Home baking


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Home baking

  1. 1. Home Baking © PDST Home Economics
  2. 2.  Better flavour  Attractive appearance  Cheaper  No preservatives  You can control ingredients Advantages of Home Baking
  3. 3. Ingredients for baking  Flour: usually wheat flour because it contains gluten  Fat: keeps bread fresh, butter has the best flavour, margarine is economical
  4. 4. Ingredients for baking  Sugar: granulated or castor sugar can be used for sweetness, brown sugar adds a spicy flavour, icing sugar is used for decorating  Eggs: should be fresh and at room temperature used to trap air
  5. 5. Ingredients for baking  Fruit: fresh or dried used to add flavour  Liquid: water, milk, egg used to make dough
  6. 6. Ingredients for baking  Raising agent: makes product light and spongy, can be natural, chemical or biological
  7. 7. Raising Agents  Raising agents make bread and cakes rise in the oven so that they have a spongy texture  Raising agents put a gas (air and/or CO2) in the mixture  In the oven the heat makes the gas expand which pushes up the mixture  The mixture is able to stretch because of the gluten in the flour  After a while the heat in the oven sets the gluten so that the mixture keeps the risen shape
  8. 8. Natural raising agent: Air  Used alone in sponge cakes and pastry or with another raising agent in other baked goods.  Air is put into mixtures by (a) Sieving (b) Rubbing fat into flour (c) Creaming sugar and fat (d) Whisking eggs with sugar
  9. 9. Chemical Raising Agents  These depend on a chemical reaction to make the gas in the dough.  An alkali and an acid react to make a gas called carbon dioxide (CO2)  Baking Powder + Milk = CO2  (Alkali + Acid ) + Moisture = Gas  Bread Soda + Buttermilk = CO2  Alkali + (Acid + Moisture) = CO2
  10. 10. Biological Raising Agent  Yeast  Tiny living organisms make CO2 in the dough  In the oven the bubbles of CO2 expand and pushes up the dough, until the gluten sets the dough  The heat also kills the cells
  11. 11. Oven temperature  Pre-heat oven to correct temperature  Too hot – outside burns inside still raw  Too cool – gas escapes – bread doesn’t rise
  12. 12. Rules for Home Baking  Prepare tins and oven shelves in advance.  Pre-heat oven.  Use fresh ingredients.  Weigh and follow recipe carefully.  Sieve to add air.  Add liquid carefully.  Handle as little as possible, knead lightly.  Once wet put in oven a.s.a.p.  Time carefully, avoid opening door.  Test for doneness.  Cool on wire tray.
  13. 13. Methods of baking Method Used for The rub-in method. Fat rubbed into flour. Scones, yeast bread, pastry The creaming method. Fat and sugar creamed. Queen cakes Madeira cakes The all-in-one method. All ingredients mixed together at once Madeira cakes Queen cakes The whisking method Sponge cake Meringue The melting method Oatmeal biscuits Ginger bread
  14. 14. Cake Mixes  Mixture of flour, fat, sugar, raising agent, salt and additives sieved blended and packed.  When buying check expiry date and that its sealed, store in cool place.  When using follow instructions when adding the liquid.  Advantages: Saves time & labour, simple to use, quick in emergencies.  Disadvantages: Expensive, contain additives, lack fibre, too much salt & sugar
  15. 15. Cake Mixes
  16. 16. Pastry  Mixture of flour, fat and water.  Richer pastry may have egg or sugar added.  Many types, used for sweet or savoury dishes.
  17. 17. Shortcrust and Rich Shortcrust
  18. 18. Flaky and Puff pastry
  19. 19. Suet pastry and choux pastry
  20. 20. Filo pastry
  21. 21. Pastry ingredients  Flour: plain flour only, self-raising flour makes pastry soft.  Fat: Butter gives good flavour, hard margarine is economical and lard makes pastry light and crispy. A mixture of margarine and lard can be used.  Water: should be cold and added a little at a time to make stiff dough.  Air: makes pastry rise, the more air in the pastry the better, sieving, rubbing in, rolling and folding.
  22. 22. Rules for making pastry  Weigh accurately.  Keep ingredients and equipment cool.  Introduce air.  Avoid over-handling.  Use knife to mix.  Add water carefully.  Knead & roll lightly.  Relax pastry in fridge before baking.  Avoid stretching pastry.  Bake in hot oven so burst starch grains can soak up melting fat.
  23. 23. Baking Blind  Baking a pastry case without a filling e.g. for quiche or a fruit flan.  The base of the case is marked with a fork  Grease proof paper is spread over the base and weighted down with dried beans.