Computer Systems/Applications

Introduction to Computers
p
Thomas Henaku
E-mail: thomashenaku@hotmail.co.uk

©Thomas Henak...
Lesson 1 Objectives
Recognize the importance of
computer literacy

Distinguish between system software
and application sof...
A World of Computers
What is computer literacy?
Knowledge and understanding
K
l d
d d t di
of computers and their uses
Com...
What Is a Computer?
How is a computer defined?
Electronic device
El t i d i operating under the control of
ti
d th
t l f
i...
What Is a Computer?
What is the information processing cycle?
Input
I
t
Process
Output
O t t
Storage
Communication
The Components of a Computer
What is an input device?
Hardware used
H d
d
to enter data
and instructions
The Components of a Computer
What is an output device?
Hardware th t
H d
that
conveys
information
to one or more
people
The Components of a Computer
What is the system unit?
Case
C
containing
electronic
components
p
used to process
data
The Components of a Computer
What are two main components on the motherboard?
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Also called a ...
The Components of a Computer
What is storage?
Holds d t i t ti
H ld data, instructions, and information
di f
ti
for future...
The Components of a Computer
What is storage media?
Digital
cameras

Portable, thin
memory cards
used in:

Handheld
comput...
The Components of a Computer
What is a floppy disk?
Thin, i l
Thi circular,
flexible disk
enclosed in rigid
plastic shell
The Components of a Computer
What is a USB flash drive?
Provides
P id much
h
greater storage
capacity than a
floppy disk o...
The Components of a Computer
What is a hard disk?
Provides
P id greater storage
t
t
capacity than a
floppy disk Zip disk, ...
The Components of a Computer
What is a compact disc?
Flat,
Fl t round, portable metal disc
d
t bl
t l di
CD-ROM
DVD-ROM
The Components of a Computer
What is a communications device?
Hardware component that
p
enables a computer to
send and rec...
Advantages and Disadvantages
of Using Computers
What are the advantages of using computers?

Speed

Reliability

Storage
S...
Advantages and Disadvantages
of Using Computers
What are the disadvantages of using computers?

Violation of
Privacy

Impa...
Networks and the Internet
What is a network?
Collection f
C ll ti of computers and devices connected together
t
dd i
t d t...
Networks and the Internet
What are the reasons to network?
To share
Resources
Hardware
d
devices

Software
programs

To
T ...
Networks and the Internet
What is a server?
A server manages
the resources on a
network
Clients access
the resources
on th...
Networks and the Internet
What is the Internet?
Worldwide ll ti
W ld id collection of networks that connects
f t
k th t
t
...
Networks and the Internet
Why do users access the Internet?
1. Communications
2. Information
3. Shopping
3 Sh
i
4. Banking...
Networks and the Internet
What is the Web?
Billions of documents, called W b pages, available to
Billi
fd
t
ll d Web
il bl...
Computer Software
What is software?

Consists of a series
of instructions that
fi
i
h
tells the computer
what to do

Also ...
Computer Software
What is a graphical user interface (GUI)?
Allows you to
All
t
interact with the
software using
graphics ...
Computer Software
What is system software?
Programs that control or maintain the operations of
P
th t
t l
i t i th
ti
f
th...
Computer Software
What is application software?
Programs that perform
P
th t
f
specific tasks for users
Word
Processing
g
...
Computer Software
How do you install and run programs?
Computer Software
Who is a programmer?
Someone who d l
S
h develops
application or system
software
Programmer writes
instr...
Categories of Computers
What are the categories of computers?
Personal Computers
(
(desktop)
p)
Mobile Computers and
Mobil...
Personal Computers
What are the two most popular series of personal
computers?
t ?
PC and compatibles
use the Windows
oper...
Personal Computers
What is a desktop computer?
Designed so all of the components fit entirely on
D i
d
ll f th
t
ti l
or u...
Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
What is a notebook computer?
Portable,
P t bl small enough
ll
h
to fit on your lap
Als...
Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
What is a Tablet PC?
Resembles a l tt
R
bl
letter-sized slate
i d l t
Allows you to wr...
Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
What are mobile devices?
Small
S ll enough t carry i a
h to
in
pocket
Internet-enabled...
Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
What is a handheld computer?

Small
enough to fit
in one
hand

Used
by mobile
employee...
Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
What is a personal digital assistant (PDA)?
Provides
P id personal organizer functions...
Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
What are smart phones and smart watches?
A smart phone is
an Internet-enabled
telephon...
Servers
What types of servers are there?
Midrange server Powerful, large
computer that supports up to a few
thousand compu...
Embedded Computers
What is an embedded computer?
A special-purpose computer th t f
i l
t that functions as a
ti
component ...
Elements of an Information System
What are information system elements?
Hardware
H d
Software
Data
People
Procedures
Examples of Computer Usage
What software is available for a home user?
Examples of Computer Usage
What software is available for a small
office/home office (SOHO) user?
Productivity
software
so...
Examples of Computer Usage
What is available for
a mobile user?
bil
?
Hardware
Notebook computers
PDAs
Smart phones

Softw...
Examples of Computer Usage
What are the needs of a power user?
Speed d large amounts of storage
S d and l
t f t
Types of p...
Examples of Computer Usage
What are the needs of the large business user?
Computer Applications in Society
What are some examples
of computer applications
f
t
li ti
in society?
Education
Ed
ti
Fin...
Summary of Introduction to Computers
The importance of computer literacy
The term, computer

System software and
S t
ft
d
...
Lesson 1 introduction to computers
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Lesson 1 introduction to computers

  1. 1. Computer Systems/Applications Introduction to Computers p Thomas Henaku E-mail: thomashenaku@hotmail.co.uk ©Thomas Henaku 2010
  2. 2. Lesson 1 Objectives Recognize the importance of computer literacy Distinguish between system software and application software Define the term, computer Describe th categories of computers D ib the t i f t Identify the components of a computer Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using computers Identify the elements of y an information system Describe the various types yp of computer users Recognize the purpose of a network Discuss the uses of the Internet and World Wide Web Discuss various computer applications in society
  3. 3. A World of Computers What is computer literacy? Knowledge and understanding K l d d d t di of computers and their uses Computers are everywhere
  4. 4. What Is a Computer? How is a computer defined? Electronic device El t i d i operating under the control of ti d th t l f instructions stored in its own memory Accepts data Raw facts, figures, and symbols Processes data into information Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful Produces and stores results
  5. 5. What Is a Computer? What is the information processing cycle? Input I t Process Output O t t Storage Communication
  6. 6. The Components of a Computer What is an input device? Hardware used H d d to enter data and instructions
  7. 7. The Components of a Computer What is an output device? Hardware th t H d that conveys information to one or more people
  8. 8. The Components of a Computer What is the system unit? Case C containing electronic components p used to process data
  9. 9. The Components of a Computer What are two main components on the motherboard? Central Processing Unit (CPU) Also called a processor The electronic component that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer t th b i i t ti th t t th t Memory Consists of electronic components that store p instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions
  10. 10. The Components of a Computer What is storage? Holds d t i t ti H ld data, instructions, and information di f ti for future use Storage media Physical material on which data, instructions data instructions, and information are stored Storage device Records and retrieves items to and from a storage medium
  11. 11. The Components of a Computer What is storage media? Digital cameras Portable, thin memory cards used in: Handheld computers
  12. 12. The Components of a Computer What is a floppy disk? Thin, i l Thi circular, flexible disk enclosed in rigid plastic shell
  13. 13. The Components of a Computer What is a USB flash drive? Provides P id much h greater storage capacity than a floppy disk or Zip® disk Small and lightweight enough g g g to be transported on a keychain or in a pocket
  14. 14. The Components of a Computer What is a hard disk? Provides P id greater storage t t capacity than a floppy disk Zip disk, or disk, disk USB flash drive Most are housed inside of the system unit y
  15. 15. The Components of a Computer What is a compact disc? Flat, Fl t round, portable metal disc d t bl t l di CD-ROM DVD-ROM
  16. 16. The Components of a Computer What is a communications device? Hardware component that p enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and i f d information i Occurs over cables telephone cables, lines, cellular radio networks, satellites, and other , transmission media
  17. 17. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Computers What are the advantages of using computers? Speed Reliability Storage St Consistency Communications C i ti
  18. 18. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Computers What are the disadvantages of using computers? Violation of Privacy Impact on Labor Force Health Risks Impact on Environment
  19. 19. Networks and the Internet What is a network? Collection f C ll ti of computers and devices connected together t dd i t d t th Communications Device Enables a connection ti between computers Transmission Media Satellites Cables Telephone lines One type is a modem Cellular radio
  20. 20. Networks and the Internet What are the reasons to network? To share Resources Hardware d devices Software programs To T save Data time Information and money
  21. 21. Networks and the Internet What is a server? A server manages the resources on a network Clients access the resources on the server
  22. 22. Networks and the Internet What is the Internet? Worldwide ll ti W ld id collection of networks that connects f t k th t t millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals institutions
  23. 23. Networks and the Internet Why do users access the Internet? 1. Communications 2. Information 3. Shopping 3 Sh i 4. Banking and Investing 5. Classes 6. Entertainment
  24. 24. Networks and the Internet What is the Web? Billions of documents, called W b pages, available to Billi fd t ll d Web il bl t anyone connected to the Internet A Web site is a collection of ll i f related Web pages A Web page contains text, t t graphics, sound, hi d video, and links to other Web pages You can share information by creating Web pages g p g or posting photos on a photo sharing community
  25. 25. Computer Software What is software? Consists of a series of instructions that fi i h tells the computer what to do Also ll d Al called a program
  26. 26. Computer Software What is a graphical user interface (GUI)? Allows you to All t interact with the software using graphics and icons Controls how you enter data and how t e sc ee d sp ays the screen displays information
  27. 27. Computer Software What is system software? Programs that control or maintain the operations of P th t t l i t i th ti f the computer and its devices Operating System (OS) is a set of programs that coordinates all activities among g computer hardware devices and allows users to run application software Utility Programs allow the user to perform maintenance-type tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices or its programs
  28. 28. Computer Software What is application software? Programs that perform P th t f specific tasks for users Word Processing g Spreadsheet Database Presentation Graphics
  29. 29. Computer Software How do you install and run programs?
  30. 30. Computer Software Who is a programmer? Someone who d l S h develops application or system software Programmer writes instructions to direct computer to di process data into information Resulting Internet application Javascript program
  31. 31. Categories of Computers What are the categories of computers? Personal Computers ( (desktop) p) Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices Midrange Servers Mainframes Supercomputers Embedded Computers
  32. 32. Personal Computers What are the two most popular series of personal computers? t ? PC and compatibles use the Windows operating system Apple Macintosh uses the Macintosh operating system (Mac OS)
  33. 33. Personal Computers What is a desktop computer? Designed so all of the components fit entirely on D i d ll f th t ti l or under a desk or table
  34. 34. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices What is a notebook computer? Portable, P t bl small enough ll h to fit on your lap Also called a laptop computer Generally more expensive than a desktop computer
  35. 35. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices What is a Tablet PC? Resembles a l tt R bl letter-sized slate i d l t Allows you to write on the screen using a digital pen Especially useful for taking notes
  36. 36. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices What are mobile devices? Small S ll enough t carry i a h to in pocket Internet-enabled telephone is a “smart p phone”
  37. 37. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices What is a handheld computer? Small enough to fit in one hand Used by mobile employees such as meter readers and delivery people
  38. 38. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices What is a personal digital assistant (PDA)? Provides P id personal organizer functions l i f ti Calendar Appointment b k A i book Address book Calculator Notepad
  39. 39. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices What are smart phones and smart watches? A smart phone is an Internet-enabled telephone that usually provides PDA capabilities A smart watch is an Internet-enabled watch th t automatically t h that t ti ll adjusts to time zone changes and stores personal information
  40. 40. Servers What types of servers are there? Midrange server Powerful, large computer that supports up to a few thousand computers Mainframe Very powerful, expensive computer that supports thousands of computers Supercomputer The fastest, most powerful, most expensive computer. computer Used for applications requiring complex mathematical calculations p. 23 Figs. 1-23–1-25
  41. 41. Embedded Computers What is an embedded computer? A special-purpose computer th t f i l t that functions as a ti component in a larger product
  42. 42. Elements of an Information System What are information system elements? Hardware H d Software Data People Procedures
  43. 43. Examples of Computer Usage What software is available for a home user?
  44. 44. Examples of Computer Usage What software is available for a small office/home office (SOHO) user? Productivity software soft are Specialty software Web usage E-mail
  45. 45. Examples of Computer Usage What is available for a mobile user? bil ? Hardware Notebook computers PDAs Smart phones Software Word W d processing i Spreadsheet Presentation graphics software
  46. 46. Examples of Computer Usage What are the needs of a power user? Speed d large amounts of storage S d and l t f t Types of power users Engineers Scientists Architects Desktop publishers Graphic artists
  47. 47. Examples of Computer Usage What are the needs of the large business user?
  48. 48. Computer Applications in Society What are some examples of computer applications f t li ti in society? Education Ed ti Finance Government Healthcare Science Publishing Travel Industry
  49. 49. Summary of Introduction to Computers The importance of computer literacy The term, computer System software and S t ft d application software Categories of computers C t i f t The components of a computer The advantages and disadvantages of using computers Elements of an information system Types of computer users The purpose of a network The uses of the Internet and World Wide Web Computer applications in society

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