Epioblasma propinqua Achatinella dimorpha Carelia necrasnail Euglandina rosaea Achatinella elegans Epioblasma sampsonii Carelia olivacea Epioblasma stewardsonii Achatinella juddii Carelia paradoxa Epioblasma turgidula Achatinella juncea Carelia periscelis Lampsilis binominata Achatinella lehuiensis Carelia pilsbryi Medionidus mcglameriae Achatinella livida Carelia sinclairi Pleurobema altum Achatinella papyracea Carelia tenebrosa Pleurobema avellanum Achatinella spaldingi Carelia turricula Pleurobema bournianum Achatinella thaanumi Chilonopsis blofeldi Pleurobema flavidulum Achatinella valida Chilonopsis exulatus Pleurobema hagleri Advena campbelli Chilonopsis helena Pleurobema hanleyianum Amastra albolabris Chilonopsis melanoides Pleurobema johannis Amastra cornea Chilonopsis nonpareil Pleurobema murrayense Amastra crassilabrum Chilonopsis subplicatus Pleurobema nucleopsis Amastra elongata Chilonopsis subtruncatus Pleurobema rubellum Amastra forbesi Chilonopsis turtoni Pleurobema taitianum Amastra pellucida Clappia cahabensis Pleurobema troschelianum Amastra porcus Clappia umbilicata Pleurobema verum Amastra reticulata Collisella edmitchelli Unio cariei Amastra subrostrata Colparion madgei Amastra subsoror Ctenoglypta newtoni Amastra tenuispira Cyclophorus horridulum Amastra umbilicata Cyclosurus mariei Amphicyclotulus guadeloupensis Diastole matafaoi Amphigyra alabamensis Dupontia proletaria Athearnia crassa Elimia brevis Auriculella expansa Elimia clausa Auriculella uniplicata Elimia fusiformis Belgrandiella intermedia Elimia gibbera Bythinella gibbosa Elimia hartmaniana Priceless or Worthless 91
    • Elimia impressa Leptoxis lirataElimia jonesi Leptoxis occultataElimia lachryma Leptoxis showalteriiElimia laeta Leptoxis torrefactaElimia macglameriana Leptoxis vittataElimia pilsbryi Leucocharis loyaltiensisElimia pupaeformis Leucocharis porphyrocheilaElimia pygmaea Libera subcavernulaElimia vanuxemiana Libera tumuloidesElimia varians Littoraria flammeaErepta nevilli Littoridina gaudichaudiiFluvidona dulvertonensis Lottia alveusGastrocopta chichijimana Lyropupa perlongaGastrocopta ogasawarana Marstonia olivaceaGibbus lyonetianus Mautodontha acuticostaGonidomus newtoni Mautodontha consimilisGonospira nevilli Mautodontha consobrinaGraecoanatolica macedonica Mautodontha maupiensisGulella mayottensis Mautodontha parvidensGyrotoma excisa Mautodontha punctiperforataGyrotoma lewisii Mautodontha saintjohniGyrotoma pagoda Mautodontha subtilisGyrotoma pumila Mautodontha unilamellataGyrotoma pyramidata Mautodontha zebrinaGyrotoma walkeri Megalobulimus cardosoiHarmogenanina linophora Mercuria letourneuxianaHarmogenanina subdetecta Nancibella quintaliaHelenoconcha leptalea Neoplanorbis carinatusHelenoconcha minutissima Neoplanorbis smithiHelenoconcha polyodon Neoplanorbis umbilicatusHelenoconcha pseustes Nesopupa turtoni © United States Fish and Wildlife ServiceHelenoconcha sexdentata Newcombia philippianaHelenodiscus bilamellata Ohridohauffenia drimicaHelenodiscus vernoni Oleacina guadeloupensis Incilius periglenesHeleobia spinellii Omphalotropis plicosa Golden toad, Sapo doradoHelicopsis paulhessei Pachnodus curiosusHirasea planulata Pachnodus ladiguensis Last sighting: 1989Hydrobia gracilis Pachnodus velutinus Cause of extinction: chytridiomycosis, climate change,Incerticyclus cinereus Pachystyla rufozonataIncerticyclus martinicensis Panulena perrugosa restricted range and airborne pollutionIslamia ateni Partula approximataLamellidea monodonta Partula argutaLamellidea nakadai Partula atilisLeiorhagium solemi Partula aurantiaLeiostyla lamellosa Partula auriculataLeptoxis clipeata Partula bilineataLeptoxis compacta Partula calliferaLeptoxis foremanii Partula candidaLeptoxis formosa Partula castaneaLeptoxis ligata Partula cedista92 Priceless or Worthless
    • Partula citrina Posticobia norfolkensis Partula compacta Pseudamnicola barratei Partula crassilabris Pseudamnicola desertorum Partula cuneata Pseudamnicola doumeti Partula cytherea Pseudamnicola globulina Partula dolichostoma Pseudamnicola latasteana Partula dolorosa Pseudamnicola oudrefica Partula eremita Pseudamnicola ragia Partula exigua Pseudamnicola singularis Partula filosa Pseudocampylaea loweii Partula formosa Pseudohelenoconcha spurca Partula fusca Pupilla obliquicosta Partula garretti Pyrgulopsis nevadensis Partula imperforata Quintalia flosculus Partula labrusca Quintalia stoddartii Partula leptochila Rhachis comorensis Partula levilineata Rhachis sanguineus Partula levistriata Rhachistia aldabrae Partula lugubris Rhodacmea filosa Partula lutea Samoana inflata Partula microstoma Samoana jackieburchi Partula navigatoria Sinployea canalis Partula ovalis Sinployea decorticata Partula planilabrum Sinployea harveyensis Partula producta Sinployea otareae Partula protea Sinployea planospira Partula protracta Sinployea proxima Partula radiata Sinployea rudis Partula raiatensis Sinployea tenuicostata Partula remota Sinployea youngi © Hal Cogger Partula robusta Somatogyrus alcoviensis Partula rustica Somatogyrus amnicoloides Partula sagitta Somatogyrus crassilabrisRheobactrachus vitellinus Partula salifana Somatogyrus wheeleriEungella gastric brooding frog, northern gastric Partula salifera Taipidon anceyana Partula thalia Taipidon marquesanabrooding frog Partula turgida Taipidon octolamellata Partula umbilicata Thaumatodon multilamellataLast sighting: 1985 Partula variabilis Tomigerus gibberulusCause of extinction: unknown, likely chytridiomycosis Partula vittata Tomigerus turbinatus Partulina crassa Tornelasmias capricorni Partulina montagui Trochoidea picardi Perdicella fulgurans Tropidophora desmazuresi Perdicella maniensis Tropidophora semilineata Perdicella zebra Vitrinula chaunax Perdicella zebrina Vitrinula chichijimana Physella microstriata Vitrinula hahajimana Placostylus cuniculinsulae Planorbella multivolvis Pleurodonte desidens Priceless or Worthless 93
    • Insecta Scotorythra megalophyllaAcanthometropus pecatonica Scotorythra nesiotesAgrotis crinigera Siettitia balsetensisAgrotis fasciata Stonemyia volutinaAgrotis kerri Tischeria perplexaAgrotis laysanensis Triaenodes phalacrisAgrotis photophila Triaenodes tridonataAgrotis procellaris Trigonoscuta rossiAlloperla roberti Trigonoscuta yorbalindaeArgyresthia castaneela Tritocleis microphyllaCampsicnemus mirabilisClavicoccus erinaceus OligochaetaColeophora leucochrysella Hypolimnus pedderensisConozoa hyalinaDeloneura immaculata TurbellariaDrosophila lanaiensis Romankenkius pedderensisDryophthorus distinguendusDryotribus mimeticusEctodemia castaneaeEctodemia phleophagaGenophantis leahiGlaucopsyche xercesHelicoverpa confusaHelicoverpa minutaHydropsyche tobiasiHygrotus artusHypena laysanensisHypena newelliHypena plagiotaHypena seniculaKarocolens tuberculatusLepidochrysops hypopoliaLevuana irridescensLibythea cinyrasMacrancylus linearisMecodema punctellumMegadytes ducalisMegalagrion jugorumNeduba extinctaOedemasylus laysanensisOeobia sp. nov. Heteralocha acutirostrisPentagenia robusta HuiaPentarthrum blackburniPhyllococcus oahuensis Last sighting: 1907Pseudobactricia ridleyi Cause of extinction: Capture for use in ceremonialRhantus novacaledoniaeRhantus orbignyi dress and predation by introduced speciesRhantus papuanusRhyacophila amabilisRhyncogonus bryani94 Priceless or Worthless
    • Vertebrates Ptychochromoides itasy Rhinichthys deaconi Rhizosomichthys totae Actinopterygii Romanogobio antipai Acanthobrama hulensis Salmo pallaryi Alburnus akili Salvelinus agassizi Anabarilius macrolepis Salvelinus neocomensis Aplocheilichthyssp. nov. ‘Naivasha’ Salvelinus profundus Barbus microbarbis Stypodon signifer Characodon garmani Telestes ukliva Chasmistes muriei Tristramella intermedia Chondrostoma scodrense Tristramella magdelainae Coregonus alpenae Xystichromis bayoni Coregonus bezola Coregonus fera Amphibia Coregonus gutturosus Adenomus kandianus Coregonus hiemalis Atelopus ignescens Coregonus johannae Atelopus longirostris Coregonus nigripinnis Atelopus vogli Coregonus oxyrinchus Craugastor chrysozetetes Coregonus restrictus Craugastor escoces Cottus echinatus Cynops wolterstorffi Ctenochromis pectoralis Discoglossus nigriventer Cyprinodon ceciliae Incilius holdridgei Cyprinodon inmemoriam Incilius periglenes Cyprinodon latifasciatus Lithobates fisheri Cyprinodon spp. Nannophrys guentheri Cyprinus yilongensis Phrynomedusa fimbriata Empetrichthys merriami Plethodon ainsworthi Etheostoma sellare Pseudophilautus adspersus Evarra bustamantei Pseudophilautus dimbullae Evarra eigenmanni Pseudophilautus eximius Evarra tlahuacensis Pseudophilautus extirpo Fundulus albolineatus Pseudophilautus halyi Gambusia amistadensis Pseudophilautus hypomelas Gambusia georgei Pseudophilautus leucorhinus Gasterosteus crenobiontus Pseudophilautus maia Gila crassicauda Pseudophilautus malcolmsmithi Lepidomeda altivelis Pseudophilautus nanus Pseudophilautus nasutusThylacinus cynocephalus Moxostoma lacerum Pseudophilautus oxyrhynchus Notropis amecaeThylacine, Tasmanian tiger, Tasmanian wolf Notropis aulidion Pseudophilautus pardus Notropis orca Pseudophilautus rugatusLast sighting: 1936 Notropis saladonis Pseudophilautus stellatus Pantanodon madagascariensis Pseudophilautus temporalisCause of extinction: hunting, habitat modification, Platytropius siamensis Pseudophilautus variabiliscompetition from domestic dogs and disease Pseudophilautus zal Pogonichthys ciscoides Priapella bonita Pseudophilautus zimmeri Prototroctes oxyrhynchus Raorchestes travancoricus Ptychochromis sp. nov. ‘Kotro’ Rheobatrachus silus Priceless or Worthless 95
    • Rheobatrachus vitellinus Dromaius baudinianusTaudactylus diurnus Dysmorodrepanis munroi Dysmoropelia dekarchiskosAves Ectopistes migratoriusAlectroenas nitidissima Falco duboisiAlectroenas rodericana Fregilupus variusAlopochen kervazoi Fulica newtoniAlopochen mauritianus Gallicolumba ferrugineaAmazona martinicana Gallicolumba norfolciensisAmazona violacea Gallicolumba salamonisAnas marecula Gallirallus dieffenbachiiAnas theodori Gallirallus pacificusAnthornis melanocephala Gallirallus wakensisAphanapteryx bonasia Gerygone insularisAphanapteryx leguati Haematopus meadewaldoiAplonis corvina Hemignathus ellisianusAplonis fusca Hemignathus obscurusAplonis mavornata Hemignathus sagittirostrisAra atwoodi Heteralocha acutirostrisAra erythrocephala Ixobrychus novaezelandiaeAra gossei Lophopsittacus bensoniAra guadeloupensis Lophopsittacus mauritianusAra tricolor Mascarenotus gruchetiAratinga labati Mascarenotus murivorusArgusianus bipunctatus Mascarenotus sauzieriAtlantisia podarces Mascarinus mascarinusBowdleria rufescens Mergus australisBulweria bifax Microgoura meekiCabalus modestus Moho apicalisCaloenas maculata Moho bishopiCamptorhynchus labradorius Moho braccatusCaracara lutosa Moho nobilisChaetoptila angustipluma Mundia elpenorChaunoproctus ferreorostris Myadestes myadestinusChloridops kona Myadestes woahensisChlorostilbon bracei Myiagra freycinetiChlorostilbon elegans Nannococcyx psixCiridops anna Necropsar rodericanusColumba duboisi Necropsittacus rodericanusColumba jouyi Nesillas aldabranaColumba versicolor Nesoclopeus poecilopterusConuropsis carolinensis Nestor productus Chelonoidis nigra abingdoniiCoturnix novaezelandiae Nycticorax duboisiCoua delalandei Nycticorax mauritianus Pinta Island tortoiseCyanoramphus ulietanus Nycticorax megacephalusCyanoramphus zealandicus Paroreomyza flammea ‘Lonesome George’Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi Pezophaps solitaria Last sighting: 2012Drepanis funerea Phalacrocorax perspicillatus Cause of extinction: capture for consumptionDrepanis pacifica Pinguinus impennisDromaius ater Podiceps andinus96 Priceless or Worthless
    • Podilymbus gigas Cephalaspidomorphi Nesoryzomys darwini ReptiliaPomarea fluxa Eudontomyzon sp. nov. ‘migratory’ Nesoryzomys indefessus Ameiva cineraceaPomarea mira Noronhomys vespuccii Ameiva majorPomarea nukuhivae Mammalia Notomys amplus Bolyeria multocarinataPomarea pomarea Bettongia pusilla Notomys longicaudatus Borikenophis sanctaecrucisPorphyrio albus Boromys offella Notomys macrotis Celestus occiduusPorphyrio coerulescens Boromys torrei Notomys mordax Cyclura onchiopsisPorphyrio kukwiedei Bos primigenius Oligoryzomys victus Cylindraspis indicaPorphyrio mantelli Brotomys voratus Onychogalea lunata Cylindraspis ineptaPorzana astrictocarpus Caloprymnus campestris Oryzomys antillarum Cylindraspis peltastesPorzana monasa Chaeropus ecaudatus Oryzomys nelsoni Cylindraspis triserrataPorzana nigra Conilurus albipes Palaeopropithecus ingens Cylindraspis vosmaeriPorzana palmeri Coryphomys buehleri Pennatomys nivalis Hoplodactylus delcourtiPorzana sandwichensis Cryptonanus ignitus Perameles eremiana Leiocephalus eremitusProsobonia ellisi Cryptoprocta spelea Peromyscus pembertoni Leiocephalus herminieriProsobonia leucoptera Cuscomys oblativa Plagiodontia ipnaeum Leiolopisma mauritianaPsephotus pulcherrimus Desmodus draculae Potorous platyops Macroscincus cocteiPsittacula exsul Dusicyon australis Prolagus sardus Pelusios seychellensisPsittacula wardi Gazella bilkis Pseudomys glaucus Phelsuma gigasPterodroma rupinarum Gazella saudiya Pseudomys gouldii Tachygyia microlepisPtilinopus mercierii Geocapromys columbianus Pteropus brunneus Tetradactylus eastwoodaeQuiscalus palustris Geocapromys thoracatus Pteropus pilosus Typhlops carieiRaphus cucullatus Heteropsomys insulans Pteropus subnigerRhodacanthis flaviceps Hexolobodon phenax Pteropus tokudaeRhodacanthis palmeri Hippopotamus lemerlei Rattus macleariSceloglaux albifacies Hippopotamus madagascariensis Rattus nativitatisTachybaptus rufolavatus Hippotragus leucophaeus Rucervus schomburgkiThreskiornis solitarius Hydrodamalis gigas Solenodon marcanoiTraversia lyalli Isolobodon montanus Thylacinus cynocephalusTurdus ravidus Isolobodon portoricensis Xenothrix mcgregoriTurnagra capensis Juscelinomys candango Zalophus japonicusTurnagra tanagra Lagorchestes asomatusUpupa antaios Lagorchestes leporidesXenicus longipes Lagostomus crassusZoothera terrestris Macropus greyiZosterops strenuus Macrotis leucura Megalomys desmarestii Megalomys luciae Megaoryzomys curioi Monachus tropicalis Neotoma anthonyi Neotoma bunkeri Neotoma martinensis Neovison macrodon Nesophontes edithae Nesophontes hypomicrus Nesophontes major Nesophontes micrus Nesophontes paramicrus Nesophontes zamicrus Priceless or Worthless 97
    • 98 Priceless or Worthless worthless © Craig Turner
    • “I think having land and not ruining it is the most beautiful art that anybody could ever want” Andy Warhol Priceless or Worthless worthless 99
    • Chapter 4Pulledback fromthe brink100 Priceless or Worthless worthless
    • No species need be lost. Given enoughdetermination and ingenuity we are capableof rescuing even the most desperate ofcases, as the stories here show. Priceless or Worthless worthless 101
    • 102 Priceless or Worthless worthless © Tim Flach
    • Equus ferus przewalskiiPrzewalski’s horse the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski N.Dovchin, a Mongolian scientist,Population size: Horse and Mongolian Association for Conservation sighted what could have been the of Nature and the Environment (MACNE), provided306 (in the wild) last wild Przewalski’s horse, a safety net for these populations. The success of the conservation breeding and reintroductionRange: (Equus ferus przewalskii) in 1969. programme was evident in the downgrading of theMongolia species status on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Following this date, extensive surveys by the Joint SpeciesTM from ‘Extinct in the Wild’ to ‘CriticallyPrimary threats: Mongolian-Soviet Expedition and Chinese biologists Endangered’ in 1996, and then a further lowering to confirmed that no wild populations remained, withHabitat loss, resource limitation the species considered to be possibly extinct in the ‘Endangered’ in 2011. All horses alive today are the descendents of just 13-14 individuals, which formedand small population size Wild by the IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre the core of the conservation breeding programme in 1988. However, conservationists and scientists that saved this species. From this small numberActions taken: refused to give up on this species, the only living the population has swelled to an estimated 306Captive breeding, reintroduction, representative of wild horses, and embarked on an Przewalski’s Horses now roaming freely in Ukraine, ambitious captive breeding and reintroduction project. Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia.habitat protection and awareness-raising initiatives The production of an International Studbook in 1959 The inspiring recovery of this charismatic equid is established the foundation for the development of a testament to the cooperation and dedication of a Species Survival Plan. Following this, the creation organisations and individuals from across the world. of a European Endangered Species programme However, the persistence of the Przewalski’s horse in 1986 shaped the conservation breeding and in the wild is not yet secure - hybridization with reintroduction strategies for the species. In 1994 domestic horses poses a serious risk. In addition, reintroductions began in Takhiin Tal Nature Reserve competition for resources with both domestic horses in Dzungarian Govi Desert, and Hustai National Park and cattle increases the pressure on this iconic in Mongol Daguur Steppe. By 1999, 59 individuals species. Finally, although wild populations have had been reintroduced to Takhiin Tal, while 84 increased substantially, they are still quite small individuals, taken from reserves in Europe, had and at risk from disease and predation by wolves. been introduced to Hustai National Park. Between Management of all these aspects and the continuation 2004 and 2005 a further 22 Przewalski’s horses of breeding programmes will be critical to ensure were reintroduced to a site in Homiin Tal in Great the survival of Przewalski’s horse in the wild. Lakes Depression. Continual supplementation from reserves in Europe, managed by the Foundation for Priceless or Worthless 103
    • Falco punctatusMauritius kestrel Fortunately, the perilous state of the species was Early colonists to Mauritius realised before it joined its cousin, the ReunionPopulation size: decimated its forest blanket and kestrel (Falco duboisi), in the extinct species lists250-300 mature individuals with it went many of the islands and a recovery programme to rescue the species was launched in 1973. From 1984 to 1994 intensiveRange: precious endemic species. This management and conservation breeding of theMauritius deforestation, which spared only species bolstered the population. The conservation programme was comprehensive, including captive three percent of the original forest propagation and restocking, supplementary feeding,Primary threats: cover, precipitated the initial declines nest-site enhancement, provision of nest boxes,Habitat loss and degradation, of the beautiful Mauritius kestrel. nest guarding, control of predators, clutch andand predation by invasive species brood manipulations, and the treatment of parasite By 1974, only four individuals were infections. In the late 1980s, the first group ofActions taken: known to survive in the wild. captive bred birds were re-introduced into the Bambous Mountains. These re-introductions ceasedCaptive breeding and The crash in their population was believed to be in 1994, and now around 400 individuals fly freelyreintroductions, supplementary driven by the widespread use of organochloride around their island home. pesticides throughout the island in the 1950s andfeeding, habitat enhancement and 1960s, both for agriculture and to control malaria The value and affection which the Mauritians feelprotection and predator control carrying mosquitoes. The introduction of predators towards this splendid species is evident. Out of such as Black rats, Crab-eating macaques, small danger of extinction, the species now plays an Indian mongooses and feral cats did little to help important role in tourism operations and is depicted dwindling populations of the birds. Finally, the bird’s on the Mauritian 50 rupee note, reinforcing the habitat was being overrun by introduced plants, importance of the species. This acknowledgement which resulted in the destruction of natural nest of the significance of this bird is a fitting recognition sites and reduced the species hunting efficiency. of the work by various organisations and individuals to ensure the species survival.104 Priceless or Worthless
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    • 106 Priceless or Worthless worthless © Dubi Shapiro
    • Foudia flavicansRodrigues fody also reduced the pressure off the forests, as island Less than one fifth of the entire inhabitants no longer needed to rely on firewood forPopulation size: world’s bird species are restricted fuel. Little native vegetation remained on the island,668 - 1,000 mature individuals to islands but over 90 per cent of but the Rodrigues fody populations flourished in forests of introduced exotics.Range: all bird extinctions have occurred onRodrigues, Mauritius islands. Many recovery programmes for critically endangered species rely on sophisticated These unique island species are being wiped out by manipulation of breeding and foraging regimes.Primary threats: the introduction of new predators and competitors This makes the resurgence of the Rodrigues fodyLoss of habitat through into their ecosystems, the destruction of their all the more notable as it revolved primarily around native habitat and over-exploitation for hunting or re-vegetation initiatives and the restoration ofdeforestation and introduction other uses. Sadly, having lost at least 28 endemic degraded habitat. Ironically, while the introductionof exotic species birds since 1600, the Mascarene Islands provide a of invasive, exotic plants often spell disaster for classic example of this. island endemics, the establishment of fast-growingActions taken: exotics to Rodrigues saved the fody and two otherReforestation (both active and Residing on one of the world’s most degraded endemic vertebrates, the Rodrigues flying fox tropical islands; the Rodrigues fody (Foudia (Pteropus rodricensis) and the Rodrigues warblerpassive regeneration) and reduced flavicans) seemed fated to follow in the tragic (Acrocephalus rodericanus), from extinction.deforestation rates footsteps of its fellow endemics. Common in the 19th century, the species populations began to However, as the ultimate goal for this hugely plummet following the clearance of its habitat for modified island is ecosystem conservation, the agriculture in the 1960s. Following the passage island’s forests are now being replanted with native of Cyclone Monica in 1968 scientists estimated vegetation. Large scale restoration of the landscape that only five to six pairs of the species remained. began in 1996 and has been progressing steadily However this stubborn bird hung on, weathering since. Plots are progressively thinned of exotics multiple storms throughout the 1970s to increase to and are then replanted with native seedlings. The 60 pairs in 1979. As the lack of habitat for Rodrigues invasive vegetation provides a makeshift nursery fody was a major factor contributing to its decline, for the native plants, protecting them from the regeneration of vegetation was identified as being a elements. This gradual approach ensures that there key activity required to ensure the species recovery. is always sufficient vegetation for the endemic Island watersheds were fenced and protected, fauna of the island to flourish. allowing the vegetation to regenerate. The introduction of bottled gas for cooking in the 1980s Priceless or Worthless 107
    • Megaptera novaengliaeHumpback whale sanctuaries in a number of countries, and is listed In 1979 National Geographic on Appendix I of both CITES and the CMS.Population size: included a sound sheet, ‘Songs of60,000 (global estimate) the Humpback Whale’ with the Although commercial whaling decimated humpback populations, this resilient species has bouncedRange: January issue of their magazine. back. There are continuing threats to the whales including ongoing and planned offshore oil andAll major ocean basins This ground breaking recording provided many gas development, entanglement in fishing gear people with their first introduction to the magical and injury by ship strikes; however, the increasesPrimary threat: song of one of the ocean’s giants – the humpback observed in most populations suggest that human whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). The complicatedCommercial whaling pattern of trills, whistles and booms emitted by induced mortality is not currently at a level where it will significantly impact the species. males of this species are particular to populationsActions taken: – groups from different ocean basins will singWorldwide protection from Assessed as ‘Endangered’ on the 1988 IUCN distinctively different songs. Sung by males during Red List of Threatened SpeciesTM, the speciescommercial whaling in 1966, migrations and at breeding grounds, probably as a was downgraded to ‘Least Concern’ in 2008. This form of sexual display, these complex songs evolveestablishment of numerous over time. While today we marvel at their beauty inspiring recovery creates optimism for the future survival of the humpback whale, as there seemssanctuaries and listing on the and transcendental qualities, we almost robbed little chance of a return to widespread commercial ourselves of the chance to ever hear them.CMS and Appendix I of CITES hunting of the species. There is also considerable commercial value of the species in ecotourism The humpback whale is a coastal species over operations – whale watching now occurs in almost much of its range and as such was an early target 100 countries and has an estimated value of over of the whaling industry. It was frequently hunted $1 billion (US). The exhilaration that people draw to commercial extinction, at which time whalers from this awe-inspiring ocean acrobat – humpback would switch to an alternate species. During the whales are known for their spectacular breaching last century over two million large whales were displays – seems likely to ensure its songs slaughtered, and of this number over 200,000 permeate our oceans for many years to come. humpbacks were killed in the southern hemisphere alone. Worldwide protection from commercial whaling in 1966 may have arrived just in time, as the humpback whale was drifting ever closer to extinction. Today the species is also protected by108 Priceless or Worthless
    • © Alex Rogers Priceless or Worthless 109
    • 110 Priceless or Worthless worthless © Don Merton
    • Petroica traversiBlack robin In a bid to boost Old Blue’s breeding productivity, “If the rarest bird in the world can scientists implemented an ambitious program pinnedPopulation size: be saved then, given human on cross-fostering black robin eggs with Chatham224 mature individuals determination and effort, no species Island tomtits (Petroica macrocephala chathamensis). This innovative approach proved successful andRange: need become extinct” - Dr Don Merton has since been adopted and adapted to save endangered bird species around the world. The mainMangere and Rangatira, Chatham Trapped on windswept Little Mangere Island, the population of the Chatham Island black robin now diminutive Chatham Islands black robin (PetroicaIslands, New Zealand traversi) numbered just seven birds in 1976. Its resides on Rangatira (South East) Island, while a smaller population remains on Mangere Island. New island home had lost the majority of its forest coverPrimary threats: and was teeming with introduced rats and cats as Zealand’s Department of Conservation continuesHabitat loss and predation by to manage the species and has strict protocols in a result of human settlement. These predators had place to avoid the transport of pathogens or invasiveinvasive species extirpated all but a handful of species, but the seven species into the bird’s island habitat. black robins hung on in the last remnants of bush.Actions taken: In a last attempt to save the species staff from the Once the most endangered bird in the world, the New Zealand Wildlife Service scaled the cliffs of black robin population now exceeds 200 individuals.Re-location, restoration of habitat Little Mangere, captured the last of the robins and The survival of this endearing bird is testament toand cross-fostering of clutches transferred them to Mangere Island, where 120,000 the commitment and ingenuity of the people who native trees had been planted in an attempt to boost fought to save it. Intensive management efforts have habitat and prey availability. Unfortunately, by 1980 a now been scaled back and this plucky species seems further two birds had died and none had bred. likely to persist in the forests of the Chatham Islands for years to come. Luckily, there was one tenacious bird that refused to give in. Robins usually mate for life, but when all seemed lost, Old Blue, hailed as the saviour of the species, changed mates and tried to breed again. Laying more eggs and mothering more chicks than any other robin, this miraculous bird lived for over 13 years and is the ancestor of every black robin alive today.© Don Merton Priceless or Worthless 111
    • 112 Priceless or Worthless worthless Eurynorhyncus pygmeus © Paul Marshall/ WWT
    • “The curious world we inhabit ismore wonderful than convenient; more beautiful than it is useful; it is more to be admired and enjoyed than used” Henry David Thoreau Priceless or Worthless 113 worthless
    • Chapter 5Final Word114 Priceless or Worthless worthless
    • “Earth provides enough tosatisfy every man’s needs,but not every man’s greed” Mahatma Gandhi Priceless or Worthless 115 worthless
    • What needs to be done?All the species listed in this book are unique, particularly of those most in decline, has been And what for the species who are not yet at thefascinating and irreplaceable – if we lose them no improved and sustained’. It is now time to resource doorstep of extinction? To avoid pushing everythingamount of money will be able to bring them back. this commitment and to put the legislation and to the brink we will need to make some fundamentalHowever, we can still preserve these important legal frameworks in place to ensure it is achieved. changes to our current modus operandi. These willcomponents of our global cultural and biological The private sector, which benefits from nature but include slowing or stabilising population growth,heritage if we take action immediately. also plays a significant role in contributing to the reducing waste (including CO2 emissions) andBy implementing the actions listed alongside each decline of many species, should also make major consumption and implementing economic and legalspecies in this book we can give them a fighting contributions to the fund. structures that promote environmentally sustainablechance for survival. growth and ensure good governance. This will However, saving these species requires more require commitments from across society and aUrgent cases such as these require species specific than just a large fund; it requires the conservation fundamental change in how we value the naturalactions – this includes the design and implementation movement and society as a whole to support the world, and how we see our place within it.of well researched action plans that involve the moral and ethical position that all species haverelevant stake holders, focus on realistic solutions to an inherent right to exist. If we accept that a few Conservation organisations have a significant role toaddressing the threats and have clear and measurable species can be lost, or that there is an economic play in leading this change. To aid the transition to agoals with set timeframes. To be successful these argument that justifies extinction, then one by one world where all species are valued and protected,action plans must also have adequate resources for the species in this book will disappear. Losing the conservation organisations will need to:their implementation. Unfortunately, the provision 100 species in this book would represent the thinof sufficient resources is often absent, resulting end of the wedge leading to animal, plant and fungi •  learly define the argument for nature Cin many well written plans sitting on shelves as extinctions on a massive scale. The steadfast belief conservation and work with the world’s leadingspecies move toward extinction. of the conservation community, public, government PR and marketing agencies and cultural icons and industry that all species have a right to exist, to ensure it is effectively communicatedTherefore, if we are to successfully reverse along with a commitment to pooling the resources, • nvolve the next generation in conservation Ideclines, funding for the world’s most threatened time and energy needed to protect every them, through social media and new technology,species must increase several orders of magnitude. would be the first critical step in avoiding a biologically particularly citizen science, and engage theWe need a fund to prevent extinction, resourced by depauperate world. Our treatment of the species public with the task of monitoring and managinggovernments, that is in the billions, not millions. In in this book reflects the way in which we value all the planet2010 the world’s governments made a commitment forms of life on the planet. If they are priceless thento prevent extinction by adopting the Strategic Plan all forms of life are priceless and must be protected, •  ocus on developing a generation of best Ffor Biodiversity 2011-2020. The Aichi Biodiversity if worthless then we can rationalise living in a conservation scientists and managers inTargets, which form a part of this plan, state: ‘By species poor world where only animals, plants countries throughout the world2020 the extinction of known threatened species and fungi that are deemed useful survive.has been prevented and their conservation status,116 Priceless or Worthless
    • •  ncourage governments to invest more in our E So what can you do to ensure the future of the protected areas, greatly improve capacity in 100 most threatened species and many others management, monitoring and enforcement like them? You can have a major positive impact on species conservation if you buy less, buy•  reatly expand protected area systems on land G sustainably sourced food and materials, invest in and in the oceans – ensure that at minimum companies that make nature conservation and the Aichi biodiversity target of protecting 10 per sustainability a priority, support conservation cent of the oceans and 17 per cent of land by organisations, vote for governments that keep 2020 is achieved, while aiming much higher biodiversity conservation high on the political•  ork with industry to advance clean technology W agenda (and keep their promises) and ensure that and pressure governments to promote a rapid ecology and nature conservation is being taught transition to clean energy in the schools near you. However, one of the best things you can do is to choose a species or habitat•  ncourage government and industry to better E and make a life-time commitment to ensuring its monitor, manage and report on natural capital future. You can start now by working to ensure the (e.g. forests, fish stocks, coral reefs, and future of one of the 100 priceless species on this freshwater systems) and make it accessible to list. You can stop extinction. the public and investors•  romote and assist with effective land P use planning at the national level ensuring commitments to sustainable management of natural capital•  nsure industry follows environmental best E practice (specifically the principals of no net loss of biodiversity) and reward those companies that lead the way.© Craig Turner Priceless or Worthless worthless 117
    • GlossaryCBD: Ex-situ:Convention on Biological Diversity, entered into force on 29 December 1993 Conservation and maintenance of living species outside their natural habitat. Among other reasons, this may be undertaken to remove the species from threatsChytridiomycosis: to assist re-introductions, restoration or reinforcement of natural populations.An infectious disease caused by the chytrid, zoosporic fungus, Batrachochytriumdendrobatidis. There is currently no effective means of controlling the disease Extinct:in wild populations and has been cited as a contributing factor to the global A species is determined to be extinct following exhaustive surveys which leavedecline of amphibians. no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died.CITES: Extinct in the Wild:Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and A species is determined to be extinct in the wild when the only known,Flora, entered into force on 1 July 1975. survivng individuals, exist in cultivation, captivity or in naturalized populations well outside the confines of their historic range.CMS:Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (also Head-starting:known as the Bonn Convention) entered into force in 1983. When vulnerable life-stages, juveniles, larvae etc, are protected and then released once they have reached a certain size or life-stage where they will beCritically Endangered: less threatened.Critically endangered species are those considered to be at extrememly highrisk of going extinct in the wild. They must have met criteria A to E for ‘Critically In-situ:Endangered’ in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Conservation work that takes place within the natural populations or habitat of a species. This may be carried out by restoring or protecting the habitat andEndangered: species, removing the factors which are threatening them.Endangered species face a very high risk of extinction in the wild and musthave met any of criteria A to E for ‘Endangered’ in the IUCN Red List of Invasive:Threatened Species. A species that is introduced to an area and survives, thrives and reproduces, and causes economic and/ or environmental harm to the area it has beenEndemic: introduced into.An endemic species is one that is found exclusively in a particular place or country.118 Priceless or Worthless
    • Least Concern:This category includes widespread and abundant species and is assigned tothose species which do not qualify for any of the other threat categories on theIUCN Red List of Threatened SpeciesTM.Native:A species that is indigenous to a particular place or country, i.e. it occurs naturallyin an area and has not been introduced either intentionally or unintentionally.Near threatened:Species in this category are those that don’t currently meet the criteria, but areclose to qualifying in the near future, for a threatened category of the IUCN RedList of Threatened SpeciesTM.Re-introduction:The intentional release of species back into the wild, either from captivity,or by relocation from another area where the species still survives.Vulnerable:A vulnerable species will have met one of criteria A to E for ‘Vulnerable’ in theIUCN Red List of Threatened SpeciesTM and will be at high risk of extinction inthe wild. Priceless or Worthless 119
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