Shelter means anything that protects or
Shelter is a basic physical need which varies
with climate and other conditions
A house becomes a home when it is occupied
by people and their possessions
A home is much more than just shelter it
provides for all our needs.
Physical Needs: Food, warmth, shelter and
Emotional Needs: Love, security, protection and
Social Needs: where we learn to interact with
others, communicate, share and co-operate.
Types of Housing
Choice of housing will be restricted by budget and needs.
Choice of housing is influenced by cost, size, location,
Houses: single storey (bungalow), dormer bungalow, storey
and a half, two storey, detached, semi-detached, terraced.
Apartment/Flat: vary in size and design usually self
Bedsit: one room divided into living and sleeping areas,
Mobile Home/Caravan: may be permanent or temporary.
Sheltered Housing Schemes: purpose built housing for
disabled or elderly with caretaker in charge.
A Design is a plan or
sketch for the making
of something, e.g. a
house, a garment.
Characteristics of good
Features of Design
Colour can effect emotions of people in a
room and the atmosphere in a room.
Classes of colour:
Primary: red, yellow, blue.
Secondary: mixing 2 primary colours, green,
Tertiary: mixing a primary and a secondary
colour, e.g. blue + green = turqoise.
A tint is a colour lightened by adding white
A shade is a colour darkened by adding black
Warm colours: create warm atmosphere, use in
small amounts, red, orange, pink.
Neutral colours: often used as background for
other colours, black, white and shades of these,
shades of cream and beige are also used as
Pastel colours: these are pale soft shades of
blue, green, yellow, pink, used in bedrooms and
Texture refers to how an object feels to the
touch, rough, smooth, hard, soft, cold warm.
Smooth textures are hygienic, cold, reflect
light and noise.
Rough textures are warmer, softer, cosy,
harder to clean, absorb light and sound.
Line is used to create optical illusions by
appearing to change the shape of something.
Diagonal lines suggest movement and are
Horizontal lines make objects look wider.
Vertical lines make objects look thinner and
Curved lines gentle and relaxing
attention o a
feature in a
Can be done
Adds interest to
features in a
room relate to
each in size
and relate to
the size of the
use of a colour
texture in a
unity to the
Considerations when Room Planning
1. Size and shape of the room, make full use of
2.Functions and amount of use.
3.Position of fixtures, windows, furniture,
4.Aspect (direction window faces) effects amount
of natural light and warmth.
5.Enough storage & furniture for functions of room
without being cluttered.
6.Traffic flow, movement of people around the
A well planned room is
Easy to keep clean
A)Sketch of a room drawn to scale on graph
A)Shows position of fixtures, windows, doors,
A)Furniture drawn to scale can be cut out and
moved around on the sketch to find best
Decorating a Room
1. Order of work.
2.Decide on colour scheme.
3.Choose floor covering.
4.Remove all furniture and fittings.
5.Carry out necessary repairs.
6.Sand and wash all surfaces allow to dry well.
7.Cover any surfaces that need protection.
8.Decorate in order of ceiling, woodwork, walls.
9.When décor is dry put down floor covering
and arrange furniture.
Floor Wooden sanded sealed, vinyl (children), carpet.
Walls Paint, wall paper
Furniture Bed, locker, bookcase, desk, chair storage unit or
wardrobe, dressing table, chest of drawers.
Soft furniture Curtains, blinds, duvet covers, rugs, lampshades,
Lighting Window, central fitting, bedside, desk, mirror.
Heating Radiator or portable electric heater
Size and shape of room.
Layout taking into account work
sequence and work triangle.
Hygiene and safety.
Ventilation, heating, lighting.
Enough storage and work surfaces.
The work sequence
The main work in the kitchen is food preparation.
Food preparation follows a logical sequence.
1 Food storage
2 Food preparation.
3 Cooking food
4 Serving food
Kitchen units and equipment should be laid out
with this sequence in mind.
The work triangle
The work triangle
involves placing the
fridge, sink and
cooker at the 3
points of an
reduces the amounts
of walking involved in
preparing food and
therefore saves time