Treaty negotiations 1921
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Treaty negotiations 1921

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    Treaty negotiations 1921 Treaty negotiations 1921 Presentation Transcript

    • Leaving Certificate History The Treaty negotiations, October-December 1921: helping students to think critically http://pdst.ie/postprimary
    • Helping students to think critically • Increasing focus on students’ ability to think critically • The enquiry-focused approach: rationale • Card-sorting and critical skills (Booklet, pages 43-48)
    • The enquiry-focused approach Aims • To give a clear focus to a series of lessons • To clarify for all concerned what the learning purposes are • To ensure that the sequence of lessons is leading to improved understanding on the part of the students
    • Case study: contextual overview • ‘War of independence’: different designations, perceptions of IRA • June 1921: both sides’ interest in peace moves • July-September: London talks → exchange of letters → proposals for London conference, formula agreed? • Irish delegation: members, de Valera’s absence, delegates’ status, case to be argued • British delegation, venue, duration of conference • Boundary commission proposals, signing of Articles of Agreement, resulting divisions
    • A glossary of terms • Developing students’ historical literacy • Key terms: Articles of Agreement, boundary commission, British Commonwealth, dominion status, envoys plenipotentiary, external association, fiscal autonomy, Government of Ireland Act 1920, oath of allegiance, reprisals
    • Timeline • Government of Ireland, 1920 • 1921, May/June: background to truce • July: truce, de Valera in London • August-September: Lloyd George-de Valera correspondence • October-December: developments in talks • 6th December and following: signing of Articles of Agreement and subsequent divisions
    • Biographical notes • Irish delegates (leaders?) • Irish secretaries (Childers, Chartres) • British delegates (leaders?) • British secretaries (Jones, Curtis) • Other key figures
    • Useful websites • http://treaty.nationalarchives.ie/ • http://multitext.ucc.ie/d/The_Treaty_Negotiat ions_October-December_1921/ • http://www.askaboutireland.ie/reading- room/digital-book-collection/digital-books-by- subject/history-of-ireland/pakenham-peace- by-ordeal/ • www.hist.ie
    • The Treaty negotiations, October- December, 1921 • An enquiry: What happened between July and December 1921 that led to major political division in Ireland? • Rationale for this? • Steps into which the enquiry can be broken
    • The Treaty negotiations, October- December, 1921 Introduction to the enquiry • King’s speech • Significance of Northern settlement? • Possible hook: http://treaty.nationalarchives.ie/document- gallery/treaty-newsreel/
    • Enquiry, Step 1 • What happened between July and October, 1921, that led to the Treaty negotiations which took place between October and December? • Potential benefits of using this question to focus on the subject matter of the case study?
    • What happened between July and Oct. 1921 ...? • Lloyd George’s invitation to de Valera to attend a conference (Source 1A) • De Valera’s responses • Truce • De Valera’s acceptance of invitation (Source 1B)
    • What happened between July and Oct. 1921 ...? David Low, The Star, 12th July 1921 © Express Syndication
    • What happened between July and Oct. 1921 ...? • De Valera, Lloyd George meet in London: what Lloyd George offered • De Valera’s responses (Sources 1D, 1E) • Lloyd George’s ‘fresh’ invitation of 29th September (Source 1G) • De Valera’s acceptance (Source 1H)
    • What happened between July and Oct. 1921 ...? • Delegated appointed • Plenipotentiary status • Instructions given (Source 1I) • Envisaged elements of settlement
    • The delegates in London http://multitext.ucc.ie/viewgallery/1205?slideshow=18
    • Enquiry, Step 2 • What are the main issues that arose in and around the Treaty negotiations? • Potential benefits of using this question to focus on the subject matter of the case study?
    • What are the main issues that arose... between October and December? • Significant developments • Commentary • Associated sources
    • What are the main issues that arose... between October and December? • Griffith’s initial impressions (Source 2A) • Childers to de Valera, 21st October, re. strategy on issue of Crown (Source 2B) • Griffith and Collins discussions with Lloyd George and Chamberlain on issues of Crown and essential unity (Source 2C)
    • What are the main issues that arose ... between October and December? • Griffith discussion with Lloyd George, 2nd November (Source 2D) • Griffith letter to de Valera re. boundary commission proposal, 12th November (Source 2E); nature of undertaking given to Lloyd George?
    • What are the main issues that arose ... between October and December? • Irish memorandum of 22nd November and British response to it (Source 2F) • Griffith letter to de Valera re. Chequers meeting with Lloyd George, 28th November (Source 2G); exchange on issue of Crown
    • Enquiry, Step 3 • What were the circumstances in which the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty were signed in the early hours of 6th December? • Potential benefits of using this question to focus on the subject matter of the case study?
    • What were the circumstances in which the Articles of Agreement were signed...? • Significant developments • Related sources
    • What were the circumstances in which the Articles of Agreement were signed...? • Interview between Collins and Lloyd George (Source 3A): Collins’ thoughts on boundary commission • Final sub-conferences (Source 3B): Lloyd George’s use of Griffith ‘letter’; concession on trade?; threat of war?
    • Source 3C David Low, The Star , 7th December 1921 © Express Syndication
    • Source 3D David Low, The Star , 9th December 1921 © Express Syndication
    • Enquiry, Step 4 • What divisions emerged in Ireland in December, 1921, following the signing of the Treaty? • Potential benefits of using this question to focus on the subject matter of the case study?
    • What divisions emerged... following the signing of the Treaty? • Significant developments • Related sources
    • What divisions emerged... following the signing of the Treaty? • Delegates summoned to cabinet meeting on 8th December (Source 4A): Desmond Fitzgerald’s surprise at de Valera’s response • Austin Stack’s recollection of cabinet meeting (Source 4B) • C.S. Andrews’ recollection of IRA response (Source 4C) • De Valera’s letter to the press (Source 4D)
    • What divisions emerged ... following the signing of the Treaty? • Extracts from Dáil debates on Treaty (Sources 4E, 4F, 4G, 4H, 4I, 4J, 4K, 4L) • Questions to help students interrogate the sources (Booklet, p.49)
    • The Treaty negotiations: Aftermath Attributed to Constance de Markiewicz Courtesy of The National Library of Ireland
    • Courtesy of The National Library of Ireland
    • The Treaty negotiations, October- December, 1921 • Card sorting and critical skills • Supplementary cards • Use of cards to facilitate categorisation of arguments for and against Treaty
    • Group activity Critical skills exercise
    • The Treaty negotiations, October- December, 1921 • Historians’ views (Secondary sources A-E) • Interrogating the historians
    • What happened between July and December 1921 that led to major political division in Ireland? Your conclusions on the enquiry Booklet p. 50
    • http://pdst.ie/postprimary