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Thinking outside the polygon: Spatial Information
for Social Protection and Disaster Management
Paul Box
ANZDMC 30 May 201...
Overview
CSIRO all hazards approach
Information integration challenges
Spatial Identifier Reference Framework – SIRF

Thin...
All Hazards Approach:
Information Services for
Disaster Management
Disaster management
Goal - improve the supply of timely and accurate
information enabling all actors involved in the
disas...
Disaster Management Cycle

Preparedness

Response

Information

Prevention

Recovery

1A

Thinking Outside the Polygon - S...
Understanding and communicating risk
Hazard
‘Prosumers’
- Community
- Government
- Response agencies
- Private sector

RIS...
The problem

Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 7
The challenges
• Large scale complex interwoven challenges
• Multiple organisations, scientific disciplines, perspectives
...
The information tsunami
•
•
•
•

Big data
The internet of things
Traditional large-ish data
Lots of small data

75x

Over ...
Information silos

System
7

System
1

System
3

Everything
Happens
Somewhere

System
n

System
2

$

$
$

System
5

$
Sys...
Queensland floods & Christchurch earthquake
27 online map sites
Media
Government
NGO

6 alert/community report sites
Socia...
Spatial Identifier Reference
Framework for Social Protection
in Indonesia

Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial informat...
Social Protection in Indonesia

Social Protection
- preventing, managing, and overcoming situations
adversely affecting pe...
One real world feature - multiple representations
Geospatial information

Min of Planning

002234

Spatial
Identifier
Refe...
What’s in a name?
Official Country name lists
• United Nations Statistics Division Country and Region
Codes for Statistica...
SIRF – spatial identifiers to link information
Agency A
Statistics

Agency B
Treasury

API

API

Statistical
Information

...
Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 17
9.63 million

Households receiving benefit
(Unit: ‘000s | Source: BIG | Date: June 2013)

people

Source: BPS population c...
Where are we SIRFing?
Partnerships
Indonesia - InaSDI - GoI, BIG, Pulse Lab Jakarta
Australia - FSDF - Office for Spatial ...
Understanding the need
• Delivering the right information

• Unambiguously reference a place using URI – multiple names
• ...
For disaster management
• Persistent information infrastructure to link

information about places
• crowd-sourced and form...
directly
“ ... Information is very make theabout saving lives. If we take we
the wrong decisions,
wrong choices about wher...
2013 05-30 anzdmc
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2013 05-30 anzdmc

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  • Thinking outside the polygon – Challenge to spatial community about improving the way we meet needs of users Talk about an initiative to develop scalable information infrastrcutre infrastructure that improves delivery of right bits of spatial information as framework for linking and integration of info across multiple systemsAddress some of the technical interoperability challenges of information integration as well as critical social and legal barriers to sharonginformaitonOdd at first to be be in policy and governance stream but many of the challegnes of sharing info mar in the governance and social – community agreement about standards and sharing to achieve interoperability
  • SIRF drivers for projectHow infrastrcutre works and
  • Infra – not monolithic systems
  • All stages of the disaster cycle infomration is needed – much of it the same
  • To understand and communicate information about risk Risk - The potential disaster losses, in lives, health status, livelihoods, assets and services, whichcould occur to a particular community or a society over some specified future timeperiod.Need to collect and analyse information about:Hazard dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage.Exposure - People, property, systems, present in hazard zones and subject to potential losses.Vulnerability - characteristics of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible effects of hazard
  • We address large scale informationintegration challegesBureau of Met,Geophyscis community – mostly spatila
  • We are faced with increasingly complex large scale interwoven challenges and solutions require collaboration and information sharing at unprcedented scale. need to work across domains and organsationscientificdiscplines and analyse phenomena and assess alternative from a range of different perspectives. Data and information required come from formal gov sources formally governed statistics formal well agreed defined processes and increasingly emergent data soruces many of these being big data - unstrucutured sentiment analysis. Data is collected at different scales, for different purposes stored and presented using different formats and different semantics making reuse and integration a signficant challenge. Change happens fast and effective response needs to be timely, requiring accurate uptodate information presented in meaningful ways for decision makers and other actors.phemonena that affect us are not uniform – highly variable spatially and temporally – need to support coarse grained spatial and temporal monitoring, analysis & reporting need to be able to work seamless across scales -
  • Lack of information is not a longer a problem. Big data – size isnt everythingNumber of containter increasing and volume of dataNature of the inffromation its flow and varietyThere are very large data holding and there are very large number of small data soruces feeding numerous production processThe internet of thingsNew sources of informatioin through sensors - sensors in everyday objectsEnvironemtnal sensors – wide rider buoys, hydroloigical monitoring stations citizen sensors – with average handphone and its user offering great potential as a sensor and live information stream numerous information production Linekd data – emerging approaches to be able to link individual pieces of information across the web – signficant advance from page based to data based linking . However this presents a range of unqiue challenges assocaited with navigatiogn complex related graphs of information resources Need to rapidly access and integrate near real time information to enable rapid response. - Glocalisation - accurate uptodate locally relevant and producedinfrormation to be scaled globally Information Tsunami - There is an increasing need to work across scientific and other domain boundaries and to rapidly distil meaning from an increasingly overwhelming volume of information. With the emergent of crowd sourcing and outputs from BIG data analysis the challenge is enormous. However, for any one real world location there are multiple representations, identifiers and place names in useOne name many places - Place names are ambiguous one name may refer to multiple places Integration is inefficient When trying to integrate information from multiple sources using geography, an enormous amount of time and effort is wasted in trying to find, acces, extract transform, load and understand data before it can be integrated with other data and usedThe UNSDI Gazetteer framework project funded by CSIRO and AusAID is an attempt to improve the use of spatial identifiers (gazetteers) that are used to refer to places in information systems. The project focuses on Social Protection in Indonesia and is providing support to the UN Global Pulse – provides the spatial framework and improved approaches to delivery and integration of formal, government data - Part of a global UN information infrastructure activity and is supportign national SDI efforts in Indonesia and Australia
  • Integration is inefficient, time consuming & expensiveEverything somewhere how do we refer to places – spatial identifiers ‘everything happens somewhere’ – It is said that 80% of gov data has spatial dimension. Geography is a key mechanism for integrating, analysis and interpretation of information from different systems.Highly spatially variable phenomena- need to tie information to placesIdea dimesnion for integration of infromaiotn
  • How do we pull together different streams of content – data and infomraiton from point fo truth systems nad valued added systems
  • Require timely informMulti-sectoralTNP2K - Coordinate across 14 gov agencies Consolidated database of vulnerable HHLD 20 million hhldsCetnralized social assistance provision – fuel, rice education subsidiesGlobal Pulse informal crowd-sourced
  • Similar to situation with identity for individuals passport, Drivers licenceRecording and reconciling these for places so other info can be hooked on
  • The gazetteer framework provides the scalable geographic dimension to the Linked Data Web. It is DNS for ‘where’Users access- Register data source- Harvest from WFS- Model transformation – Solid Ground- Connect back to underklying data set to access geometry for underlying feature- Operational provenance – where it came from but link to underlying geometry
  • Harvesting SI from ESRI WFSDelvivering si back into the portal
  • Moving from supply to demand driven Common reference – unambiguously reference a place using URI so we know we are talking about the same placeReference individual places not the whole datasetLinked data Project aims at supporting the geo-semantic web by developing a means to index, integrate, link and deliver spatial identifiers across national and global systems of systems. Essentially DNS for where persistent URI for each spatial identifier delivered into linked data web allows others to reliably reference cite, link information to placesCloud computing – massively scalable storage, access and processing of global datasetsLocally relevant, global data sets – improving creation and curation by data custodians in standardized ways that can be integrated at scale from local to global - Crowd- sourcing - Leveraging the power of the crowd – feeding back crowd sourced information to formal data custodian (government)Open data in context of heterogeneous business models – gazetteer is freemium viewpoint – name id and point for each featureOpen data and the freemium access model - Aim is to open up closed data holdings using a a freemium model Gazetteer is freemium view – free and open basic information about the existence and identity of spatial objects Provide links back to underlying data source for each feature. This enables integration of information across a highly heterogeneous pricing and licencing landscape drives business back to data providers and advertises their underlying data Open standards (ISO, OGC W3C) - for information content and technology – standardisation of delivery enables development of reusable tools that operate on gazetteer information Evolutionary approach - users to continue using existing gazetteers (for now) and framework links them together. Importantly information referenced using different gazetteers can be integrated as framework maintains cross-walks between gazetteers. In longer term, these cross walks and information about which gazetteers are being used to reference which statistical data can be used to consolidate gazetteers Providers do not need to change underlying data structures / business systems. Web service on top of data to deliver gazetteer information in standard way (structure and format). The gazetteer information delivered is a lightweight view of underlying heterogeneous data) based on an agreed information model – structure and semantics Building an institutional infrastructure – We are developing an information infrastructure. This is as much a social as technical undertaking. Solutions requires: a deep understanding of institutional and governance realities of infromation communities at variety of scales.- leveraging existing governance mechanisms – UN working with UN SDI (40+ Un Agencies that create and use spatial information) led by the UNN Chief Information and Technology Office an Assistant Secretary General. In Indonesia – partnering with BIG the national mapping agency – BIG is leading national efforts to build an Indonesian SDI. IN Australia partnering with GA – national mapping agency, Office for Spatial Policy.
  • Linked data Project aims at supporting the geo-semantic web by developing a means to index, integrate, link and deliver spatial identifiers across national and global systems of systems. Essentially DNS for where persistent URI for each spatial identifier delivered into linked data web allows others to reliably reference cite, link information to placesCloud computing – massively scalable storage, access and processing of global datasetsLocally relevant, global data sets – improving creation and curation by data custodians in standardized ways that can be integrated at scale from local to global - Crowd- sourcing - Leveraging the power of the crowd – feeding back crowd sourced information to formal data custodian (government)Open data in context of heterogeneous business models – gazetteer is freemium viewpoint – name id and point for each featureOpen data and the freemium access model - Aim is to open up closed data holdings using a a freemium model Gazetteer is freemium view – free and open basic information about the existence and identity of spatial objects Provide links back to underlying data source for each feature. This enables integration of information across a highly heterogeneous pricing and licencing landscape drives business back to data providers and advertises their underlying data Open standards (ISO, OGC W3C) - for information content and technology – standardisation of delivery enables development of reusable tools that operate on gazetteer information Evolutionary approach - users to continue using existing gazetteers (for now) and framework links them together. Importantly information referenced using different gazetteers can be integrated as framework maintains cross-walks between gazetteers. In longer term, these cross walks and information about which gazetteers are being used to reference which statistical data can be used to consolidate gazetteers Providers do not need to change underlying data structures / business systems. Web service on top of data to deliver gazetteer information in standard way (structure and format). The gazetteer information delivered is a lightweight view of underlying heterogeneous data) based on an agreed information model – structure and semantics Building an institutional infrastructure – We are developing an information infrastructure. This is as much a social as technical undertaking. Solutions requires: a deep understanding of institutional and governance realities of infromation communities at variety of scales.- leveraging existing governance mechanisms – UN working with UN SDI (40+ Un Agencies that create and use spatial information) led by the UNN Chief Information and Technology Office an Assistant Secretary General. In Indonesia – partnering with BIG the national mapping agency – BIG is leading national efforts to build an Indonesian SDI. IN Australia partnering with GA – national mapping agency, Office for Spatial Policy.
  • Transcript of "2013 05-30 anzdmc"

    1. 1. Thinking outside the polygon: Spatial Information for Social Protection and Disaster Management Paul Box ANZDMC 30 May 2013, Brisbane DIGITAL PRODUCTIVITY AND SERVICES FLAGSHIP
    2. 2. Overview CSIRO all hazards approach Information integration challenges Spatial Identifier Reference Framework – SIRF Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 2
    3. 3. All Hazards Approach: Information Services for Disaster Management
    4. 4. Disaster management Goal - improve the supply of timely and accurate information enabling all actors involved in the disaster management cycle to make better informed decisions Infrastructure Data provision Integration Analysis Delivery Information products Analytics http://www.csiro.au/Disaster-Management-Report Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 4
    5. 5. Disaster Management Cycle Preparedness Response Information Prevention Recovery 1A Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 5 Needless Toll of Natural Disasters
    6. 6. Understanding and communicating risk Hazard ‘Prosumers’ - Community - Government - Response agencies - Private sector RISK Exposure Vulnerability People, property, systems, present in hazard zones and subject to potential losses. Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 6 Characteristics of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible effects of hazard
    7. 7. The problem Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 7
    8. 8. The challenges • Large scale complex interwoven challenges • Multiple organisations, scientific disciplines, perspectives • Multiple data and information sources with different scales, sources • Rapid information integration • Information granularity • Spatially & temporally variable phenomena • ‘Glocalisation’ Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 8
    9. 9. The information tsunami • • • • Big data The internet of things Traditional large-ish data Lots of small data 75x Over the next decade, the number of "files,“ or containers for Information will grow by (source: EMC) Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 9 Philip Russom, Big Data Analytics, TWDI 2011
    10. 10. Information silos System 7 System 1 System 3 Everything Happens Somewhere System n System 2 $ $ $ System 5 $ System 4 $ $ $ Use Discover Access Extract, Transform, Load Time and effort Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 10 Understand
    11. 11. Queensland floods & Christchurch earthquake 27 online map sites Media Government NGO 6 alert/community report sites Social media 7 twitter feeds 2 face book pages All relate to place •multi sources •multiple channels •cannot easily integrate Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 11
    12. 12. Spatial Identifier Reference Framework for Social Protection in Indonesia Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 12
    13. 13. Social Protection in Indonesia Social Protection - preventing, managing, and overcoming situations adversely affecting people’s well being[1] - policies & programs to reduce poverty / vulnerability - reducing exposure, enhancing capacity to manage risks 1United Nations Research Institute For Social Development Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 13
    14. 14. One real world feature - multiple representations Geospatial information Min of Planning 002234 Spatial Identifier Reference Framework Statistical information (Implicitly geospatial) UNSTATS Name GRP’08 $ IND03 NTB 8,080 IND05 NTT 4,769 BPS-ID GER ‘08 Tpop’10 003 Bureau of Stats 003 Name Nusa Tenggara Barat 111.08 1,318,840 005 Nusa Tenggara Timur 112.09 335,805 Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) Multiple - names, identifiers, geometries, versions Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 14 West Nusa Tenggara
    15. 15. What’s in a name? Official Country name lists • United Nations Statistics Division Country and Region Codes for Statistical Use • United Nations Group of Experts on Geographic Names - List of Country Names • Department for General Assembly and Conference Management - Multilingual Terminology Database (UNTERM) • ISO - ISO 3166: Codes for country names •UN FAO - Global Administrative Unit Layers (GAUL) Name ambiguity • One place - many names • Sydney, City of Sydney • Australia, Australie, • Wollongong, ‘the gong’ Figure 1: Variation rates in spelling for country names between the UN Statistical Division’s Country and Region Codes for Statistical Use and UN datasets from data.un.org • One name – many places Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 15
    16. 16. SIRF – spatial identifiers to link information Agency A Statistics Agency B Treasury API API Statistical Information Agency C Welfare API http://id.sirf.net/siset/CGNA/NSW56500 Same as http://linkedgeodata.org/triplify/node13766899 User Linked Data Web National Spatial Data Infrastructure Spatial Information SIRF Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 16
    17. 17. Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 17
    18. 18. 9.63 million Households receiving benefit (Unit: ‘000s | Source: BIG | Date: June 2013) people Source: BPS population census, 2010 Gender distribution 100 80 (Source: BIG | Date: June 2013) Raskin 60 Bar annotation Jamkesmas 96% 40 Bar annotation 73% Bar annotation Consumer Price Index (CPI) (Source: BIG | Date: June 2013) 84% 31% households with handphones 100 80 60 40 20 Source: BPS Susenas, 2011 2 Area title 1 Jan Apr Jul Jan H’helds 3 4 2011 2012 2013 3.69% People living below the poverty line Source: BPS SUSENAS, 2012 People in poverty (Source: BIG | Date: June 2013) Area title Total Area title Urban 363,124 201,123 Area title National Province 20 Title (Source: BIG | Date: June 2013) Rural 152,001
    19. 19. Where are we SIRFing? Partnerships Indonesia - InaSDI - GoI, BIG, Pulse Lab Jakarta Australia - FSDF - Office for Spatial Policy, GA, CGNA Uganda – Pulse Lab Kampala Globally – UNSDI System of systems alignment • INSPIRE -EU • GEOSS - Eye on Earth • OSM Standards • W3C, ISO, OGC, Statistical -SDMX Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 20
    20. 20. Understanding the need • Delivering the right information • Unambiguously reference a place using URI – multiple names • Identity not Geometry – ‘the Freemium model’ • Linking not central storage • In the right way • Granularity - from dataset to feature - Improved - discovery, exploration, understanding, use • Linked data - ‘spatial bookmarks’ for the web • Feature-level metadata • Scalable data licencing framework • Semantics - multiple languages, definitions • Multiple formats Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 21
    21. 21. For disaster management • Persistent information infrastructure to link information about places • crowd-sourced and formal government data • Linking of spatial and statistical systems • Uptodate, timely information – with metadata • Open data – available for all stakeholders Thinking Outside the Polygon - Spatial information for Disaster Management | Paul Box | Page 22
    22. 22. directly “ ... Information is very make theabout saving lives. If we take we the wrong decisions, wrong choices about where put our money and our effort because our knowledge is poor, we are condemning some of the most deserving to death or destitution. ” Thank you CSIRO Land and Water Paul Box Project Leader - UNSDI SIRF for Social Protection Interoperable System Research Team Leader Phone: +61 0406256006 Email: paul.j.box@csiro.au Web: www.csiro.au/gazetteer John Holmes UN Emergency Relief Coordinator and Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs
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