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  1. 1. Meat © PDST Home Economics
  2. 2. What is Meat? Meat refers to the flesh of animals and birds and to their edible internal organs.
  3. 3. Classification of Meat • Carcase Meat Examples - Beef, Lamb, Pork.
  4. 4. • Poultry Examples - Chicken, Turkey, Duck.
  5. 5. • Offal Examples - Kidney, Liver, Heart.
  6. 6. • Game Examples – Pheasant, Rabbit, Deer.
  7. 7. Nutritive Value of Meat • Good source of HBV protein 15-25% - for growth & repair of cells. • Saturated fat 20-30% -the amount varies depending on the animal & the cut eg. chicken has less fat than bacon. • No carbohydrates- usually served with a starchy food. • Good source of vitamin B. Offal is a good source of vitamin A No Vitamin C . • Iron & phosphorous. Liver has small amounts of calcium but is lacking in most meat. • Water varies - 50-60% – the more fat the less water.
  8. 8. Dietetic Value of Meat • Important source of protein, iron and Vitamin B • Many different types and cuts of meat some meat is organically produced • Meat can be cooked in a variety of ways • Some cuts of meat are relatively cheap yet nutritious • Red meat contains saturated fat and therefore should be avoided by people with high –cholesterol levels
  9. 9. Structure of Meat • Lean meat is the muscle of the animal and is made up of many bundles of tiny fibres • These fibres are filled with water containing extractives (which give meat its flavour), vitamins, minerals and protein • Fibres are held together by connective tissue • Fat cells can be found between the fibres
  10. 10. Structure of Meat Fibres containing protein Vitamins, minerals, extractives Fat Cells Connective Tissue
  11. 11. Toughness and tenderness of meat depends on two factors: 1. Age 2. Activity
  12. 12. Tough Meat • more tough connective tissue • comes from old animals • comes from active part of animals e.g. leg or neck
  13. 13. Tender Meat • less connective tissue • comes from young animals • comes from inactive parts of the body e.g. back
  14. 14. How To Make Meat More Tender/Methods of Tenderising?? • hang for a few days • chop or mince
  15. 15. • beat with steak hammer • slow moist cooking methods • marinating
  16. 16. Buying Meat • buy from clean shop • money and meat should be handled separately • should smell pleasant and have a good colour • keep raw and cooked meat separate to avoid cross- contamination • check date
  17. 17. Storage of Meat • store in bottom part of fridge • remove wrappings • use within two days of buying • offal should be used as soon as possible • avoid cross-contamination by keeping raw and cooked meat separate
  18. 18. Preparing meat for cooking • defrost fully before use • remove extra fat • wipe off excess blood with kitchen paper
  19. 19. Cooking Meat • Choose a suitable method according to the cut • Start with a high temperature to seal in flavour. Continuous high temperatures will leave the meat tough • Cook tender cuts by roasting, grilling, frying • Cook tough cuts by stewing, boiling
  20. 20. Effects of Cooking • fat melts • meat shrinks • colour changes • protein coagulates • flavour develop • bacteria is destroyed • makes it tender and digestible
  21. 21. • Left-over cooked meat can be used secondly in meals or snacks. However, if not treated with care, food poisoning can occur.
  22. 22. • Store in a refrigerator, covered on a clean plate • Use within two days of first cooking • Prepare just before using • Reheat thoroughly • Only ever reheat cooked meat ONCE. • Add herbs and seasoning as re-cooking meat makes it lose its own flavour • Reheating in a sauce adds moisture
  23. 23. Offal • these are the edible internal organs of an animal e.g. kidney, liver • cheap and very nourishing as they are high in protein, vitamin A and B and Iron • offal from younger animals is better as the flavour is not too strong • must be eaten on the day it is bought • rinse in warm water before use and cook gently
  24. 24. Minced Beef • tough meat is minced to make them tender • can be very fatty • when cooked fat should be drained away before eating • should be used within 24 hours • e.g. dishes using minced beef are spaghetti Bolognese, lasagne and hamburgers
  25. 25. Meat Alternatives • Meat is good source of protein. However it is dear and contains lots of saturated fats. • Nuts, pulses and soya bean are good alternatives for meat as they are cheaper, low in fat and are still a good source of protein. • Today, soya beans are processed to produce a product which is very similar to meat. This is called Textured Vegetable Protein or TVP.
  26. 26. Advantages of Meat Alternatives • less fat • contains calcium and fibre • lasts longer • useful for vegetarians • cheaper