Georgia Institute of Technology TLUD Cook Stove

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Design review for Georgia Institute of Technology Cook Stove Project : Oct 2010. Features a novel rice husk gasification cook stove.

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Georgia Institute of Technology TLUD Cook Stove

  1. 1. SMALL REDTILE jordan edwards | isaac lockman | peter nguyen | marc pare | jimmy vo | tyler wilson
  2. 2. PROBLEM STATEMENT Rural Nicaragauan families, as a result of cooking over open fires, face dwindling fuel supplies and numerous health issues
  3. 3. ASPIRATIONS Replace traditional open fires with improved cook stoves that are capable of safely turning excess rice husk into cooking heat.
  4. 4. Three meals are eaten daily. Meals are cooked in the morning and are eaten throughout the day. Smoke from the open fire contains harmful chemicals and collects inside the shed. Meals consist primarily of rice and beans and tortillas. Villagers whose income is restricted to a dollar a day have to collect wood on a daily basis. The average family consists of six people. DAY INTHE LIFE
  5. 5. DEMOGRAPHICS 160families 8 milesfrom nearest large city (Chinandega) 50% 5 - 6 of women are single mothers typical family size
  6. 6. THEVILLAGE The conditions which the locals have to live with daily
  7. 7. Combustion occurs in two distinct phases By providing heat to biomass in the absence of oxygen, the two stages can be separated. Gasification is this two stage process. A gasification stove generally burns cleaner than a direct combustion stove and produces biochar instead of ash. PhaseOnePhaseTwo GASIFICATION
  8. 8. STOVE PRECEDENTS 1950 2010 19801960 1970 1990 2000 1950’s Small cook stove deployment by Indian Government 1982 - 1992 China disseminates 129 million improved cook stoves 1982 Larry Winiarski publishes Rocket Stove design principles 1988 Samuel Baldwin publishes Design Principles for Wood Burning Cook Stoves 1988 Paal Wendelbo invents TLUD stove 1985 Tom Reed invents TLUD stove 2008 Alexis Belonio receives Rolex Award for Enterprise for first ever rice husk cook stove. 2010 X Prize for cook stove design announced 2008 Amy Smith perfects method for charcoal pro- duction from biomass
  9. 9. SPECS Use Locally Available Fuel 1. Shall use rice husk for fuel Manufacturable, Maintainable 2. Does not depend on stolen grid electricity 3. Stable if knocked during operation 4. Stable supports for large and small pots 5. Able to run at night 6. Will not degrade from exposure to rain 7. Able to be transported from fabrication facility to homes 8. Uses stainless steel, rebar, or ceramic 9. Held together with weld or basic metalworking/ceramic- making operations 10. Cost less than $15 to manufacture 11. Only basic tools needed for assembly 12. Experts able to produce at least 5 stoves per day Turn Fuel into Heat 13. Flame hot enough for boil water quickly 14. Consume reasonable amount of rice husk per each meal cooked 15. Flame can stand up to a gust of wind 16. Amount of oxygen to flame does not vary unexpectedly 17. Amount of oxygen to flame adequate for combustion Transfer Heat to Food 18. Stove walls must have low thermal capacity 19. Interface to pot must direct hot flue gases around sides 20. Adequate space to boil beans 21. Adequate cooking surface for frying plantains 22. Adequate cooking surface to reheat cooked food Marketable Cooking Experience 23. Tending operations required at most every seven minutes 24. Tending operations take up at most 10% of cooking time 25. Less than two hours of training required to acquire expert proficiency with stove operation 26. Fits comfortably in Nicaraguan lean-tos 27. Comfortable height for typical Nicaraguan female 28. Emissions do not endanger the health of users over the course of a single stove use 29. Hot surfaces unlikely to be touched accidently during normal operation 30. No exposed sharp edges 31. No pinch points 32. Flame unlikely to be touched during normal operation 33. Does not leave user light-headed after usage 34. Culturally appropriate appearance 35. Someone used to an open fire can be trained to use stove 36. Able to be started with local starter materials 37. Cleanup after use reasonable 38. Able to gauge stove’s performance during usage 39. Waste material is acceptable in community
  10. 10. CONTINUOUS LOAD LIGHT COOK LOADTAP JIGGLE CLEAR Every 15 MinutesWeak Flame 5 Minute Cycle BATCH LOAD LIGHT CLOSE IGNITE Starts Syn Gas Production DUMP COOK 30 Minute Cycle LOAD LIGHT CLOSE IGNITE Reloading can be completed parallel to cooking Burn Syn Gas TENDING PATTERNS
  11. 11. FUNCTIONTREE Appropriate Manufacturing Techniques Appropriate Materials Heat Starting/ Stopping Load/Unload Fuel Fixable/ Cleanable Be Maintainable Lower Emissions to Safe Levels Priced for MarketConsistent Provide Sufficient Cooking Surface Be Easy to Operate Functions Constraints Cook Provide Stability Shield Heat Control Cooking Process Appeal to Aesthetics Appeal to User Produce Heat Convert Rice Husk Fuel to Biogas Combust Biogas Support Cookware Protect User
  12. 12. RESOURCES Places where we turn for advice
  13. 13. CONTINUOUS FUEL CUTOFF BURNER FUEL CUTOFF FUEL CHAMBER FUEL CHAMBER COMBUSTION CHAMBER CHAR This continuous stove based design allows for easier loading of fuel.The sloped path of the fuel chamber allows the fuel to flow straight into the reactor of the stove. By allowing the fuel to come only from one direction, bridging is reduced. The design also features a fuel cutoff that will stop the fuel from flowing into thethe reactor. Constant tapping may still be re- quired if bridging occurs. Initial Sketches
  14. 14. NATURAL DRAFTTLUD CHIMNEY CONCENTRATOR LID PRIMARY AIR DOOR FUEL CHAMBER PRIMARY AIR This TLUD based design promotes natural draft to fuel the combustion of rice husk. The fuel chamber is much smaller to allow more primary air to travel through the fuel. This allows the user to easily start the stove con- sistantly. Due to the smaller fuel chamber, re- loading would occur more frequently .The simplicity of the design makes this stove farely easy to fabricate with minimal material. Initial Sketches
  15. 15. CROSS DRAFT PRIMARY AIR OPENING CHAR COMPARTMENT FUEL CHAMBER CHAR PRIMARY AIR SYNGAS This cross-draft based design promotes natu- ral draft to fuel the combustion of rice husk. Contrasting to the TLUD design, the air, in- stead of moving top to bottom or bottom to top, travels sideways through the fuel. This is benefitial for users who wish to add an addi- tional burner.The fuel chamber is level with the burner to allow easier fuel reloading. Startin the stove can be difficult though and can produce a lot of smoke. FUEL CHAMBER Initial Sketches
  16. 16. CONCEPT REFINEMENT Dimensioned ergonomic requirements Quantified usability specifications Fine-grained cost calculation Performance metrics
  17. 17. REACTOR SIZING Stack effect draftcaused temperature difference Venturi effect draftcaused by fluid flow past an opening Ergun equation pressure resistance by a packed bed Preliminary calculations show that a 3 ft. chimney can pull enough draft for a 12 in. tall stove. However, the model assumes lossless, laminar flow.
  18. 18. SCHEDULE Phase One: 27 31 7 14 21 28 29 PHASE ONE PHASETWO PHASETHREE 1 october november 24 progress review final review Phase Two: Phase Three: Engineering Model Reactor “Tin-can” Prototyping User-Centric Design Integration of the three components within phase one Final Documentation
  19. 19. CONCLUSION A clever combination of existing technology with a close eye for user experience embodies a form that could improve the lives of hundreds in rural Nicaragua.

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