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CCT 2013 LE5 Knowledge Management Web Society
 

CCT 2013 LE5 Knowledge Management Web Society

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    CCT 2013 LE5 Knowledge Management Web Society CCT 2013 LE5 Knowledge Management Web Society Presentation Transcript

    • Corporate Communications Today Course Module 5: Knowledge Management Course Module 6: Web SocietySusanne Robra-Bissantz
    • Welcome! Welcome to our last course module, that consists of two big topics – some contents around „knowledge“ and collaboration, and some on something, we call a web society... First – Knowledge Management ... In Social Media – with Collaboration. WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 2
    • Corporate Communications Today Course Module 5: Knowledge Management 29.01.2013Susanne Robra-Bissantz
    • Course Modules CM 5 Knowledge CM 2 CM 4 Collaboration Innovation CM 3 „Marketing“ CM 1 CM 6 Social Media Web Society WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 4
    • Collaboration approaches: internal – external? Innovation Management Knowledge Management Collaborative creativity Project support Organizational Learning Complaints: ideas and problems WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 5
    • Knowledge Management - FactsThe ability to apply knowledge in the company and share it with partners correlates positively with the ability to build competitive advantages (Chew et al. 1990) The best ideas come through weak ties in a network– „the strength of weak ties“ (Granovetter 1979). Groups often make better decisions than individuals– „the wisdom of the crowds“ (Surowiecki 2004) Knowledge can be used by the entire company, if implicit knowledge of the individual is externalized. (Nonaka,Takeuchi 1997). Phenomenon of Information Stickiness – Knowledge „sticks“, it is difficult to transfer (from Hippel 1994). WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 6
    • And summarized:Collaboration seems to be important for organisations, but, it seems to be difficult. And thereason is the so called „information stickyness“.Organisations know that, and they try to transfer knowledge – from implicit knowledge toexplicit knowledge.Implicit knowledge is not externalised and kept by one person. This may be because theperson doesn‘t want to explicate it, but also because it is hard (or even impossible) toverbalize or because the person is unconscious about the fact that his knowledge may beimportant for others.Explicit knowledge is externalised (verbalized), even categorized and connected to otherknowledge. Like this it can be adopted by others.They implement Knowledge Management Systems and use Incentives in order to makepeople share their knowledge. For example „points“ for knowledge pieces you provide. WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 7
    • Information Stickiness explicitcategorized / knowledgenetworked Information Stickiness conscious KMS, Incentives unconscious implicit knowledge not / difficult verbalizable verbalized verbalizable WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 8
    • Instruments of Knowledge Management Lessons Learned Skill Management Best Instruments of Practices Knowledge Management Knowledge Yellow Cards Pages Find a quite good summary on knowledge management and different instruments on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge_management. WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 9
    • In social media, we try and start with the differences between implicit and explicitknowledge, and find out, that in order to transfer knowledge we need:• Occasions for Communication, that may appear in discussions on Blogs, Wikis and especially with status updates or activity streams,• Contexts – that may be interpersonal context, people are networked. In this case knowledge doesn‘t have to be explicated, but it is enough to know who knows what. Contexts on electronical platforms – between the contents – can brilliantly achieved via tagging, social tagging and tag clouds, as we introduced them last week.And: in our second lecture on social Media and Collaboration, you‘ll find functions ininformation cylce (slide 16), where you‘ll find „occasions for communication“ and „creation ofcontexts“.By the way: in the introduction of a Knowledge Management System, that has to be usedvoluntarily and because someone is motivated to to so, the following way has been proven tobe successfull: Start with problems and questions that people may post. That is easy. Theothers will answer. Then let them post good ideas. Only after that finally build a socialnetwork, where you expect people to post what ever they know and may find interesting. Bythen they have probably understood the mechanic of giving and getting knowledge. And theyfeel good in posting contents to a social media plattform. What is difficult in the beginning... WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 10
    • Information Stickiness knowledge of explicitcategorized / relationships knowledgenetworked Information Stickiness Networking conscious Networking KMS, Incentives Content Person Tagging Blog Tagcloud Wiki Create Status update contexts unconscious implicit knowledge not / difficult verbalizable verbalized verbalizable Create occasions for communication WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 11
    • Communication occasion question/problemA good starting point for communication, that may be implemented, are problems. Enableemployees to ask their question. Others provide solutions, they may be discussed andevaluated and also linked together.IT enables the system to learn in every step. Find better respondands, discuss and integrate. Problems / Response / Discussion Questions Solution Integrate and Learn Evaluate link WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 12
    • Focus communication occasion: Question- and Responsecards Occasion for communication: Problem Additional motivation: Question - Votings - Expert status Proposed contacts for the question that had answers to the topic earlier. Answers may be evaluated and rated. WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 13
    • Focus communication context: Knowledge networkBasis: Social Network(Relationships) with• People• Relationships• Projectsand all of them connected by• Activities• Tags WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 14
    • Problems – research questions1. How do I motivate my employees to contribute knowledge?2. How do I motivate my employees to augment knowledge together? Starting points: Contributions: How do they have to be formulated in order to foster answers? Platform: Which features are needed, like status, evaluation....? Environment: What has to happen with the organisational culture – collaboration?!? WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 15
    • Fun to collaborate – willingness to collaborate openness contributions are valuable Social mutuality Motivation closeness Willingness to fun to trust contribute collaborate Participation shared Interaction understanding ideas grow many supporters „big“ WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 16
    • In these self-enforcing cycles:• Motivation is enhanced, because everybody realizes, that his contributions are valuable, and that then it is fun to contribute.• This enhances interaction and many employees support common knowledge. This again leads to a mutual understanding, via discussions and tagging.• The mutual understanding makes ideas grow as a result of a wisdom of the crowds – of participation. And at the same time trust raises – as collaborating works.• With trust a social closeness may grow. You learn that it is worth, being open and a sense of mutuallity appears. This again rises motivation.... and concluding: the willingness to collaborate rises.But, as always, before you try and implement an IC-System, think about your goals(pinkish) first. WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 17
    • Need more knowledge? Social • Explicit knowledge is the asset for our organization. Our knowledge and a lotBookmarking of knowledge from other sources is available – but often we do not find it. • Together, we know much more than every individual. We are working on a Wiki shared knowledge base. • It is enough if we know someone who knows something. Anything else is tooSkill-Network much work. • Our knowledge is so difficult to grasp and articulate. Sometimes we onlySocial Network realize what is important in conversations. • We want to continue to discuss and develop. Every individual, every new Idea-Blog idea is valuable for our company.(Multi)-News- • We work on projects which accumulate regularly and predictably a lot of Blog information for different groups. • Not binding, share something not so important– it also strengthens the social Twitter cohesion WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 18
    • Collaboration approaches: internal – external? Innovation Management Knowledge Management Collaborative creativity Project support Organizational Learning Complaints: ideas and problems WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 19
    • In a short excursus, let‘s think about „learning“ – like we do it in organizational contexts, e. g.in courses and during knowledge management.Without explicating different possible systems – it is probably self explaining, that todayfrontal teaching without interaction and following a strict curriculum, like in lectures, doesn‘t fitlearners needs.What we need is learning – in order to escape from the uncertainty we are faced with. Weeven need life-long-learning. But learning as to be connected to the problems we are facedwith. Actually about 80% of what we know, doesn‘t come from institutional learning (inschool, university and further education). We learn in contexts and, as information behaviourshows it, at information encounters – spaces in which discussion take place, oftenunplanned.This is even more important for the so called digital natives – that grow up with the internetand that have a completely different access to knowledge.Therefore we need a „modern“ learning – in situations, in collaboration ... WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 20
    • Demands of the modern "professional" learning Needs of learners „Modern“ learning connectivity ad hoc, in situations self-responsibility collaborative discursive formats self-controlled Construct knowledgeKnowledge in situations playful?, authentic? Digital Natives acquiring skills Find knowledge Knowledge through exchange WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 21
    • We have actually learned about learning. Learning theories have changed – and also thefunctions of media – coloured in red typing in the next slide.The first behavioural approach stresses learning as based on experiences on stimulus-response-relations. Material has to be structured and presented - media can support that inknowledge representation.In cognitive theories, internal cognitive processes are taken into account. The learner doesn‘tlearn facts but processes that lead him to problem solving. The focus of media is knowledgetransfer and the regulation of learning processes, that enable the learner to build newconnections and approaches.In constructivist learning, we presume, that reality is always constructed and may only belearned in situations, where the learner is introduced in social or real contexts and works onproblem solving himself and together with other learners and teachers. Media support this,when they provide knowledge tools – actually like our knowledge management systems.But still – in todays information behaviour, Kerres sees problems in media supported learningin embedding knowledge in authentic situations and social contexts. Social media may be asolution for social contexts and collaborating on solutions. Additionally we are able to identifycontext – automatically: we are able to identify surroundings and even emotions... WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 22
    • Media in modern learning Behaviourist Cognitive Constructivist Theories of approach theories theories information behavior Knowledge presentation: Presentation and organization of knowledge Knowledge transfer: Control and regulation of the learning process Knowledge tool: Communication and construction of knowledge (Kerres, M.: Multimediale und telemediale Lernumgebungen, München et al. 2001, S. 95 ff.) „With its emphasis on social interaction in authentic contexts it seems that especially media-based learning is questionable.“ (Kerres, M.: Multimediale und telemediale Lernumgebungen, München et al. 2001, S. 82) WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 23
    • Technologies Social Media: - Facebook, Wikis, Twitter - Networking of people - Creation of platforms (Spaces) „With its emphasis on social interaction in authentic contexts it seems thatespecially media-based learning is questionable.“(Kerres, M.: Multimediale und telemediale Lernumgebungen, München et al. 2001, S. 82) contextualising: - Identification of contexts - Reaction to contexts WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 24
    • Examples: Web 2.0 in teaching Twitter-Lecture • Mass lecture • Individual adaptation • Discussion, own contributions Video-Discussion • Continuation online • Advanced level • Youtube thesis videos • Collaboration • Ongoing discussion - public Wiki-Seminar • Smaller groups • Learning by teaching • Collaboration • Responsibility WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 25
    • Corporate Communications Today Course Module 6: Web Society – Environment of an Enterprise 2.0 29.01.2013Susanne Robra-Bissantz
    • Course Modules CM 5 Knowledge CM 2 CM 4 Collaboration Innovation CM 3 „Marketing“ CM 1 CM 6 Social Media Web Society WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 27
    • Last but not least let‘s see everything we did up to now from a meta, maybe societalperspective.First. What are the basic changes in Corporate Communications – if you compare the nextslide and the one after this with the „University Example“.First difference: there is a distinction between internal and external communication intraditional communication with different responsibilities – maybe the IT-Department andPR/Marketing. In Social Media live it‘s hard to keep these borders – especially if internalstudents, professors and employees use media like facebook. Still they all may act indifferent roles.The students, professors and employees ARE the university. Their communication leads tothe university‘s picture. It would be very hard to channel and filter it in single Departments.And most of the time they don‘t have to contruct communication but just work – it‘s notmarketing, it‘s the function: to present research results, to discuss challenges in quality andto network with organizations and companies. WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 28
    • Traditional communication: Example university Public Relations Marketing Economy / Politics …Science • Press • Website Professors • Radio/TV Employees • Events University communication • … • Process portal • Newsletter Students • Information services • Transaction services Administration Alumni • … „IT“ Prospective Students WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 29
    • With this communication and collaboration the so called association premises (blue eggs)can be established. Talks and discussions about what the university does and stands for,build the picture of it for many stake holders. And it makes the university a social partner indifferent topics in research or in quality of teaching etc.These association premises cannot exclude groups that they are not meant for. They usedifferent media (social media, in blue and as presented in the last course modules), maybewith internal views. And, very important, they address different stakeholders with differenttopics and targets: Relationship with Alumnis, Attractiveness with students (or their parents?)and Knowledge with the scientific community.From this targets, as can be seen in the „What?“ „Who?“ etc. slide, follow certain strategiesfor communication. This again holds for every organisation. Decide which target you follow.Who may and should contribute. Why? What may be his motivation? Is there any? Try to letothers communicate for you, not only your public relations or your chief. Is it necessary thathe posts? Maybe others are better, but he should know and support this.Then decide for the platform – as described before and at the same time decide about theform of your communication. Where will be private bits, maybe? Do you want to usecampaigns, only short statements or stories around it. Try to imagine your talks anddiscussions beforehand, but keep the platform open for changes. The whole system ofcustomers, employees etc. will develop differently from what you thought it will... WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 30
    • Collaborative association premises: Example university Public Relations Marketing BSocial Economy / Politics …Science Reputation TU-WebsiteResearcher network Employees Knowledge Professors Attention Satisfaction University communication Note-Blog Facebook-Groups wi2-Blog Students Quality Relationship Attractiveness Administration Alumni „Sag‘s uns“ (Tell us) „IT“ Prospective Students Facebook-Institution WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 31
    • From ideas (targets) follow the „strategies“…What? Relationship, Quality, Satisfaction, Attention ...Who? Employees, „Chief“ himself, Public Relations, Customers ...Where? Facebook, Twitter, Forums, own websitesHow? Messages, Stories, Campaigns, Actions, Private Contents WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 32
    • One main target that perfectly fits social media communication is reputation. Reputationresults from all the messages, discussions, actions, campaigns and associations the public.From talks, from offers for participations, e. g. in innovation management, from complaintsand their treatment, from our knowledge management where certain parts can be seen fromoutside.This is because reputation is more than our product, It is more than the story, we tell aboutour product, more that the image. Reputation is our capital, Everything we invested in. Ouremployees, our knowledge, our responsibility. And, further more, it is the commonly acceptedcapital. Everything that is talked about our reponsibility, our whole organisation with ouremployees and values.Social media is the place where, above all, reputation will be built. By all stakeholders and bythe organisation itself.A reputation of the whole company but also a reputation as being present (and how) in thesocial web. WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 33
    • Reputation • Talks – association spaces Repu- Know- tation • Offers for participation ledge • Knowledge network, with „store window“ „Marke- • Internet Complaint Center Ideas ting“ • Innovation Competitions Inno- Discus- • … vation sion Com- plaint WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 34
    • The road to reputation Image Website / Mass media „Product“ gesteuerte / soziale Anerkennung„Potential“ Social Media Organization on the web social capital knowledge … of the organization Reputation WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 35
    • So. Finally. All of this looks good.But why do we have so called Shitstorms:- when Pril doesn‘t agree with the most wanted Design in their innovation competition and doesn‘t use it?- when Greenpeace accuses Nestle of using Palmoil?- when Volkswagen erases comments of customers that are influenced by Greenpeace?- when H&M has bet on a design that was invented before their designers invented it?- and when adidas builts shoes that look like being in chains?Exactly, we have them, because something went wrong, either in the company, or evenworse in social media communication. Marie Christine and Fatmir already pointed that out intheir presentation.And this again is somehow caused by the fact, that we keep on being stuck in mass mediasociety. We haven‘t completely learned what the new media is. The revolution will not betelevised. Gil Scott said this in the 70s. He was critizising mass media, mass media society,where critical opinions are overwhelmed by mass opinions and opinions controled by media.For us this holds true – in the other way around. The revolution may take place in socialmedia but, important for us, social media are not like television. This, our revolution in mediawe can use, cannot be handled with knowledge from mass media.. WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 36
    • Puh. WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 37
    • Media influence our society, society reflects its media set. We probably have tolearn, generally, that we are moving into a web society, that we may make a cooperative websociety.This is another great transformation like the one we faced towards the industrial society. Withmass media, mass production and mass markets. This all will change.And we will have to think about what will change. Will the representative democracy still workreasonably, will it be substituted or complemented by a direct one? Will it be possible toreach for a defragmented public or will we have to live, as we already do, with afragmentation? Can public and private spheres be separated, and if, than how? What shouldbe private today? Will we still stick on role models or do we have to cope with individualizedlifestyles and role diversity? Will negotiation – but with collaborative principles – be thecommon state instead of decision?Communication leads to action. The society represents itself in communication. And in socialmedia communications are potentially effective discourses that lead to publicity and to action. WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 38
    • The Great Transformationagricultural society Collaborative Web Society Industrial Society WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 39
    • Representative vs. direct Democracy Fragmented social public Public and private spheres „Leitmedium“ (trend-setting media) Internet Transformation to a web societyIndividualized lifestyles Decision or negotiation Role diversity Communicative action WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 40
    • In our organisation we will, maybe, step by step be confronted with the effects of a websociety and with the new paradigms of collaboration.In markets, but also inside our organisations discussions will prevail former messages andmissions. Preset institutions, where you have to become a member, will be complemented bygroups – in organisations these are departments contrary working groups / teams.Hierarchy will or can be substituted with heterarchy. Certainly not at once and noteverywhere. But remember, that heterarchy with collaboration principles includes equality butalso responsibility. Organisational Processes, that are mostly hierachically controled mayalso change and step by step be substituted by less hierachical working and co-workingforms. Here a sense of coherence, less control but trust in the well being of the system, canevolve.Where in Mass Media Society Institutions are units that provide the inner meaning of societyand that work with representative principles and advocacy, in Web Society more temporarygroups will come together, with common goals and interests and a social closeness.Institutions meet at places and times, they decide and disseminate decisions. Groups, on theother side are kept together by associations and talks. Coordination is substituted bycollaboration.But conventions will be needed, and as we showed it in our second course module, whereaswe are quite familiar with traditional Mass Media conventions, we will have to learn those ofWeb Society and together with this the conventions and difficult parts of collaboration. WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 41
    • Herausforderung WebgesellschaftLeitmedium Television Leitmedium Internet Messages Talks, Discussions Institutions Groups Hierarchy Heterachy Processes Coherence WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 42
    • Organizations in the web societySocial medias are the dominant mediums of the collaborative web society. Mass media society Advocacy Sense giving units Encounter and dissemination Cohesion through coordination Rooms, Places, Times, Meetings Conventions Web society Networking / Social closeness Common interests Range of associations Cohesion through collaboration Conventions? WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 43
    • All this sounds difficult, but maybe it isn‘t. Maybe we are only much to used to our society ofmasses where hierarchy and achievements count and where media based communication iseither television or something with IT and databases – with no possibility to interact.There is one citation, that we should not forget: behaving in social media is very close toacting in groups and therefore just with human beings. In groups of people we know and/ortrust.Maybe the picture on the left hand side helps – especially when we are beneathorganisations. For example in markets or in society in general.Social Media are nothing different than social plattforms that already exist. Like parties. If youwant to be heard there and if you want to introduce your ideas and make people realise thatthey are good. Let‘s take, in the example, you want to introduce another style of music. Thenyou probably don‘t appear with a big megaphone, telling everybody, loudly, that you are thebest. You wouldn‘t but you wouldn‘t succeed if you tried. It is the same with social media. It‘sno use there, trying to convince loudly and from the scratch. Like at the party. You try to startlittle conversations, you listen to the opinion of the others, you explain your point and step bystep you find equally minded people. Finally you in your and as a group can start and try toconvince the DJ to play better music. Talk, discuss, associate, build groups and makeconversation become visible action. WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 44
    • But above all… A good way to think about social media is that all of this is actually just about being human beings. (Antony Mayfield) „… on big parties!“Social behavior in "foreign" spaces WS 2012/13 | Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz | Corporate Communications Today| Seite 45