The education issues of indonesian street children


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This is my proposed research presented in International Industrial Relation class when I was studying in School of Business and Government, Uni of Canberra, Australia.

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The education issues of indonesian street children

  1. 1. Aun Falestien Faletehan By u3016328
  2. 2.  UNICEF defines Child Work as “Children’s participation in economic activity that does not negatively effect their health and development or interfere with education can be positive. Work that does not interfer with education (light work) is permitted from the age of 12 years under the International labour Organization (ILO) Convention 138”. While the Child Labour is “more narrowly defined and refers to children working in contravention of the above standards. This means all children below 12 years of age working in any economic activities, those age 12 to 14 years engaged in harmful work, and all children engaged in the worst forms of child labour.”  Based on ILO, child labour refers to work that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children; and interferes with their schooling; by depriving them of the opportunity to attend school; by obliging them to leave school prematurely; or by requiring them to attempt to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work.
  3. 3. The broader concept of “Beneficial vs Harmful “
  4. 4.  as a form of child labour?  are engaged in various forms of informal income generation in order to contribute to the household economy or for personal survival.  It has been argued that economic independence, and ability to contribute to the household, is an important psychological factor in street children’s resiliency, self-confidence and feelings of self- worth.  All children who live outside their homes and do economic activities in the street are now called street children. With this definition, children forced into prostitution and working children can also be called street children.
  5. 5. Street children with family: • Still get attention from family • Continue their schooling • Work longer hours because forced to bring money to family • Apply more concentration to their work • Work as vendors, beggars, street singers, shoe shiners, etc. Homeless children: • More independent and appear to enjoy their work more • More exposed to, and subsequently exhibit more violent behaviour • Drop out of school • Receive less or no attention from family • Tend to use drugs and engage in gambling activities • Poor health
  6. 6.  The Consortium for Street Children (CSC) consists of 56 UK based organisations, working in 89 countries, dedicated to the welfare and rights of street living and working children and children at risk of taking to street life  Fighting for the rights of street children in developing countries, the Peduli Anak Foundation can be characterized as an international NGO. Peduli Anak’s unique approach towards development work has travelled around the world rapidly.  Indonesian street children organisation (ISCO Foundation)  Street Kids International is a non-profit agency founded in Canada that is a global leader in developing and disseminating the strategies and tools needed to give street kids around the world the choices, skills, and opportunities to make a better life for themselves.  The European Foundation for Street Children (EFSC) is a Brussels-based foundation established in 1995 by Maartje Van Putten, Member of the European Parliament from 1989 to 1999, being committed to improving the situation of children at risk, and particularly street children, on a non-profit basis.
  7. 7.  The issue of street children first emerged in early 1980s when less than ten NGOs were working in this area and the government refused to acknowledge the existence of street children  The term “anak jalanan” (street children) was once a taboo word in Indonesia – considered “subversive”, or anti-development in 1980s but is now accepted.  Street children are called GEPENG (GElandangan- PENGemis/ Homeless-Beggar) which in Indonesian means "thin or slim" but implies the marginalization and humiliation of street children as human beings
  8. 8.  A phenomenon in large cities.  About 60,000 homeless children in Indonesia; 20,000 of whom live in Jakarta (The Capital City).  There are also 11.7 million school dropouts, 400,000 of whom live in shelters for displaced persons.  Poverty and parent involvement are the main reasons  Street Children mostly work in the informal sector as shoe- shiners, street peddling, street singers, baggage carriers, car washers, beggars, and illegal parking assistants, etc.  People can find them easily in such areas as traditional market, mall, train station, bus station or congested intersection.
  9. 9.  Street children’s life as “career” (Visano’s theory: 1990)  A research by Beazley (2003) about the street child subculture “the Tikyan” in Yogyakarta  There are distinct hierarchical levels and codes of ethics attached to all working activities, and older children will teach newcomers the rules of working on the street.
  10. 10. The lowest level of work in the Tikyan hierarchy is “begging” The “Big Boss” of beggars in Surabaya
  11. 11.  Also, some children are “scavenging” plastic spoons, water bottles, cardboard boxes, tin-cans, newspapers and clothes, which they re-sell and wear.
  12. 12.  Shoe-shining is the most common profession among prepubescent street boys and can be highly lucrative, especially for those boys who play on the fact that they look cute, thus gaining sympathy from the general public.
  13. 13.  Other professions which street boys in Yogyakarta are engaged in are selling newspapers, bottled water, sweets and stationary, making and selling jewelry.
  14. 14. Busking with guitars, drums and tambourines is at the top of the instrument and work hierarchy, and street children take a lot of pride in playing their guitars as it confers a significant amount of sub-cultural capital. “Most young children who want to stop shoe- shining desperately aspire to own a guitar and will try and save up so that they can buy one, and thus move up the hierarchy.”
  15. 15.  Street children are particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labour which are both potentially and actually hazardous, including commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and involvement in organised crime.  Further, due to the rigidity of formal education timetabling, the types of labour engaged in by street children often prohibit them from attending school, thus perpetuating cycles of poverty.  Where is an integral part of their learning and development processes?
  16. 16.  Street children are mainly the product of parents who tragically live under the poverty line and cannot afford to send their children to school.  The high rates of out-of-school children have resulted in an increased number of working children and street children, with the former often working under less than secure conditions.  A survey revealed that the reason the children were taking to the street was to either help their parents economically by working on the streets (35%) or paying tuition fees (27%).  It was also reported that almost half of the street children (44%) still study at school and most of (83%) still live with their parents and 13% of the street children had dropped out of school.
  17. 17.  Every citizen has the right to education (Article 31:1)  The poor and destitute children shall be cared for by the State (34)  The basic nine-years education which is compulsory for any children (section 48 of Law No. 23/2002 on Child Protection) versus the Indonesian government budget.  Section 69(1) of the Manpower Act allows employment of children aged between 13 and 15 years for light work as long as the job does not stunt or disrupt their physical, mental or social development. They are not allowed to work more than three hours per day. The work should not interfere with schooling, and health and safety requirements have to be respected. However, there is no list of types of light work activities that may be performed by children between 13 and 15 years.
  18. 18.  Street-working children in Indonesia is a serious problem and many children drop out of school and labour inspection is insufficient.  Reformation of the education system?  Cooperation between NGO’s at local, national and international levels
  19. 19. “How to design an effective strategy to provide better education for the street-working children in Indonesia?”