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Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
Ppt race relations in france
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Ppt race relations in france

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  • 1. 1
  • 2. 2 Leaving Certificate History Race relations in France in the 1980s: exploring causation with students Cultural & Environmental Education
  • 3. 3 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 Exploring causation with students • Increasing focus on students’ ability to think critically • The enquiry-focused approach: rationale
  • 4. 4 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 The enquiry-focused approach Aims • To give a clear focus to a series of lessons • To clarify for all concerned what the learning purposes are • To ensure that the sequence of lessons is leading to improved understanding on the part of the students
  • 5. 5 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 European retreat from empire and the aftermath, 1945-1990 • Key concepts include • assimilation • racism • identity
  • 6. 6 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 French colonialism in the 19th and 20th centuries: an overview • 19th century spurs to growth of French colonialism • Impact of World War I on growth of empire • Growth of independence movements in the colonies prior to and following World War II • Significance of defeat in Indochina and Algeria • Immigration from former colonies and the tensions it created
  • 7. 7 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 French and other colonies in Africa, 1914 http://history.howstuffworks.com/african-history/history-of-africa4.htm
  • 8. 8 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 Independence for French Colonies and Possessions in Africa Tunisia Morocco Guinea Malagasy Republic Gabon Congo Cameroun Chad Central African Rep. Niger Burkina Faso Mali Ivory Coast Senegal Togo Mauritania Algeria Djibouti 1956 1956 1958 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1962 1977
  • 9. 9 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 How France is governed: an overview • Constitution of the Fifth Republic, 1958 • De Gaulle’s 1962 amendment • President: term of office, powers • Roles of the National Assembly & Constitutional Council • Cohabitation and its implications • Secular conception of citizenship vs. religious identities of ethnic communities
  • 10. 10 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 Political developments in France in the 1980s • Political unrest and the success of the Socialist Party • Mitterand: background; bases of his popularity? • Rise of Jean Marie Le Pen and the Front National • Mitterand’s responses to the rise of the FN • Cohabitation: Mitterand’s acquiescence in working with Jacques Chirac as prime minister • The 1988 presidential election: Le Pen’s impact • The ‘headscarf affair’ and on-going racial tensions
  • 11. 11 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 Glossary • Political groups: acronyms • Glossary of terms
  • 12. 12 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 Biographical notes • Mitterand • Le Pen • Chirac http://www.memo.fr/Media/Mitterrand.jpg http://www.enjoyfrance.com/content/view/1135/0/ http://www.zimbio.com/pictures/2f0ftDfKCL/French+Vote+First+Round+Presidential+Election/61BH0wMnecU/Jea n-Marie+Le+Pen
  • 13. 13 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 Timeline of important developments • Election of Mitterand and the Socialists, 1981 • Mitterand’s austerity measures, March 1983 • March of the Beurs, October-December 1983 • Elections, June 1984: National Front support? • July 1984: founding of SOS Racisme • March 1986, cohabitation: implications • Presidential election: Le Pen’s support • November 1989: the ‘headscarf affair’ © PDST, 2010
  • 14. 14 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 The Irish Times digital archive • Availability • Extensive coverage of subject matter of case study • Advice on use
  • 15. 15 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 Race relations in France in the 1980s • Proposed enquiry: Why did the issue of race relations spark controversy and violence in France in the 1980s? • A possible hook: Images relating to Marche des Beurs, October-December, 1983
  • 16. 16 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 Marche des Beurs, 1983 http://lyonroyal.over-blog.com/article-30434554.html
  • 17. 17 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 Marche des Beurs, 1983 http://quineditmot.free.fr/index.php/2009/10/27/la-marche-des-beurs-de-1983-sexpose-a-lyon/
  • 18. 18 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 Marche des Beurs, 1983 http://www.politis.fr/La-Marche-des-Beurs-25-ans-apres,5017.html
  • 19. 19 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 Enquiry, Step 1 • What background factors underlay the emergence in France in the 1980s of race relations as a contentious issue? • Potential benefits of using this question to focus on the subject matter of the case study?
  • 20. 20 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 What background factors underlay the emergence in France in the 1980s of race relations as a contentious issue? Relevant factors • Increasing immigration from Maghreb, 1950s- 1980s • Social and economic conditions experienced by immigrants • Impact of 1970s recession on immigrants
  • 21. 21 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 What background factors underlay the emergence in France in the 1980s of race relations as a contentious issue? Increasing immigration, 1950s-1980s • Historical roots • Impact of French Union, 1946, and French Community, 1958 • Impact of the ‘Glorious Thirty’
  • 22. 22 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 What background factors underlay the emergence in France in the 1980s of race relations as a contentious issue? Social and economic conditions of immigrants • Emergence of bidonvilles (shanty towns) • Establishment of hostels • Replacement of bidonvilles by high-rise tower blocks (cités)
  • 23. 23 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 What background factors underlay the emergence in France in the 1980s of race relations as a contentious issue? Living in a ‘bidonville’
  • 24. 24 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 What background factors underlay the emergence in France in the 1980s of race relations as a contentious issue? Impact of 1970s recession on immigrants • Why immigrant workers were hardest hit by recession • Developments that triggered an increase in racial tensions • Government moves to restrict immigration
  • 25. 25 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 The Algerian War: an overview Implications for race relations in the 1980s • Pieds noirs support for National Front • The harkis and their descendants • Lingering trauma of conflict
  • 26. 26 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 What background factors underlay the emergence in France in the 1980s of race relations as a contentious issue? Source 1A Since the right of immigration to France was ended in 1974, about 400,000 people have arrived as political exiles or to join their families, according to official figures. But it is estimated that there are as many as 500,000 more clandestine immigrants, many of them brought in by employers to provide cheap labour. ©The Irish Times, 7th December 1989
  • 27. 27 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 What background factors underlay the emergence in France in the 1980s of race relations as a contentious issue? Source 1E The killing last week of a nine-year old Algerian boy in the (Paris) suburb of La Corneuve has re-alerted French opinion to the problems created by an immigrant population now estimated at 4.5 million … After a two day investigation during which police were assaulted by angry young North Africans who also smashed up two shops and damaged cars, the murderer was arrested … Whether or not the motivation for such violence is purely racist, immigrants in general, and North Africans in particular, tend to be the victims. ©The Irish Times, 15th July, 1983
  • 28. 28 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 What background factors underlay the emergence in France in the 1980s of race relations as a contentious issue? Secondary Source 2 The word ‘Beur’ had emerged in the 1970s with the second generation of immigrants from the Maghreb (mainly Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia). It was an assertion of identity, a backslang corruption of the pejorative term ‘Arabe’. The initial surge of popular sympathy for Beur equality and presence reflected the enthusiasm in 1981 for an expansive and inclusive cultural identity for modern France … [with the Beurs] bringing their own infusion of Maghrebi origin. Rod Kedward, La Vie en Bleu: France and the French Since 1900 (London: Penguin, 2006, p.503).
  • 29. 29 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 Enquiry, Step 2 • Why did growing racial tensions become more tense and, occasionally, violent in the 1980s? • Potential benefits of using this question to focus on the subject matter of the case study?
  • 30. 30 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 Why did growing racial tensions become more tense and, occasionally, violent in the 1980s? Relevant factors • Emergence of National Front, under Jean Marie Le Pen • Marche des Beurs, 1983 • Emergence of SOS Racisme • Growth of Islamic identity among 2nd generation North African immigrants © PDST, 2010
  • 31. 31 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 Why did growing racial tensions become more tense and, occasionally, violent in the 1980s? Source 2B The National Front may have persuaded a certain number of people that immigrants are responsible for their economic woes, unemployment in particular. That does not mean that there is a significant measure of approval in the country for the more overt and appalling acts of racism … Mr. Jean Marie Le Pen and his not-so-merry men in the National Front use subjective statistics, i.e. make them up, to frighten people. ©The Irish Times, 6th March, 1986. © PDST, 2010
  • 32. 32 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 Why did growing racial tensions become more tense and, occasionally, violent in the 1980s? Source 2D I was present to see the cortege of 100,000 arrive in Paris -- it was the Franco-Arab equivalent of Dr. Martin Luther King's 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Justice … its central theme was the demand to be recognized as French "comme les autres" -- like everyone else ... a demand, in sum, for complete integration. But for the mass of Franco-Arabs, little has changed since 1983 -- and the integrationist movement of "jeunes beurs" created around that march petered out in frustration and despair. Edited extract from “Why is France burning?” by Doug Ireland. http://www.zcommunications.org/why-is-france-burning-by-doug-ireland © PDST, 2010
  • 33. 33 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 Why did growing racial tensions become more tense and, occasionally, violent in the 1980s? Source 2K The undercurrent of racial intolerance in France has again surfaced in the seaside town of Menton, where a Moroccan man was killed by two young white men because he was talking to a young white girl. The main anti-racist organisations in France have called for a national protest today to show their indignation at this latest episode of racial violence. Cardinal Jean-Marie Lustiger, the influential Archbishop of Paris said on Sunday “I am afraid I may become ashamed of my own country” because of worrying growth of racial Intolerance. © The Irish Times, 26th March, 1985 © PDST, 2010
  • 34. 34 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 Enquiry, Step 3 • What were the main political responses to deteriorating race relations? • Potential benefits of using this question to focus on the subject matter of the case study?
  • 35. 35 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 What were the main political responses to deteriorating race relations? Relevant factors • National Front performance in 1984 (European), 1985 (local), 1986 (general) and 1988 (presidential) elections • Mitterand’s efforts to limit support for National Front
  • 36. 36 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 What were the main political responses to deteriorating race relations? Source 3C The prevalent mood during the weekend get together of the extreme Right National Front in Paris was one of triumph. Its leader Mr Jean Marie Le Pen was able to pride himself on the strides taken by his party since its 11 per cent score in the European election. Its emergence as an influence no longer marginal on the political scene, and his own new respectability as an elected member of the European Parliament, have encouraged open support from people previously inhibited by the disrepute into which he has been thrown by his extremely racialist image. © The Irish Times, 17th September 1984
  • 37. 37 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 What were the main political responses to deteriorating race relations? Nicholas Garland, The Daily Telegraph, 11th March 1986 © Telegraph Media Group Ltd The Daily Telegraph, 18th March 1986 © Telegraph Media Group Ltd
  • 38. 38 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 What were the main political responses to deteriorating race relations? Secondary Source 7 On the major issues of immigration and law and order, he [Le Pen] had indeed set the agenda. It seemed clear that, for the foreseeable future, the Front National and its leader would have a significant role to play in national politics. Roger Price, A Concise History of France (Cambridge University Press, 2005, p.432)
  • 39. 39 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 What were the main political responses to deteriorating race relations? Hugh Gough on Le Pen, HTAI annual conference, Oct. 2010 © HTAI With thanks to HTAI Full podcast available at http:// www.htai.ie/podcasts/podcasts.xml
  • 40. 40 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 Enquiry, Step 4 • What was the impact of the ‘headscarf affair’ in France in the 1980s (and beyond)? • Potential benefits of using this question to focus on the subject matter of the case study?
  • 41. 41 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 What was the impact of the ‘headscarf affair’ in France in the 1980s (and beyond)? • Principle of laicité vs. Islamic religious principles • French model of integration (contrast with British model of ‘multiculturalism’) • Spread of France Debout and rise in violence involving disaffected ethnic minorities
  • 42. 42 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 What was the impact of the ‘headscarf affair’ in France in the 1980s (and beyond)? Source 4A As French children returned to school yesterday after the half term break, the national controversy over the right of Muslim girls to wear veils in secular state run schools seemed as divisive as ever. At the Gabriel Havez College … the three girls who triggered the whole affair last month were again refused admission to classes yesterday because they were wearing their scarf like chadors, or veils ... The college’s 62 staff voted overwhelmingly not to have them in class as long as they insisted on wearing their veils. Teachers all over France have been dismayed by what they see as a lack of direction in the affair from the Education Minister, Mr Lionel Jospin. While upholding the fundamental republican principle of secular education, Mr Jospin has insisted that it is more important that no child be turned away from a state school…But he has left it up to school principals to decide on a case-by-case basis, what action they should take towards girls who show up wearing the Islamic veil. © The Irish Times, 7th November 1989
  • 43. 43 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 What was the impact of the ‘headscarf affair’ in France in the 1980s (and beyond)? Source 4C Jean Marie le Pen is calling for all immigrants who had arrived in France since 1974 to be forcibly repatriated…The National Front leader has been quick to capitalize on the success of his party’s candidate, Mrs. Marie France Stirbois in the National Assembly by-election in Dreux last weekend. The widow of the former deputy leader of the party, Mrs Stirbois won 61.3 per cent of the vote. Many of her voters said that the current controversy over Muslim girls wearing veils in state schools prompted their support. © The Irish Times, 7th December 1989
  • 44. 44 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan, 2007-2013 Why did the issue of race relations spark controversy and violence in France in the 1980s? Your conclusions on the enquiry Booklet p.46

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