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Lesson 6 7 society and social structure
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Lesson 6 7 society and social structure



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  • 1. Society and Culture with Family Planning & HIV/SARS Prevention (SSCI 101) Leonessa Tabios Lecturer
  • 2. 1. Differentiate the types of society 2. Illustrate the development of power and hierarchy in the society
  • 3. Refers to people who interact within a defined territory and who share a culture the same interest like religious, political, environmental or scientific and other purposes
  • 4. Hunting & gathering society Types of society according to technology based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals  they live in naturally occurring shelters like caves, and overhangs  leaders are rarely supported by hunter-gatherer societies & they had a small number of population  they used simple tools like spear, bow and arrow, and stone knife to gather food or hunt animals
  • 5. Horticultural and pastoral society Types of society according to technology  Horticultural  they use hand tools to cultivate crops  they clear the land through “slash and burn”, plant crops for two to three years and transfer to another place for fertile land  Pastoral  primary means of survival is domesticated livestock  they move seasonally in search of fresh pastures and water for their animals
  • 6. Agrarian societies Types of society according to technology  use of animals and more reliable tools for planting  discovery of metallurgy  the use of the plow increased soil fertility as well as made agriculture more efficient  social institutions like religion and political institutions have been developed to cater to the needs of the growing populations
  • 7. Industrial societies Types of society according to technology  industrialism is the technology that powers sophisticated machinery with advanced sources of energy  discovery of new machines was prompted by the increasing demand of a growing population  it resulted to more developed hierarchies and division of labor  assembly lines, division of labor and new market system emerged  intellectual transformation became a requirement for people who want to be part of the new system
  • 8. Types of society according to technology Postindustrial societies  primary means of subsistence comes from service oriented work  increasing number of service sector or jobs rather than creating goods  specialization is defined  mechanization in manufacturing  information, knowledge and creativity are seen as the new raw materials of the economy
  • 9. Social Structure
  • 10. 1. Distinguish how roles and statuses affect society 2. Illustrate the socialization process
  • 11. Social Structure our manner of interaction and relationship is characterized by social ordering social structure gives us a system of organization and stability in our day to day activities & interaction with people
  • 12.  one’s position in a group or society  actions and behaviors are constrained because of status  status is important in positioning and local people in social structure like priest, mayor, mother, attorney and doctors and others  limitations are sometimes centered on gender, age, and social affiliations  we need to follow what has been approved by society Status set – statuses that a person hold at a given time
  • 13. Types of Status Ascribed status  a position in society because of inheritance or lineage  determined by the relationship of the person to the one who is presently occupying the status  e.g. monarchy - heir to the throne; business corporations – owner of the business (parents); inheritance of their children
  • 14. Types of Status Achieved status  status that is achieved through individual abilities, hard work, and educational merit  can be achieved through competition which society permits and requires in recognizing the individual’s uniqueness and interest  e.g. lawyers, teachers, actors, police, doctors
  • 15. Types of Status Master status  a status that has an exceptional importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life  It is at the core of their social identity and influences their roles and behaviors  Occupation is often a master status because it forms such an important part of people’s identities and affects their other roles
  • 16.  Refers to patterns of expected behavior attached to a particular status  doing the role should be in conformity with the status he/she occupies  the difference: we occupy the status and play a role Role performance  the expected behavior of people who occupy the status  some who occupy the status do not do what is expected of them to do  sometimes there is a conflict on how they should do it and how they actually do it
  • 17. Role Set  a person has many more roles than statuses, as each status typically has multiples roles attached  Robert Merton defines a role set as a number of roles attached to a single status Role Conflict  conflicting expectations arising from multiple roles  it can threaten their ability to focus on the interest of their status  e.g. the role of the president who is pressured to execute the death penalty law but is having conflict because of his/her religious belief
  • 18. Role Strain  this occurs when individuals find the expectations of a single role incompatible, so that they have difficulty performing the role  e.g. A supervisor who is often confronted with difficulties in mingling with his subordinates. Role Exit (by Helen Rose Ebaugh – 1988)  the process by which people disengage from social roles that have been central to their lives  Four-stage model of role exit: 1. Doubt 2. Search for alternatives 3. Action stage or departure 4. Creation of new identity